2Chapter: Earth’s Energy and Mineral Resources Table of ContentsChapter: Earth’s Energy andMineral ResourcesSection 1: Nonrenewable EnergyResourcesSection 2: Renewable EnergyResources
3Energy 1 Energy is the ability to cause change. Nonrenewable Energy Resources1EnergyEnergy is the ability to cause change.Some energy resources on earth are being used faster than natural Earth processes can replace them.These resources are referred to as nonrenewable energy resources.
4Nonrenewable Energy Resources 1Fossil FuelsFossil fuels are fuels such as coal, oil, and natural gas that form from the remains ofplants and other organisms that were buried and altered over millions of years.
5Coal 1 The most abundant fossil fuel in the world is coal. Nonrenewable Energy Resources1CoalThe most abundant fossil fuel in the world is coal.Coal is a rock that contains at least 50 percent plantremains. Coal begins to form when plants die in a swampy area.The material eventually will become coal after millions of years.
6Nonrenewable Energy Resources 1Synthetic FuelsSynthetic fuels are extracted from solid organic material.Synthetic fuels can be created from coal—a sedimentary rock containing hydrocarbons.The hydrocarbons are extracted from coal to form liquid and gaseous synthetic fuels.
7Stages of Coal Formation Nonrenewable Energy Resources1Stages of Coal FormationCoal is formed in four basic stages.Dead plant material accumulates in swamps and eventually forms a layer of peat.
8Stages of Coal Formation Nonrenewable Energy Resources1Stages of Coal FormationOver time, heat and pressure cause the peat to change into lignite coal.Lignite is a soft, browncoal with much less moisture.
9Stages of Coal Formation Nonrenewable Energy Resources1Stages of Coal FormationAs the lignite coal becomes buried by more sediments, heat and pressure change it into bituminous coal.Bituminous coal is compact, black, and brittle.
10Stages of Coal Formation Nonrenewable Energy Resources1Stages of Coal FormationWhen bituminous coal is heated and squeezed during metamorphism, anthracite coal forms.Anthracite coal contains the highest amount of carbon of all forms of coal.Anthracite coal is the cleanest burning of all coals.
11Nonrenewable Energy Resources 1Oil and Natural GasOil is a thick, black liquid formed from the buried remains of microscopic marine organisms.Natural gas forms under similar conditions and often with oil, but it forms in a gaseous state.Oil and natural gas are hydrocarbons.
12Nonrenewable Energy Resources 1Oil and Natural GasResidents of Hungary burn vast quantities of oil and natural gas for daily energy requirements.
13Formation of Oil and Natural Gas Nonrenewable Energy Resources1Formation of Oil and Natural GasPetroleum forms over millions of years from the remains of tiny marine organisms in ocean sediment.Marine organisms called plankton die and fall to the seafloor and sediment is deposited over them.
14Formation of Oil and Natural Gas Nonrenewable Energy Resources1Formation of Oil and Natural GasIncreased heat eventually causes the dead plankton to change to oil and gas after they have been buried deeply by sediment.Oil and natural gas often are found in layers of rock that have become tilted or folded.Because they are less dense than water, oil and natural gas are forced upward.
15Formation of Oil and Natural Gas Nonrenewable Energy Resources1Formation of Oil and Natural GasA folded shale layer can trap the oil and natural gas below it.The rock layer beneath the shale in which the petroleum and natural gas accumulate is called a reservoir rock.
16Removing Fossil Fuels from the Ground Nonrenewable Energy Resources1Removing Fossil Fuels from the GroundCoal is removed from the ground using one of several methods of excavation.The two most common methods are strip mining, also called open-pit mining, and underground mining.Oil and natural gas are removed by pumping them out of the ground.
17Nonrenewable Energy Resources 1Coal MiningDuring strip mining, layers of soil and rock above coal are removed and piled to one side.The exposed coal then is removed and loaded into trucks or trains and transported elsewhere.
18Nonrenewable Energy Resources 1Coal MiningTwo types of underground coal mines are drift mines and slope mines.Drift mining is the removal of coal that is not close to Earth’s surface through a horizontal opening in the side of a hill or mountain.In slope mining, an angled opening and air shaft are made in the side of a mountain to remove coal.
19Drilling for Oil and Gas Nonrenewable Energy Resources1Drilling for Oil and GasGeologists and engineers drill wells through rocks where these resources might be trapped.When the drill bit reaches the rock layer containing oil, drilling is stopped.
20Drilling for Oil and Gas Nonrenewable Energy Resources1Drilling for Oil and GasEquipment is installed to control the flow of oil.The surrounding rock then is fractured to allow oil and gas to flow into the well.
