Presentation on theme: "HIK Hoger Instituut der Kempen Aspects of the migration and the integration proces in Belgium History, policy and contemporary questions."— Presentation transcript:
HIK Hoger Instituut der Kempen Aspects of the migration and the integration proces in Belgium History, policy and contemporary questions
HIK Hoger Instituut der Kempen Current history of migration: 20th century ’20-’30 ’20-’30: the coal industry needs (foreign) labourers. Immigration from Italy, Czechoslovakia and Poland. ’30: replacement of foreign miners by Belgian miners and compulsory return of some strikers.
HIK Hoger Instituut der Kempen ’40-’50 ’45-’47: reconstruction after WWII. Belgian-Italian agreement: Belgium and Italy trade foreign labourers and coal. ’56: major mining disaster in Marcinelle ’56: Belgium makes new agreements with Greece, Spain and Portugal
HIK Hoger Instituut der Kempen ’50-’60 ’60: Belgium makes new agreements with Turkey and Morocco, for mine and other industries. ’60-’70: “Fedechar” recruits in Turkey and Morocco. ’60-’70: immigration and reunification of the family. Foundation of the first Reception Services for Foreign Laborers.
HIK Hoger Instituut der Kempen ’60-’70 ’68: independency of Congo and restricted immigration of Congolese residents ’74: depression, economic slump and migration stop; reunification of the family remains possible.
HIK Hoger Instituut der Kempen ’70-’80 ’70-’80:First education projects for children of immigrants ’81: First antiracism law ’84: relaxation of the acquisition of the Belgian nationality
HIK Hoger Instituut der Kempen ’80-’90 ’90: Increase asylum-seekers and arrival of new communities ’88 and ’91: migration and integration should be on the political agenda as a result of the success of the Vlaams Blok on the black Sundays and after the riots in a number of cities in ‘91. Structural measures are taken in order to promote the integration.
HIK Hoger Instituut der Kempen Structural measures in the ‘90 establishment of the Royal Commissioner for the integration policy (1988) the Federal Government sets up an Impulsfund to support projects for the integration of persons of foreign origin and the prevention of discrimination in major cities (1991) the education-priority-policy allocates extra resources to schools with non-native speakers (1991) the non-discrimination-pact in education would spread foreign children (1994)
HIK Hoger Instituut der Kempen Structural measures in the ’90 (continued) the third generation automatically acquires the Belgian nationality (1992) relaxation of the acquisition of the Belgian nationality for the second generation (1992) extra resources for immigrants’ cultural organisations development of a “network of integration centres” with a Flemish centre, provincial and local centres (1996) Flemish reception policy for people without legal residence (1998)
HIK Hoger Instituut der Kempen Recent developments in integration policy Focus on “new arrivals” From minority policy to diversity and equal chances policy Reception- and assylumprocedure remains on the political agenda
HIK Hoger Instituut der Kempen Focus on “new arrivals”: Reception Offices for New Arrivals support the integration by offering individual and group courses. The courses (orientation to society and labour, Dutch language) are mandatory for non EU-citizens. (2004) Asylum-seekers have to participate to those courses for new arrivals. (2006)
HIK Hoger Instituut der Kempen From minority policy to diversity and equal chances policy: Needs for a few become chances for all: Suffrages for persons of foreign origin (2004) Subsidies for (voluntary) diversity- projects on the labour market (2006) Equal chances policy in education (2004) Equal subsidies for cultural organisations
HIK Hoger Instituut der Kempen Asylum-seekers: New reception- and asylum procedure: material help i.s.o. financial help; simplified procedure (2000 and 2008) Regularization of citizens without papers is a permanent political en social discussion: ‘2000: first regularization project ‘2010: new regularization project
HIK Hoger Instituut der Kempen The different statutes of residence in Belgium Short residence for 3 months Permanent residence for EU-citizens Residence through (re)unification of the family Residence to study in Belgium Residence to work in Belgium for limited high educated employees Asylum for recognized or applicant refugees or deputy protection
HIK Hoger Instituut der Kempen Restricted residence for medical reasons Residence/asylum for victims of involuntary people trade Residence for non-assisted minor (under age) foreigners Residence for stateless foreigners Residence for foreigners returning to Belgium
HIK Hoger Instituut der Kempen Research and data The government and governmental organisations assemble permanently facts and figures on: -immigration and emigration -acquisitions of the Belgian nationality -participation to education and labour market -...
HIK Hoger Instituut der Kempen Research on the integration proces Different concepts of integration: -participation vs. orientation -system integration vs social integration -structural, social-cultural and political dimension
HIK Hoger Instituut der Kempen The concept of integration: synthesis ( Van Craen & Ackaert, UH)
HIK Hoger Instituut der Kempen Integration vs. social cohesion
HIK Hoger Instituut der Kempen Possible questions for research 1.What is the relationship between structural integration ( towards education and public welfare) and three aspects of social cohesion (mutual perception, discrimination, trust) ? 2.What are the possibilities and the problems that social workers and their clients experience?
HIK Hoger Instituut der Kempen What can we learn from best practices in this area?