Presentation on theme: "Trenching & Shoring Safety"— Presentation transcript:
1Trenching & Shoring Safety Murray State UniversityTrenching & Shoring SafetySusan MillerSafety Training Coordinator
2Soil is HeavyA cube of soil measuring 1 ft. on a side weighs at least 100 lb (more in many cases). A cubic yard of soil (3 ft. on a side) contains 27 of these, or 2,700 lbs. total.This weighs about as much as a mid-sized automobile.
3Dangers On average, 50 workers are killed at excavation sites yearly. Cave-ins account for 76% of fatalities.Being struck by or crushed by equipment, dropped loads, equipment rollovers, electrocutions, and other events account for the remainder.
4Excavation or Trench? What’s the difference? Excavation – any man cut, cavity, trench, etc., formed by earth removal. Excavations can include a building basement, roadbed or trench.Trench – narrow underground excavation that is deeper than it is wide and no wider than 15 feet.All trenches are excavations, but not all excavations are trenches. Trenches are usually more dangerous.
5Overview of OSHA’s rule 29 CFRAssign a competent personKeep spoil piles and heavy equipment away from the edge of trenchUse adequate protective systemsTrain on hazard recognition and avoiding unsafe conditions
6Notifying the Authorities Before starting work, OSHA requires:Determine the approximate location of underground utilities.Contact the utility company to inform them of proposed work and have them mark location of lines.
7Competent PersonOne who can identify existing and predictable hazards in the surroundings, or unsanitary, hazardous, or dangerous working conditions, and who has the authority to stop work until they are fixed.Does not have to be at the excavation jobsite at all times.
8How Deep is the Excavation? Four-foot rule-OSHA requires that workers have a means to get in and out of a trench if it is four or more feet deep.You must not have to travel more than 25 feet to reach the means of egress.
9How Deep is the Excavation? Five-foot rule-OSHA requires protection from cave-ins by protective systems unless the excavation is:Entirely in stable rock, orLess than five feet and the competent person inspects the excavation and determines there is no indication of a potential cave-in.
10Testing & Classifying the Soil If your jobsite trench is not in stable rock or is five-feet or more deep, it must be protected from a cave-in.Testing and classifying soil is a critical component to protecting employees from a cave-in. The competent person is responsible for testing and classifying the soil.If there is ever a doubt about the soil type, it must be treated as type C.
11Stable RockNatural solid mineral matter that can be excavated with vertical sides and remain intact while exposed.Usually identified as granite or sandstone.Probably not going to be on MSU campus.
12Type A SoilTYPE A SOILS are cohesive soils with an unconfined compressive strength of 1.5 tons per square foot (tsf) or greater.Examples of Type A cohesive soils are often: clay, silty clay, sandy clay, clay loam and, in some cases, silty clay loam and sandy clay loam.No soil is Type A if it is fissured, is subject to vibration of any type, has previously been disturbed, is part of a sloped, layered system where the layers dip into the excavation on a slope of 4 horizontal to 1 vertical (4H:1V) or greater, or has seeping water.
13Type B SoilTYPE B SOILS are cohesive soils with an unconfined compressive strength greater than 0.5 tsf but less than 1.5 tsf.Examples of Type B soils are: angular gravel; silt; silt loam; previously disturbed soils unless otherwise classified as Type C; soils that meet the unconfined compressive strength or cementation requirements of Type A soils but are fissured or subject to vibration; dry unstable rock; and layered systems sloping into the trench at a slope less than 4H:1V (only if the material would be classified as a Type B soil).
14Type C SoilTYPE C SOILS are cohesive soils with an unconfined compressive strength of 0.5 tsf or less.Type C soils include granular soils such as gravel, sand and loamy sand, submerged soil, soil from which water is freely seeping, and submerged rock that is not stable.Also included in this classification is material in a sloped, layered system where the layers dip into the excavation or have a slope of four horizontal to one vertical (4H:1V) or greater.
15Why bother classifying? The most important reason for classifying soil is that the results can be used to determine what type of protective system can be used.If it is decided that the soil will not be classified, then:Excavations must have a slope of 1 ½ horizontal to 1 vertical (34 degrees).11 1/2
16What’s Next?Once the soil type at an excavation is determined, the next task is to select what protective system will be used.Sloping or benching of the sidesSupporting the sides with shoringPlacing a trench shield between the sidesMSU is free to choose the most practical design approach depending on the jobsite circumstances.
17Sloping & BenchingIf the soil has been classified, there are more options for sloping and benching.Soil TypeHeight/Depth RatioSlope Angle(in degrees)Stable RockVerticalVertical 90oType A¾:153oType B1:145oType C1½:134o
24Shoring & ShieldingShoring and shielding is used when the location or depth of the cut makes sloping back to the maximum allowable slope impractical.Shoring provides a support system for trench faces to prevent movement of soil, underground utilities, roadways and foundations.
25Shoring SystemsShoring systems consist of posts, wales, struts and sheeting.Two basic types of shoring:TimberAluminum hydraulic
26Hydraulic ShoringHydraulic shoring is a prefabricated strut and/or wale system made of aluminum or steel.Hydraulic shoring offers a critical advantage over timber shoring because you do not have to enter the trench to install or remove it. Most systems are light enough to be installed by one worker.
28ShieldingTrench boxes are different from shoring because, instead of shoring the trench face, they are intended primarily to protect workers from cave-ins and similar incidents.The excavated area between the outside of the trench box and the face of the trench should be as small as possible.Box should extend 18 inches above surrounding area if sloping toward excavation.
30Personal Protective Equipment Hard hats are required for trench work as there are always overhead hazards whether working alongside the trench or in the trench.Ventilation equipment may be required if there is a possibility of an atmospheric hazard.
31Installing & Removing Protective Structures Connect support system members securely.Avoid overloading system members.Install other structural members to carry loads imposed on the support system when you need to remove an individual member.Remove from the bottom up.Backfill the excavation as soon as possible.
32Getting In & Out of the Trench Structural rampsLaddersEarthen ramps
33Jobsite Hazards Vehicle exposure – wear warning/reflective vest Spoil pile – 2 feet away minimumFalling loads – do not work under equipmentWater – leave the trench during rainstorms, divert surface water away from trenchCrossing over – never a good idea
34Hazardous Atmospheres Oxygen levels <19.5% or >23.5%Combustible gas >20% of LELHigh concentrations of hazardous substancesWhen testing for contaminants or oxygen levels-Testing must be conducted before employees enter trench and regularly to ensure safe atmosphere.Frequency of testing should be increased if equipment is operating in the trench.Testing frequency should also be increased if welding, cutting, or burning is done in the trench.
35Emergency RescuesRespirators may be required, you must be trained and in the MSU respirator program.Lifelines must be provided and attended to at all times if you enter bell-bottom pier holes, deep confined spaces or other similar hazards.If you enter a confined space, you must be trained to recognize and deal with the hazards. Normally, trenches are not considered confined spaces because they are well ventilated.
36Inspections Daily and before the start of work As work conditions changeAfter every rainstormWhen fissures, cracks, undercutting, water seepage, bulging at bottom, etc. occurWhen there is a change in the size, location or placement of the spoil pileWhen there is any indication of change or movement in adjacent structures
38What’s wrong with this trench? No means of egressSpoil pile too close to edgeShoring not completeMissing backfillNo edge stabilizationNo hard hatsNo air monitoring
39Summary Cave-ins account for most fatalities Four-foot rule – must have means of egress within 25 feet of all workers in trenchFive-foot rule – protection from cave-ins must be provided by using shoring, sloping or trench boxSoil classifications – Solid rock, A, B, CHazards