21Nonrenewable Energy Resources 1Fossil Fuel ReservesThe amount of a fossil fuel that can be extracted at a profit using current technology is known as a reserve.A resource is not classified as a reserve unless the fuel can be extracted economically.
22Nonrenewable Energy Resources 1Methane HydratesRecent studies indicate that a new source of methane, which is the main component of natural gas, might be located beneath the seafloor.Icelike substances known as methane hydrates could provide tremendous reserves of methane.
23Nonrenewable Energy Resources 1Methane HydratesMethane hydrates are stable molecules found hundreds of meters below sea level in ocean floor sediment.They form under conditions of relatively low temperatures and high pressures.Scientists estimate that more carbon is contained in methane hydrates than in all current fossil fuel deposits combined.
24Conserving Fossil Fuels Nonrenewable Energy Resources1Conserving Fossil FuelsFossil fuels take millions of years to form and are used much faster than Earth processes can replenish them.At the rate these fuels are being used, they could run out someday.
25Conserving Fossil Fuels Nonrenewable Energy Resources1Conserving Fossil FuelsBy remembering to turn off lights and appliances, you can avoid wasting fossil fuels.Make sure doors and windows are shut tightly during cold weather so heat doesn’t leak out of your home.If you have air-conditioning, run it as little as possible.
26Nonrenewable Energy Resources 1Energy from AtomsNuclear energy is an alternate energy source produced from atomic reactions.When the nucleus of a heavy element is split, lighter elements form and energy is released.This energy can be used to light a home.
27Nonrenewable Energy Resources 1Energy from AtomsThe splitting of heavy elements to produce energy is called nuclear fission.During nuclear fission, energy is given off when a heavy atom, like uranium, splits into lighter atoms.
28Electricity from Nuclear Energy Nonrenewable Energy Resources1Electricity from Nuclear Energy
29Nonrenewable Energy Resources 1Energy from AtomsNuclear energy from fission is considered to be a nonrenewable energy resource because it uses uranium-235 as fuel.A limited amount of uranium-235 is available for use.
30Nonrenewable Energy Resources 1Energy from AtomsNuclear waste from power plants consists of highly radioactive elements formed by the fission process.Some of this waste will remain radioactive for thousands of years.Nuclear waste must be stored safely and contained for at least 10,000 years before reentering the environment.
31Fusion 1 Someday fusion also might provide energy for your home. Nonrenewable Energy Resources1FusionSomeday fusion also might provide energy for your home.During fusion, materials of low mass are fused together to form a substance of higher mass.No fuel problem exists if the low-mass material is a commonly occurring substance.
32Nonrenewable Energy Resources 1FusionIf the end product is not radioactive, storing nuclear waste is not a problem.Fusion of hydrogen into helium would satisfy both of these conditions. However, technologies do not currently exist to enable humans to fuse hydrogen into helium at reasonably low temperatures in a controlled manner.
33Question 1 Answer 1 How are fossil fuels formed? Section Check1Question 1How are fossil fuels formed?AnswerFossil fuels form from the alteration of the remains of living organisms over long periods of time.FL: SC.B.2.3.2
34Section Check1Question 2Which of the following is a rock that is composed of at least 50 percent plant remains?A. basaltB. coalD. shaleD. slateFL: SC.G.2.3.1
35Section Check1AnswerThe answer is B. Coal is the most abundant fossil fuel in the world.FL: SC.G.2.3.1
36Question 3 1 Which of these energy sources is not a fossil fuel? Section Check1Question 3Which of these energy sources is not a fossil fuel?A. coalB. natural gasC. nuclearD. oilFL: SC.G.2.3.1
37Section Check1AnswerThe answer is C. Nuclear energy is an alternate energy source produced from atomic reactions.FL: SC.G.2.3.1
38Inexhaustible Energy Resources Renewable Energy Resources2Inexhaustible Energy ResourcesSolar energy is energy from the Sun.Global winds and ocean currents are examples of nature’s use of solar energy.Thus, solar energy is used indirectly when the wind and some types of moving water are used to do work.
39Inexhaustible Energy Resources Renewable Energy Resources2Inexhaustible Energy ResourcesSouth-facing windows on buildings act as passive solar collectors, warming exposed rooms.Solar cells actively collect energy from the Sun and transform it into electricity.
40Disadvantages of Solar Energy Renewable Energy Resources2Disadvantages of Solar EnergySolar cells work less efficiently on cloudy days and cannot work at all at night.Some systems use batteries to store solar energy for use at night or on cloudy days, but it is difficult to store large amounts of energy in batteries.
41Energy from Wind 2 Wind is a source of energy. Renewable Energy Resources2Energy from WindWind is a source of energy.Windmills can be used to generate electricity.When a large number of windmills are placed in one area for the purpose of generating electricity, the area is called a wind farm.
