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Revolution and Enlightenment 1550-1800. Galileo on Trial P. 510 Look at the picture.  What feelings might Galileo be feeling at this moment?  What is.

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Presentation on theme: "Revolution and Enlightenment 1550-1800. Galileo on Trial P. 510 Look at the picture.  What feelings might Galileo be feeling at this moment?  What is."— Presentation transcript:

1 Revolution and Enlightenment

2 Galileo on Trial P. 510 Look at the picture.  What feelings might Galileo be feeling at this moment?  What is happening in the foreground?  Was the artist recording the event or interpreting the event? Debate: What would you have done if you were put in Galileo’s position? Kept your self-respect and defended your position or recanted your ideas and lived?

3 Astronomy The Ptolemaic System:  Geocentric (Earth is at the center of the universe) Ptolemy: lived in 2 nd century A.D. Universe is a series of concentric spheres (spheres 1 inside the other) Earth is motionless; Planets are pure orbs of light Beyond the planets was Heaven (where God and all the saved souls resided)

4 Astronomy Helocentric (sun-centered) Theory  Nicholas Copernicus (16 th century)  Planets revolve around the sun, the moon revolves around the Earth  Johannes Kepler: used detailed data to confirm that the Sun was at the center Showed that orbits were not circular, but elliptical (egg shaped) with the Sun toward the end of the ellipse (not the center)

5 Astronomy Galileo (17 th century)  Made regular observations of space with a telescope  Destroyed idea that heavenly bodies (planets) were pure orbs of light Mountains on Moon, 4 Moons around Jupiter, Sunspots Newton (17 th century)  Defined 3 laws of motion Universal Law of Gravitation: Every object in the universe is attracted to every other object by a force called gravity  Why important? Established a new picture of the universe  Universe is now a huge, regulated, uniform machine that worked according to natural laws  Dominated science until Einstein’s theory of relativity

6 Descartes and Reason Philosopher who began by thinking about doubt/uncertainty  Throws out all had learned; starts over looking for facts without doubt  Read quote, p. 516  Father of Modern Rationalism: Belief that reason is the chief source of knowledge

7 The Enlightenment Voices from the Past p. 518 What was the Enlightenment?  18 th century philosophical movement of intellectuals who were impressed with the achievements of the Scientific Revolution  Tried to understand all life through the scientific method (i.e. reasoning) Tried to make progress towards a better society than the one they inherited

8 Philosophes Social reformers  Chiefly from nobility and middle class Role of philosophy was to change the world  Apply rational criticism to everything (including religion and politics) Often disagreed

9 Philosophes John Locke  Read quote p. 519 All humans born with a tabula rasa (blank slate) People molded by their experiences If environments were changed and people were exposed to the right influences, then people could be changed and a new society created

10 Philosophes Montesquieu  Tried to use the scientific method to find the natural laws that govern the social and political relationships of humans  Created a “Separation of Powers” Essentially the 3 way system of checks and balances  Most lasting contribution to political thought  Became a basis for the U.S. Constitution

11 Philosophes Voltaire  Religious Philosopher: Criticized Christianity; Believed in religious toleration  Deism: A Mechanic (God) had created the universe God served as a clockmaker  He created the world, set it in motion, and allowed it to run its course without his interference, according to its own natural laws

12 Philosophes Diderot  Wrote Encyclopedia, or Classified Dictionary of the Sciences, Arts, and Trades Purpose of writing it: Change the general way of thinking  Became a major weapon against traditional society  Attacked religious superstition  Called for a more tolerant and humane society Greatly spread the ideas of the Enlightenment

13 Philosophes Adam Smith  If individuals were free to pursue their own economic self-interest, all society would benefit Government should not interrupt the natural economic forces Laissez-Faire: “to let the people do what they want”  Government should only have 3 roles: 1. Protecting Society from Invasion 2. Defending Citizens from Injustice 3. Keeping up public works (roads, canals)

14 Philosophes Jean-Jacques Rousseau  Presented the idea of a social contract Through a social contract, an entire society agrees to be governed by its general will  Even if you don’t like it, you will be forced to follow the general will (because the general will represents what’s best for the entire community)  Education should not restrict children’s natural instincts Sought a balance between heart and mind, between emotions and reason >

15 “Connections Past to Present” Read Magazines, Then and Now  P. 523 Major Magazine Writing Assignment (Test Grade):  Pretend you are an 18 th century magazine editor assigned to write an article for the next edition. Choose a person or an event discussed in Chapter 17 to be the subject of your article (use outside resources if necessary). You could also select one Enlightenment idea and present it to your readers Be creative. You can do an interview or an exposé or ??? Just make sure you find a creative way to show me that you understand your person or event! Use real facts! 1 FULL PAGE STARTING AT THE TOP OF THE PAPER (If typed, double spaced/12 pt font/1 inch margins) Due Friday, February 15 th !

16 “Voices from the Past” P. 536 The American Revolution  Early Causes: The Stamp Act (1765) Certain printed materials be “stamped” to show that a tax had been paid to Britain Repealed in 1766, but dispute not over  Crisis filled time Colonies organized the First Continental Congress (Philadelphia, 1774, many wanted to fight) Second Continental Congress: formed an army  George Washington commander-in-chief  Approved a Declaration of Independence on July 4, 1776  Written by Thomas Jefferson  Huge mismatch: Britain was strong militarily with large financial resources vs. American amateurs

17 American Revolution (cont’d) Colonies greatly aided by foreign countries  Others eager to gain revenge on Britain French supplied arms and money (some even served in Washington’s army) Spain/Netherlands also helped colonies  Britain ends war after being defeated at Yorktown in 1781 Signed Treaty of Paris in 1783 recognizing the independence of the American colonies and granted the Americans control of the Western territory (to the Mississippi river)

18 Birth of a New Nation

19 Forming the Country Little enthusiasm for creating a united nation  States feared concentrated power  Each concerned with own interests Created the “Articles of Confederation”  America’s first Constitution Lacked power to deal with new nation’s problems 1787: 55 delegates meet in Philadelphia to revise the “Articles”  Known as the Constitutional Convention

20 The Constitution (1787) Proposed a federal system where power would be shared between national and state governments  National government given power to levy taxes, raise an army, regulate trade, and create a national currency 3 Branches Bill of Rights (1789)  1 st Ten Amendments to the Constitution Many derived from the natural rights proposed by 18 th century philosophes


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