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Physical Geology Chapter 6.

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Presentation on theme: "Physical Geology Chapter 6."— Presentation transcript:

1 Physical Geology Chapter 6

2 Part 1 The Rock Cycle

3 Rocks are solid pieces of the earth of any size
Rocks are solid pieces of the earth of any size. They can be made up of one or more minerals, or they can be made up of solid organic matter.

4 3 Types by Origin Igneous – “from fire”; forms by cooling of magma or lava Sedimentary – formed from compaction and cementation of rock fragments (sediments) Metamorphic – “changed form”; from alteration of existing rock by heat, pressure and time

5 Rock Cycle

6 Igneous may become sedimentary, metamorphic, or igneous
Sedimentary may become metamorphic, igneous, or sedimentary Metamorphic may become igneous, sedimentary, or metamorphic

7 Rock Properties Bowen’s Reaction Series – As magma cools, certain minerals tend to crystallize first. As they form out, they remove certain elements from the magma, which changes the composition of it. Thus different minerals form at different times during the cooling and solidification, and they generally always form in the same order.

8 The Canadian geologist N. L
The Canadian geologist N.L. Bowen found that minerals tend to form in specific sequences in igneous rocks, and these sequences could be assembled into a composite sequence.                                                                                           

9 In Summary

10 Chemical Stability Tendency to maintain original chemical composition
Based on strength of chemical bonds Highest # of bonds between Si and O are most resistant

11 Physical Stability Reduced by zones of weakness Layer joints
Joints between crystalline formations Joints and fractures from release of formative pressures

12 Part 2 Igneous Rock

13 Magma is melted rock below the surface; liquid or fluid
Melting depends upon Temperature Pressure Presence of fluids Melt temperature depends upon the chemical composition of the rock Pressure heightens melting point; release lowers Fluids decrease some melting points

14 Partial Melting Different components have different melting points
As each melts, magma composition of the magma is altered Opposite effect of Bowens Series

15 Fractional Crystallization
Opposite of partial melting Minerals crystallize and change makeup of magma chemically In same order as Bowens Series Longer formation time = larger crystals Shorter time = smaller crystals Inner/outer crystals may be different due to differences in the magma as time goes by

16 Igneous Rock Textures Coarse grained – slow loss of heat by subsurface magma results in large, well-developed crystals (rough granite)

17 Igneous Rock Textures Fine grained – rapid heat loss from superficial lava results in small, poorly developed crystals (smooth basalt)

18 Igneous Rock Textures Porphyritic – magma cools somewhat slowly, then speeds up near or on surface resulting in a mixed appearance/texture

19 Igneous Rock Textures Glassy – viscous magma cools quickly with few dissolved gases forming few, if any crystals Obsidian

20 Igneous Rock Textures Vesicular - viscous magma cools quickly with a lot of dissolved gases forming few, if any crystals, but many bubbles (vesicles) Pumice

21 Igneous Rock Composition
Felsic – lots of silica; light color; has minerals feldspar, mica and quartz; e.g., granite, rhyolite, obsidian, pumice Mafic – rich in Fe and Mg; dark color; minerals pl feldspar, pyroxene, ferromagnesians (hornblende); e.g., basalt and gabbro Intermediate – intermediate silica content;plagioclase, hornblende,pyroxene, and biotite; e.g., diorite and andesite

22 Igneous Rock Composition
Felsic – lots of feldspar (fel); lots of silica (sic) Mafic – rich in Fe (f) and Mg (Ma) or ferromagnesians Intermediate – intermediate blend

23 Intrusive formations batholith

24 Extrusive formations

25 Some uses of Igneous rock:
GRANITE: An igneous-plutonic rock, medium to coarse-grained that is high in silica, potassium, sodium and quartz but low in calcium, iron and magnesium. It is widely used for architectural construction, ornamental stone and monuments. PUMICE: An igneous-volcanic rock, it is a porous, brittle variety of rhyolite and is light enough to float. It is formed when magma of granite composition erupts at the earth’s surface or intrudes the crust at shallow depths. It is used as an abrasive material in hand soaps, emery boards, etc. GABBRO: An igneous-plutonic rock, generally massive, but may exhibit a layered structure produced by successive layers of different mineral composition. It is widely used as crushed stone for concrete aggregate, road metal, railroad ballast, etc. Smaller quantities are cut and polished for dimension stone (called black granite). BASALT: An igneous volcanic rock, dark gray to black, it is the volcanic equivalent of plutonic gabbro and is rich in ferromagnesian minerals. Basalt can be used in aggregate.