42Energy from Wind 2 Wind is nonpolluting and free. Renewable Energy Resources2Energy from WindWind is nonpolluting and free.It does little harm to the environment and produces no waste.However, only a few regions of the world have winds strong enough to generate electricity.
43Renewable Energy Resources 2Energy from WindSometimes wind blows too hard and at other times it is too weak or stops entirely.For an area to use wind energy consistently, the area must have a persistent wind that blows at an appropriate speed.
44Renewable Energy Resources 2Energy from WaterElectricity produced by waterpower is called hydroelectric energy.To generate electricity from water running in a river, a large concrete dam is built to retain water.
45Energy from Water 2 A lake forms behind the dam. Renewable Energy Resources2Energy from WaterA lake forms behind the dam.As water is released, its force turns turbines at the base of the dam.The turbines then turn generators that make electricity.
46Renewable Energy Resources 2Energy from WaterAt first it might appear that hydroelectric energy doesn’t create any environmental problems and that the water is used with little additional cost.When dams are built, upstream lakes fill with sediment and downstream erosionincreases. Land above the dam is flooded, and wildlife habitats are damaged.
47Renewable Energy Resources 2Energy from EarthEarth is called geothermal energy.Energy obtained by using hot magma or hot, dry rocks insideGeothermal power plants use steam from the reservoirs to produce electricity.
48Renewable Energy Resources 2Energy from EarthIn a developing method, water becomes steam when it is pumped through broken, hot, dry rocks.The steam then is used to turn turbines that run generators to make electricity.
49Renewable Energy Resources 2Renewable Energy ResourcesEnergy resources that can be replaced in nature or by humans within a relatively short period of time are referred to as renewable energy resources.For example, trees can be considered a renewable energy resource.
50Renewable Energy Resources 2Biomass EnergyA major renewable energy resource is biomass materials.Biomass energy is energy derived from burning organic material such as wood, alcohol, and garbage.
51Renewable Energy Resources 2Energy from WoodBurning wood is releasing stored solar energy as heat energy.Much of the world still cooks with wood. In fact, firewood is used more widely today than any other type of biomass fuel.
52Energy from Wood 2 Using wood as a biomass fuel has its problems. Renewable Energy Resources2Energy from WoodUsing wood as a biomass fuel has its problems.Gases and small particles are released when wood is burned. These materials can pollute the air.When trees are cut down for firewood natural habitats are destroyed.
53Renewable Energy Resources 2Energy from AlcoholDuring distillation, biomass fuel, such as corn, is changed to an alcohol such as ethanol.Ethanol then can be mixed with another fuel.When the other fuel is gasoline, the mixture is called gasohol.
54Renewable Energy Resources 2Energy from AlcoholFluid biomass fuels are more efficient and have more uses than solid biomass fuels do.The problem with this process is that presently, growing the corn and distilling the ethanol often uses more energy from burning fossil fuels than the amount of energy that is derived from burning ethanol.
55Renewable Energy Resources 2Energy from GarbageIf more garbage were used for fuel, human dependence of fossil fuels would decrease.Burning garbage is a cheap source of energy and also helps reduce the amount of material that must be dumped into landfills.
56Renewable Energy Resources 2Energy from GarbageWhen the garbage is burned, heat is produced, which turns water to steam.The steam turns turbines that run generators to produce electricity.Burning municipal waste can produce toxic ash residue and air pollution.Substances such as heavy metals could find their way into the smoke from garbage and thus into the atmosphere.
57Section Check2Question 1Electricity produced by waterpower is called __________ energy.A. atomicB. biomassC. hydroelectricD. solarFL: SC.G.2.3.1
58Section Check2AnswerThe answer is C. The force of moving water turns turbines in generators that make electricity.FL: SC.G.2.3.1
59Question 2 2 Which is obtained by using hot magma? A. biomass energy Section Check2Question 2Which is obtained by using hot magma?A. biomass energyB. geothermal energyC. hydroelectric energyD. solar energyFL: SC.G.2.3.1
60Section Check2AnswerThe answer is B. Geothermal energy is obtained by using hot magma or hot, dry rocks inside Earth.FL: SC.G.2.3.1
61Question 3 2 Biomass energy is derived from __________. Section Check2Question 3Biomass energy is derived from __________.A. burning organic materialB. collecting the Sun’s raysC. hot dry rockD. running waterFL: SC.G.2.3.1
62Section Check2AnswerThe answer is A. Biomass energy is a major renewable resource and is derived from the burning of organic materials such as wood, alcohol and garbage.FL: SC.G.2.3.1