Trench Warfare Trench: a depression in the ground Trench Warfare: a style of fighting in which the enemies occupy opposing trenches, which require artillery in order defeat the enemy No Man’s Land: tract of land between opposing trench lines
Trenches on the Somme (1916) A far cry from the tidy illustrations in the field engineering manuals
Poison Gas blinded or choked its victims caused serious burns could be fatal Because this was a new development in weapons technology, soldiers were not equipped with gas masks right away an uncertain weapon: winds could blow it back on the soldiers who launched it
British Tank crossing a trench in the battle of Cambrai, November 1917.
Sea Power World War One would be the age of the Battleship. It would also be the introduction of the submarine. Besides the Germans attempt to “blockade” Britain with the submarine, the most crucial battles took place on land.
The Gallipoli Campaign 1915 The British attempt to reopen the Straits ultimately proved a failure.
Battle of Verdun 1916 Germans and the French bleed each other white as the Germans attempt to take the fortifications at Verdun.
Verdun 1916 Nivelle’s use of the creeping barrage kept the Germans at bay as they tried to take the fortifications
Battle of the Somme 1916 This British attempt to break the German lines failed. The attackers never made it more than 10 kilometers. British lost over 490,000; French 250,000 and Germans 600,000 men.
Defense in Depth German defensive system devised by Ludendorff in 1917. Machine gun nests and artillery held off the enemy in the front while major reserves were concentrated in the rear, away from enemy artillery.
Europe Post World War One The Treaty of Versailles left Germany in tact but took territory from the East as well as Alsace Lorraine. The Treaties of St. Germain and Trianon dismembered the Austro-Hungarian Empire.
Ottman Empire: Post World War One The Treaty of Severes dismembered the Ottoman Empire. Turkey never signed it.