26 Practice questions for igneous rocks

27 Part 3 Sedimentary Rock

28 Beginnings - sediments

29 ……then…..

30 Lithification in this case means compaction (squeezed together tightly reducing pore space) and cementation (glued together by chemicals in the water) of the sediments into rock

31 Classes by origin Chemical Organic Clastic

32 Chemical Dissolved minerals
Precipitate to layers as evaporites or chemical reaction products Examples: halite, gypsum Bonneville Salt Flats, Utah


34 Organic Remains of living things Heavy deposits
Examples: coal, chalk and organic limestone


36 Clastic Imported fragments that are lithified By fragment size
Conglomerate (breccia) – large fragments cemented by small Sandstone – quartz fragments (sand) Shale – clay sized fragments usually compacted into flat layers

37 C l a s t I c

38 Characteristics of Clastic Sediments
Sorting – tendency of currents to separate sediments according to size Angularity – collisions during movement of particles tends to round them off. Little movement = angular; more movement = more rounded/smooth; great movement = most rounded/smooth particles


40 Angularity Patterns very angular angular sub-angular rounded
            very angular           angular sub-angular          rounded         well-rounded Angularity Patterns

41 Sedimentary Rock Features
Stratification Cross bedding Graded bedding Ripple marks Mud cracks Fossils Concretions

42 Stratification – in layers or beds

43 Cross beds – slanting layers

44 Graded beds – bed of sediments assorted by size

45 Ripple marks & Mud cracks

46 Fossils

47 Concretions and geodes

48 Sedimentary rocks have great economic importance -
Oil, natural gas, coal, and uranium, our major energy resources, are formed in and come from sedimentary rocks. Sand and gravel for construction come from sediment. Sandstone and limestone are used for building stone. Rock gypsum is used to make plaster. Limestone is used to make cement. Salt is used for flavoring. Phosphate-bearing sedimentary rocks are used for fertilizer. Quartz sand is used to make glass.

49 Practice questions on sedimentary rocks

50 Part 4 Metamorphic Rock

51 Metamorphism The process by which heat, pressure, or chemical processes change one type of rock into another Change into other minerals Change in size or shape Separate into bands Change mineral/chemical composition by addition/subtraction of materials Most deep within the crust Contact with hot magma Regional from heat/pressure of tectonic forces




55 Metamorphic Classification
Foliated Extreme pressure causes crystals to realign or regrow in parallel bands Minerals of different compositions separate to produce a series of bands Non-foliated No banding Original rock has basically one mineral so no separation or banding Original rock has round/square grains that cannot realign when subjected to further stress

56 A rock that contains parallel- or sub-parallel-oriented mineral grains is said to be foliated
                                                                  Foliation promotes cleavage in rocks (they break easily along parallel planes).                                    

57 If mineral crystals are disc or pencil shaped, their parallel orientation is easily discernible and the rock is clearly foliated. If all mineral crystals are equant (length, width, and height are equal) there can be no discernible parallel orientation. Nonfoliated rocks - mineral crystals are equant in shape. Made of calcite = marble (metamorphosed limestone)                                           Made of quartz = quartzite (metamorphosed sandstone)                                         

58 Uses for metamorphic rocks -
Slate is used to make roofing tiles and in earlier periods of our history was used as "blackboards" in classrooms. As a resource, slate is nonrenewable, but common. Man-made roofing tiles are a suitable substitute.                                                                   Marble is used as a building stone and as ornamental rock, such as for carving statues. As a resource, marble is nonrenewable, but common. Man-made building stones are a suitable substitute.                                                                 


60 Practice questions on metamorphic rock

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