Presentation on theme: "Advanced Placement Psychology Lecture Note Taking This guide is meant as a method of keeping students on track during a class lecture. My suggestions are."— Presentation transcript:
Advanced Placement Psychology Lecture Note Taking This guide is meant as a method of keeping students on track during a class lecture. My suggestions are to add important details to the guide and to put the information gathered in your own words. Class lecture is meant to enhance, explain and elaborate on the reading of your textbook. PLEASE REVIEW documents for Note Taking and Skills for Success!
What is psychology? Definition From the Greek terms psyche meaning mind or soul and logos meaning study of Thus, the study of the mind
Prior to the 1920s The study of the mind Structuralism (Titchener) Functionalism (William James)
From the 1920s to 1960s The scientific study of observable behavior Behaviorism (John B. Watson)
Current definition The systematic, scientific study of behavioral and mental processes of human and other animals (This is Dr. Zimbardo, Stanford University)
Goals of modern psychology 1) Describe 2) Explain 3) Predict 4) Control behavior 5) Improve the quality of life
Basic vs. Applied Psychologist Basic Psychologist study phenomenon for the accumulation of accurate knowledge Where might a basic psychologist work? Applied psychologist find solutions to practical problems Where might an applied psychologist work? Review Appendix C for a brief discussion on IO Psychology
Roots of Psychology Pre-scientific Psychology To include a few notable names: Rene Descartes John Locke George Berkeley James and John Stuart Mill
Rene Descartes A bit of his background Viewed the mind and the body as two separate entities Ruled out organs other than the brain as location of mental functioning Human minds consist of two kinds of ideas (innate and derived)
John Locke A bit of background The mind is a blank slate (Aristotle’s idea of tabula rasa) Opposed the notion of innate ideas, life’s experience makes the man Empiricist approach- knowledge acquired by careful observation
George Berkeley His story Two early works that exert an influence on psychology An Essay Towards a New Theory of Vision (1709) A Treatise Concerning the Principles of Human Knowledge (1710)
James Mill A good Scot Applied the doctrine of mechanism to the human mind, the mind is a machine No Free Will (Skinner) The mind has no creative function; association is an automatic, passive process
John Stuart Mill James Mill’s son Early life... Argued against his father saying the mind plays an active role in the association of ideas Suggested that there could be a “science of psychology” The mind could be studied scientifically
Founders of Scientific Psychology In Germany... Why?
Zeitgeist!!!!! Intellectual spirit of the times Not England Not France But, Germany
Wilhelm Wundt First research laboratory in psychology at University of Leipzig (1879) Research methods included: introspection, psychophysical measurements and reaction time Methods of scientific study lasted
Hermann Ebbinghaus Published classic studies on memory (1885)
Max Wertheimer Gestalt Psychology Argued that the mind’s elements could not completely explain consciousness The whole is different than the sum of its parts Important work with perception, learning, thinking Antecedent to cognitive psychology
Early Milestones Over the Pond (in the US) Clark University on Freud’s only trip to the US (G. Stanley Hall in center)
G. Stanley Hall Established the first research psychology lab in the US at Johns Hopkins University (1883) First President of APA First American psychology journal(1887)
William James Wrote the influential Principles of Psychology (1890) Associated with functionalism, a perspective emphasizing the functions (purpose) of behavior rather than the structures Said first psychology lecture he attend was the first on he gave (Harvard man) Established “first” experimental laboratory
Edward B. Titchener Student of Wundt who spent career at Cornell University Founded structuralism, based partially on Wundtian concepts Sought to explain consciousness by analyzing structural elements
Mary Whiton Calkins First woman president of APA (1905) Harvard would not allow her graduate studies under William James James informally administered her exams Harvard would not give her a Ph. D. Radcliffe College offered her a degree, she declined
What does this tell you?
Christine Ladd Franklin First woman psychologist Vassar (1869) Never accepted in the field No formal academic post in psychology Studies in vision
Margaret Floy Washburn First woman to receive a Ph. D in psychology (1894) at Cornell Wanted to go to Columbia, but they would not admit women into the programs Was Titchener’s student Had a successful career in psychology
Leta Stetter Hollingworth Pioneered work on adolescent development, mental retardation and giftedness Examined scientific beliefs regarding women’s “nature” and social roles In 1921 she was cited in American Men of Science for her research on the psychology of women
Back to Austria and the study of consciousness Sigmund Freud Published Interpretation of Dreams (1900), his major theoretical work on psychoanalysis Psychoanalytic theory as the first theory of personality
Psychologists and Perspectives
Five Early Schools of Thought Structuralism – E. B. Titchener (Wundt’s student) Functionalism – William James (in US) Psychoanalytic – Sigmund Freud (outside university setting) Behaviorism – John B. Watson (trained as a functionalist but revolted) Gestalt – Max Wertheimer (revolt against Wundt)
Structuralism Leading proponent was Edward B. Titchener (a student of Wundt) 1896 Views suggest that all mental experience can be understood as a combination of simple elements or events Approach focuses on the contents of the mind Method of study: introspection
Functionalism An early school of psychology that focuses on the acts and functions of the mind rather than its internal contents 1896 Most prominent advocates were William James and John Dewey
Psychoanalytic Perspective Founder is Sigmund Freud 1900 Introduces the term, psychoanalytic, in scholarly papers Asserts that people are motivated by powerful, unconscious drives and conflicts Develops an influential therapy based on this assertion, using free association and dream analysis
Behaviorism John B. Watson publishes “ Psychology as Behavior ” launching behaviorism Watson trained as a functionalist 1913 In contrast to psychoanalysis, focuses on observable behavior and measurable behavior
Gestalt Perspective Gestalt (German for “whole” or “essence”) A reaction to structuralism Asserts that psychological phenomena must be viewed not as individual elements but as a coherent whole 1935 “The whole is different than the sum of its parts.” Kurt Koffka and Max Wertheimer
Modern Perspectives Refer to textbook (Weiten,p. 11) Psychoanalytic Behavioral Biological Cognitive Humanistic Evolutionary Social-Cultural- THIS ONE IS NOT IN YOUR TEXTBOOK. College Board RECOGNIZES IT AS AN ADDITIONAL PERSPECTIVE. INVESTIGATE ITS DEFINITION USING ALTERNATE SOURCES
FOLDABLES and TIMELINES Listen to and follow instructions for the fabulous foldable! It is a review tool that you will appreciate later.
FOLDABLE LISTEN to the folding and cutting directions Name your booklet “Perspectives in Psychology”. Write your name on the cover In the middle, label top square as “Historical Perspectives” In each square, list perspective, name of theorist and definition of perspective. You may use notes or textbook as a reference. Pull the back pages out to reveal another area for labels. Label this as “Modern Perspective.” List perspective, names associated with this perspective, define it AND draw an icon to aid in your recall of this perspective.
The timeline of the study of psychology Select a slip of paper. Investigate the person listed Complete a timeline card to include the follow information: Name Date Contribution to psychology Perspective/school of thought/area of study (if appropriate) Clip your card into the provided “time line.”