Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Kilpisjärvi Biological Station Käsivarrentie 14622 FIN-99490 KILPISJÄRVI www.kilpis.helsinki.fi tel. +358-16-320 2200 fax. +358-16-320 2100 www.kilpis.helsinki.fi.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Kilpisjärvi Biological Station Käsivarrentie 14622 FIN-99490 KILPISJÄRVI www.kilpis.helsinki.fi tel. +358-16-320 2200 fax. +358-16-320 2100 www.kilpis.helsinki.fi."— Presentation transcript:

1 Kilpisjärvi Biological Station Käsivarrentie FIN KILPISJÄRVI tel fax Faculty of Biosciences

2 Kilpisjärvi Biological Station LOCATION I Kilpisjärvi village Photo: Marja-Liisa Leminen

3 Kilpisjärvi Biological Station LOCATION II 69  03’N; 20  50’E +2 hours GMT 270 kilometres north of the Arctic Circle, but only 50 kilometres from the Arctic Ocean 160 kilometres from Troms, 600 kilometres from City of Oulu NORWAY SWEDEN FINLAND RUSSIA THE ARCTIC OCEAN

4 Kilpisjärvi Biological Station GEOGRAPHY I SkibotnKilpisjärviKaaresuvanto Schematic representation of the altitude variation from the Arctic Ocean to the Inland NWSE

5 Kilpisjärvi Biological Station GEOGRAPHY II Kilpisjärvi lies c. 473 metres above sea level Landscape is mosaic of treeless mountain heaths, willow bushes and small lakes and ponds Landscape dominated by fjelds, such as Saana (1029m) and Halti (1328m) Large rivers: Könkämäeno, Poroeno, Rommaeno and Lätäseno

6 Kilpisjärvi Biological Station GEOLOGY Rocks in the Kilpisjärvi region ( million years old) are remarkably younger than in the surroundings (up to 2 billion years old) Rockbed is in connection with the Scandinavian mountain ridge Basic metavolcanic rock Dolomite Arkose quartzite Shale and slate Sandstone and blueish quartzite

7 Kilpisjärvi Biological Station CLIMATE I Kilpisjärvi is one of the coldest places in Continental Europe measured by annual mean temperature For example: Abisko (Sweden) 385 m. a.s.l. -1,0  C Finse (Norway) 1222 m a.s.l. -2,0  C Kilpisjärvi (Finland) 480 m a.s.l. -2,3  C The annual mean temperature in Kilpisjärvi in

8 Kilpisjärvi Biological Station CLIMATE II Mean temperatures: January (-13,6  ), February (-12,5  C) June (+7,5  C), July (+10,9  C) Yearly precipitation: 450 mm Length of growing season: 100 days Snow cover from mid-October to early-June No sunrise between 25 Nov and 17 Jan, continuous sunshine from 22 May to 22 Jul

9 Kilpisjärvi Biological Station CLIMATE III The mean monthly precipitation and temperature

10 Kilpisjärvi Biological Station CLIMATE IV Average snow cover

11 Kilpisjärvi Biological Station Annual rhythm in Kilpisjärvi: Period of darkness 25 Nov – 17 Jan Midnight sun 22 May – 22Jul Growing season 31 May – 17 Sep Snow coverage 17 Oct – 5 Jun

12 Kilpisjärvi Biological Station NATURAL HISTORY - FLORA Flora Major biotopes: Mountain birch forest Mountain heaths Marshland Factors affecting the vegetation 1. Continental-maritime divide= Very continental climate (cold winters, warm summers) but the proximity of sea (50 kms) affects the vegetation (lot of winter precipitation) Grayleaf Willow (Salix glauca)

13 Kilpisjärvi Biological Station NATURAL HISTORY – FLORA II 2. Altitude variation From 470 to 1300 metres a.s.l. 3. Alkaline rocks (e.g. dolomite) abundant -> Numerous calcophilic plant species 4. Herding (Reindeers, small mammals) Norwegian lemming (Lemmus lemmus) Photo: Josef Timar

14 Kilpisjärvi Biological Station NATURAL HISTORY – FLORA III For more images, see: Some 450 vascular plant species in the Kilpisjärvi region of which 28 species found only there Lapland Buttercup (Ranunculus glacialis) Lapland Rose Bay (Rhododendron lapponicum)

15 Kilpisjärvi Biological Station NATURAL HISTORY - FAUNA Fishes 13 breeding species, many lax species Amphibians & Reptiles Only common frog and lizard found, both adapted to the northern climate Birds 188 species observed 97 of which regular breeders Mammals 24 breeding species (e.g. the Norwegian lemming and the Arctic Fox) Redstart (Phoenicurus phoenicurus) Photo: Josef Timar

16 Kilpisjärvi Biological Station NATURAL HISTORY – FAUNA II Invertebrates Butterflies 16 species found only in the Kilpisjärvi region in Finland as Acerbia alpina Acerbia alpina Photo: Olavi Sotavalta

