Presentation on theme: "Excavation & Trenching"— Presentation transcript:
1Excavation & Trenching These handouts and documents with attachments are not final, complete, or definitive instruments. This information is for guidance purposes only. You should independently verify and satisfy yourself as to its accuracy. The AHBSIF does not assume any liability for damages arising from the use of this information or exhibits and attachments thereto and renders no opinion that any of the terms, conditions, and/or cited federal standards in this document and the exhibits and attachments should be explicitly followed by the fund member. Seek specific guidance from the appropriate regulator (OSHA) or professional advisor.
2Dirt Work is Serious Business Excavation cave-ins are one of the major sources of fatalities within the construction industry.Trenching accidents on construction sites account for an estimated 100 fatalities/year.79% of trench fatalities occur in less than 15’ excavations: 38% in less than 10’.Statistically most likely to be killed in an excavation:MaleConstruction Labor20 to 30 years old
3News Releases Michigan 09/29/10 A construction worker killed Wednesday in a trench collapse west of Kalamazoo has been identified by police as Samuel Wilson, 58, of Burlington.Wilson was installing sewer piping in a trench that was 8 feet deep and 3 feet wide when the trench collapsed at 4:12 p.m., according to the Kalamazoo County Sheriff’s Office. At the time of the incident, Wilson, was working at the site of a house under construction in the 3200 block. Wilson was pronounced dead at the scene, deputies said. Undersheriff Pali Matyas said police planned to turn their investigation over today to the Michigan Occupational Safety and Health Administration.Nebraska 06/05/10A Lewis and Clark Rural Water District employee died Friday after a trench collapsed around him in northern Knox County. The incident killed 48-year-old Galen Jueden of Hartington, Knox County Sheriff Jim Janecek said in a news release.Jueden and another worker were replacing water lines in the trench, about 5 or 6 feet deep, when it collapsed around Jueden at about 11 a.m. Friday, Sheriff's Capt. Ernest Ibach said."He was only really buried about up to his waist," Ibach said. Telephone workers in the area pulled him from the trench and performed CPR, but neither they nor rescue workers could revive him. Jueden was pronounced dead at the scene.
4OSHA’s Injury DataThe following hazards are most responsible for excavation related injuries;No protective systemsFailure to inspect the trench before and during workImproper spoils pile locationAccess/egress issues
5Defining a Competent Person One who is capable of identifying existing and predictable hazards in the surroundings, or working conditions which are unsanitary, hazardous, or dangerous to employees, and who has authorization to eliminate them.Competency for Subpart P requires knowledge of the following:Soils analysisThe use of protective systemsThe requirements of this standardA cubic yard of soil weighs approx lbs!
6Competent Person Responsibilities Authority to stop workInspection of excavationsDailyPre-shiftAs neededAfter rainAny increasing hazard occurrenceTesting for hazardous atmospheresInspection of material and equipmentMonitoring of water removalVisual TestsManual Tests
7Mechanics of a Cave-InStress cracks form back from edge due to ground surface tension and shear forces.Cracks occur from about 1/3 to 2/3 of the depth of the excavation back from its edges.Cracks take away the soils ability to maintain a strong vertical face.The weight of the earth above is transferred to the lower portions of the excavation wall.
8Mechanics of a Cave-In Excavation bottoms are the first to fail. Support for the upper part of excavation is left hanging only by shear and reduced tension forces.The uppermost portion of the vertical wall collapses into the excavation.Soil, like concrete, is normally strong in compression but not strong in tension.Figures 1 and 2 two detail the scenario.
11Soil Classification – Visual Tests Observe samples of soil that are excavated.If it stays in clumps it is cohesiveIf it breaks up easily its granularCheck the sides of the opened excavation and adjacent surfaces for signs of cracking.Check for existing utilities, underground structures, and previously disturbed soil.Check for layered soils.Be aware of surface water, seeping water, and water collection in the base.Be aware of the machinery running near the cut. Vibration can affect stability.
13Plasticity – Dry Strength Plasticity – Mold a moist or wet sample of soil into a wet ball and attempt to roll it into threads as thin as 1/8-inch in diameter. Cohesive material can be successfully rolled into threads without crumbling. If at least a two-inch length of 1/8-inch thread can be held on one end without tearing, the soil is cohesive.Dry Strength – If the soil is dry and crumbles on its own or with moderate pressure into individual grains or fine powder it is granular. If its dry and breaks into clumps, but the clumps can only be broken with difficulty, it may be a clay combination.
14Thumb Penetration Test This test can be used to estimate the unconfirmed compressive strength of cohesive soils.Thumb Penetration TestType A: These soils can be indented by the thumb, but penetration takes great effort.Type B: Easily indented, can be penetrated with somewhat less effort than type A.Type C: This type of soil can be easily penetrated up to several inches by the thumb and can be molded with light finger pressure.
15Pocket Penetrometer Probes the soil with a small tube-like plunger Device is pressed into soil to calibration markSpring loaded piston displaces the scale ringProduces a compressive strength reading rated in tons/sq.ft
16Shear Vane Hand-held instrument used for determining soil strength Provides reading in kPa (kiloPascal, Unit of Pressure)Vane blade is pushed into the soil and device is rotated at predetermined rate (ex: 1 revolution/minute)Reading is obtained when soil failsDevices come with different ranges and featuresExtension rods are available to increase the measurement depth
17Slope Configurations Soil or Rock Type Unconfined Compressive Strength Maximum Allowable Slopes for Excavations Less than 20’Unconfined Compressive StrengthStable RockVertical90°_______Type A¾ to 153°≥ 1.5 tons/sq ftType B1 to 145°tons/sq ftType C1½ to 134°≤ .5 tons/sq ft
18SlopingWhen combination soils are encountered, and the soil beneath is of lesser cohesion than the soil above, the slope will be that of the less cohesive soil.When sloping with a shoring system in place, the top edge of the cut must be 18” below the top edge of the shoring system.A shoring device does not affect the soil type dimensions of the continuing slope.