17 Kilpisjärvi Biological Station HOW DO PEOPLE LIVE? I INHABITATS The Commune of Enontekiö: 2150 Kilpisjärvi: <100 Lots of seasonal workers from March to September 70 % OF THE SURFACE AREA OF ENONTEKIÖ PROTECTED Käsivarsi wilderness area, Pallas-Ounastunturi national park, Malla strict nature reserve and other protected areas OVER TURISTS YEARLY + OTHER VISITORS

18 Kilpisjärvi Biological Station HOW DO PEOPLE LIVE? II Shopping-tourism from Norway (some in 2002) Passing cargo from Norway to Finland and Sweden In spite of remote location, Kilpisjärvi is a very popular place among visitors and tourists Norwegian settlements in the village Tourism and trade major sources of income Hiking Centre

19 Kilpisjärvi Biological Station ECONOMY Main means of livelihood Tourism: Hotels, accommodation, transport Trade: Shop, gas station, cafés Public services: Border guard, customs, Forest Research Institute, Forest and Park Service, Biological Station, Kilpisjärvi School Reindeer herding: Not significant Rate of unemployment in Enontekiö: 19,7 % (2002) Lot of construction in 2003-

20 Kilpisjärvi Biological Station TRANSPORT By airplane and taxi Kittilä or Hetta (Enontekiö) By train and bus From Kolari or Rovaniemi Distances Rovaniemi: 470 kms Kolari: 290 kms Kittilä: 270 kms Hetta 180 kms

21 Kilpisjärvi Biological Station ENVIRONMENTAL THREATS I Main biotopes: Treeless mountain heaths (75 %) Sub-alpine birch forest and willow bushes (14%) Marshland (10%) Lakes and ponds (4%) Biotopes have suffered little of human activities due to the remote location: No power plants, no oil emissions No heavy industry, no emission of heavy metals No large establishments Very little fall-out of pollutans from Kola Peninsula

22 Kilpisjärvi Biological Station ENVIRONMENTAL THREATS II POTENTIAL THREATHS IN THE FUTURE: 1. Construction Impossible in large parts of the Kilpisjärvi area (protected areas). Locally a possible threat 2. Global change of climate Potential risk 3. Grazing of reindeers Potential risk for rare alpine plants? Over-herding in the late 1980’s, at the moment the amount of reindeer only 50% of that

23 Kilpisjärvi Biological Station ENVIRONMENTAL THREATS III POTENTIAL THREATHS IN THE FUTURE: 4. Disturbance (snow mobiles, tourism) Potential risk for breeding of rare birds (Gyrfalckon etc.) Mechanic erosion in the hiking tracks and around wilderness huts 5. Increase of transportation Is limited in the proximity of the main road Air traffic (airplanes, helicopters)

24 Kilpisjärvi Biological Station INFRASTRUCTURE OF STATION I The four station buildings comprise 1600 m 2 Seismic station of the University of Helsinki Four laboratories, computer room, library, offices and catering centre in the main building. Three separate accommodation buildings Accommodation for some 60 people Two lecture halls for either 30 or 60 people Laboratories equipped with basic laboratory equipment. Wide variety of field equipment is available.

25 Kilpisjärvi Biological Station INFRASTRUCTURE OF STATION II Overview of the station Seismic station

26 Kilpisjärvi Biological Station INFRASTRUCTURE OF STATION III Laboratory facilities

27 Kilpisjärvi Biological Station INFRASTRUCTURE OF STATION IV Lecture halls

28 Kilpisjärvi Biological Station SCIENTIFIC ACTIVITIES 1946 Long-term follow-up studies on the animal and plant ecology Problem of mass occurences of lemmings The cyclicity of small-rodent populations Variation in the quality and quantity of mountain heath plants Population dynamics of hole-nesting passerines Multi-annual fluctuation of small rodents in Kilpisjärvi in

29 Kilpisjärvi Biological Station SCIENTIFIC ACTIVITIES II Long-term follow-up studies form the core of scientific activities at the station

30 Kilpisjärvi Biological Station SCIENTIFIC ACTIVITIES III Geographical, geophysical, paleolimnological, hydrobiological & other studies… The properties of snow Adaptation of amphibians and reptiles on the northern climate Environmental history (Molar, Chill, Emerge) Parasites of fishes Mountain Birch Ecosystems project, Fungi project International co-operative projects ITEX: Effects of global warming on alpine plants SCANNET LAPBIAT HIBECO: Study on mountain birch

31 Kilpisjärvi Biological Station SCIENTIFIC ACTIVITIES

32 Photos Marja-Liisa Leminen, Rauni Partanen, Olavi Sotavalta and Josef Timar Layout, Diagrams & Text Kilpisjärvi Biological Station Data Finnish Meteorological Institute, Kilpisjärvi Biological Station and National Land Survey of Finland Faculty of Biosciences 2004


Download ppt "Kilpisjärvi Biological Station Käsivarrentie 14622 FIN-99490 KILPISJÄRVI www.kilpis.helsinki.fi tel. +358-16-320 2200 fax. +358-16-320 2100 www.kilpis.helsinki.fi."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google