19Short Term Maximum Allowable Slopes A short term maximum allowable slope is a special situation for Type A soil.An excavation in Type A soil that is open for less than 24 hours and 12 feet or less in depth, can have a maximum allowable slope of 1/2H:1V (63°).
20Benching Can stand alone or in combination with sloping Type C soils cannot be benchedIn multiple bench situations, max bench height of first bench is 4’In bench-slope combinations, max bench height of first bench is 3.5’
21Foundation/Basement Excavations The depth of the foundation/basement trench cannot exceed 7½ feet deep unless you provide other cave-in protection.Keep the horizontal width of the foundation trench at least 2 feet wide. Mind surface encumbrances.Plan the foundation trench work to minimize workers in the trench and the length of time they spend there.Inspect the trench regularly.Stop work if any potential for cave-in develops and fix the problem before work starts again.
22Utilities Location Alabama One Call 1-800-292-8525 or 811 Must call at least 48 hours in advanceService is available Monday through Friday, 7:00 am to 5:00 pmAll utilities are marked in a standardized color code
23Utilities Location Excavators must observe a tolerance zone The width of the facility on a horizontal plane, at least 18” on either side of the outside edgeIf relocation is necessary, excavator must coordinate with facility owner/operator
24Utilities LocationWhen estimated location of underground installations are approached, exact location shall be determined by safe/acceptable means (hand digging, soft dig, pot hole, etc.)While excavation is open, underground installations shall be protected, supported or removed as necessary to safeguard employees.
25Uniform Color Codes Electric – Red Gas/Oil – Yellow See Appendix “C”Electric – RedGas/Oil – YellowComm./CATV – OrangeWater – BlueSewer – GreenProposed Exc. – WhiteTemp. Survey - Pink
26Reasons for Needing a Protecive System Protective SystemsReasons for Needing a Protecive SystemExisting utility lines, roadways, or structural foundations intruding on the maximum allowable slope.No right-of-way permit for sloped excavation.The vertical face excavation is beyond the safety slope.The gravitational force will cause soil raveling, cave-ins, or slope stability failures from the vertical face.
27Protective Systems Timber Shoring Struts Walers System uses reinforced wood sheets or planks in an upright or sheet configuration to reinforce the vertical cutWalers support the system horizontally against the outer wallStruts support the system horizontally from side to sideStrutsWalers
28Protective Systems Hydraulic Shoring Uses alloy struts (aluminum, steel) to support system side to sideSystem does not require entry for installation or removalSignificantly lighter than timber systemsProvides even distribution of pressure along the trench lineCan utilize "preloading" to use the soil's natural cohesion to prevent movementAdapts easily to various trench depths and widths.
29Protective Systems Trench Boxes The width of the trench should exceed the width of the box to facilitate ease of movementClearance prevents stresses on the trench box that could lead to failure during cave-inTrench boxes may sit on 2’ of excavated soil
30Protective Systems Pro Tec Slide Rail System Traditional shoring concept with less excavationChanneled posts are pressed into place by excavatorPanels are inserted into post channelsSystem utilizes the soils natural compressive strengthFast installation and removalSystem conforms to a wide variety of excavation types
31Access/ EgressA stairway, ladder, ramp, or other safe means of egress shall be located in trench excavations that are 4 feet or more in depth and require no more than 25 feet of lateral travel for employees.Must be designed by a competent person.Boards must be of uniform thickness and structurally sound, also must be equipped with cleats to prevent tripping on ramp applications.
32Hazardous Atmospheres All testing must be performed from outside the spaceHazard may be generated from existing conditions inside excavationMethaneNatural GasPetroleumHazard may be generated from surroundingsCarbon Monoxide
33Hazardous Atmospheres Exposures to harmful levels of atmospheric contaminants can be prevented by:Testing for oxygen deficient air with a tester at no less than four feet in depth. (Concentrations should lie between 19.5% and 23.5%)Flammable gas testingToxic atmosphere testing.Testing as often as is necessary to ensure safe atmosphere at all times
34Standard SpecificsAll spoils piles and equipment must be kept at least 2’ back from the excavation’s edge.Employees must not be exposed to falling loads at any time.Employees must be provided with and wear warning vests when exposed to trafficExcavations greater than 5’ in depth must be sloped, benched, or utilize a protective system.Water accumulation must be controlled at all times
35Standard SpecificsSurface encumbrances must be removed or supported i.e. trees, telephone poles, fire hydrantsIf a ramp must be constructed, handrails and decking must meet established requirements.Employee ramps must be designed by a competent person.Physical protection must be provided at all remotely located excavations.Structural ramps used to support equipment must be designed by a Registered Professional Engineer
36Excavation Checklist Utilities locations identified and marked Access/ Egress points and routes free from obstructionPotentially Hazardous Atmosphere tested before and during shiftWater accumulation monitored before and during shiftEmergency Rescue Equipment on site and ready for dutySpoils piles at least two feet back from excavation edgeEmployees and machinery protected from trafficSoil classification performed by Competent PersonEmployees protected from falling loadsShoring systems inspected before and during shiftProper fall protection for cross over pointsDaily inspection performed by a competent person before and during the shiftInspection includes the trench, the area around it, and protective systemsExcavations ≥ 20’ in depth have engineered protection systemsStability of adjacent structures secured and shored