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Migration trends in Lithuania: issues of monitoring and migrant integration Karolis Žibas Centre of Ethnic Studies Institute for Social Research (Vilnius,

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Presentation on theme: "Migration trends in Lithuania: issues of monitoring and migrant integration Karolis Žibas Centre of Ethnic Studies Institute for Social Research (Vilnius,"— Presentation transcript:

1 Migration trends in Lithuania: issues of monitoring and migrant integration Karolis Žibas Centre of Ethnic Studies Institute for Social Research (Vilnius, Lithuania)

2 Migration trends in Lithuania: issues of monitoring and migrant integration I. Migration trends: statistics, tendencies and sectoral analysis of labour immigration; II. Social actors and process of migration policy formation; III. Migrant integration: overview and comparison of integration measures of labour migrants and refugees.

3 I. MIGRATION TRENDS: STATISTICS, TENDENCIES AND SECTORAL ANALYSIS (Source: Migration Department under the Ministry of the Interior of the Republic of Lithuania and Statistics Lithuania and Lithuanian Labour Exchange at the Ministry of Social Security and Labour) In 2006, 7745 persons immigrated to Lithuania, which is by almost a thousand more than in In comparison with total immigration netto it is noticeable that labour immigration is becoming progressively intense:

4 I. MIGRATION TRENDS: STATISTICS, TENDENCIES AND SECTORAL ANALYSIS (Source: Statistics Lithuania and Lithuanian Labour Exchange at the Ministry of Social Security and Labour) Gender and migration: a comparison of total and labour immigration by sex in 2006

5 I. MIGRATION TRENDS: STATISTICS, TENDENCIES AND SECTORAL ANALYSIS (Source: Statistics Lithuania and Lithuanian Labour Exchange at the Ministry of Social Security and Labour) Immigration by nationality In 2006 most persons (5.5 thousand, or 71.1 percent) who arrived to Lithuania were citizens of the Republic of Lithuania. Almost 70 per cent of returning citizens of the Republic of Lithuania were aged under 35. The main countries of immigration are Belarus, Russia and Ukraine:

6 I. MIGRATION TRENDS: STATISTICS, TENDENCIES AND SECTORAL ANALYSIS (Source: Lithuanian Labour Exchange at the Ministry of Social Security and Labour) The main countries of labour immigration remain Belarus and Ukraine:

7 SECTORAL ANALYSIS OF LABOUR IMMIGRATION (Source: Lithuanian Labour Exchange at the Ministry of Social Security and Labour)

8 REFUGEES IN THE REPUBLIC OF LITHUANIA (Source: Migration Department under the Ministry of the Interior of the Republic of Lithuania) Year Geneva convention status granted Humanitarian status granted Negative Total:

9 II. SOCIAL ACTORS AND PROCESS OF MIGRATION POLICY FORMATION Main documents regulating migration policy I. Law on the Legal Status of Aliens (last amendment – on February 2008) regulates: 1. Issues concerning the arrival and departure of foreigners; 2. Temporary and permanent residence, work, legal responsibilities, and other issues concerning the legal status of aliens in the Republic of Lithuania; 3. Defines the status of refugees or persons that are given other forms of protection; 4. Defines the issues of family reunification, etc. II. Strategy of Regulation of Economic Migration (2007) Main objectives: 1. To formulate long-term regulation measures of economic migration; 2. To regulate factors, which stimulate economic migration in order to assure match between labour force demand and supply; 3. To invoke workers from third countries with taking into consideration remigration process and giving priority to EU citizens; 4. To maintain close relations with Lithuanians (economic migrants) and Lithuanian communities living abroad; 5. To ensure effective institutional cooperation regarding issues of economic migration.

10 II. SOCIAL ACTORS AND PROCESS OF MIGRATION POLICY FORMATION Strategy of Regulation of Economic Migration (2007) Main social actors: 1. Ministry of Foreign Affairs; 2. Ministry of Social Security and Labour; 3. Ministry of Interior; 4. Ministry of Finances; 5. Social partners: *International Organization for Migration (Section in Vilnius); *Trade-unions; *Employers; *Academics; *Companies, which activities are concerned in bringing foreign labour force from third countries *etc.

11 II. SOCIAL ACTORS AND PROCESS OF MIGRATION POLICY FORMATION Mass emigration + Population ageing + One of the biggest death-rate in EU Complex of demographic problems + Big impact on the structure of labour market (labour force shortage) Corporate sector’s pressure (or demands) for liberal laws allowing labour migrants from third countries to work in the Republic of Lithuania ↓ Influence on the structure of Strategy of Regulation of Economic Migration and other policy implementations ↓ Immigration flows / integration measures / selectively open migration policy

12 II. SOCIAL ACTORS AND PROCESS OF MIGRATION POLICY FORMATION Result of corporate pressure to liberalize labour force import from third countries: 1. The administrative process to employ foreign workers from third countries was facilitated. Considering recent debates and suggestions for economic migration policy, there should be more amendments allowing third countries nationals to enter the Republic of Lithuania more easily. Among them: 1. Amendment of the Law on Legal status of Aliens: family reunion; 2. Integration tax, which could be paid by employers; 3. Restructuring of conditions for the issue of work permits for foreigners.

13 II. SOCIAL ACTORS AND PROCESS OF MIGRATION POLICY FORMATION Societal attitudes (Source: Centre of Ethnic Studies at the Institute for Social Research, 2007)

14 II. SOCIAL ACTORS AND PROCESS OF MIGRATION POLICY FORMATION Societal attitudes (Source: Centre of Ethnic Studies at the Institute for Social Research, 2008) 0%20%40%60%80%100% Labour migrants benefit Lithuanian economy Considering labour shortage we should let labour migrants fulfill labour market demands Equal rights for foreigners and citizens of Lithuania in labour relations AgreeDisagree, tend to disagreeDisagree 80,7 60,6 56,6 13,3 6 32,86,6 36,1 7,2

15 II. SOCIAL ACTORS AND PROCESS OF MIGRATION POLICY FORMATION Societal attitudes (Source: Centre of Ethnic Studies at the Institute for Social Research, 2008) 0%20%40%60%80%100% Migrant workers can trigger social disorder It is enough foreign workers in Lithuania and we do not need any more 46,9 62,1 42,6 30,5 10,5 7,5 Agree, tend to agreeDisagree, tend to disagreeHas no opinion

16 II. SOCIAL ACTORS AND PROCESS OF MIGRATION POLICY FORMATION Media response Headlines design single-sided (negative) attitude towards labour migrants and immigration in general. For instance: “Flood of migrants”; “Migrants overflow”; “Immigration – a bomb of delayed-action”; “Lithuanians are becoming minority”, etc.

17 III. MIGRANT INTEGRATION Measures and policies of minority integration 1. Minority integration programmes (Sunday schools, non-governmental organisations of corresponding communities, etc.); 2. Education for children and adults: equalizing courses (special grades (or classes) for pupils and adults who come from different backgrounds and need certain time to adjust); 3. Schools with minority languages (network of secondary schools where teaching is carried out in minority languages – Russian and Polish); 4. The infrastructure of refugee social integration (language courses, vocational training, courses on Lithuanian culture and traditions as well as well developed infrastructure on implementing refugee social integration).

18 III. MIGRANT INTEGRATION The infrastructure of refugee social integration In 2005 Lithuania received more than 1,9 millions LTL from European Refugee Fund for Refugee Social Integration Programme Main elements of social integration: 1. Language courses; 2. Vocational training; 3. Courses on Lithuanian culture and traditions, etc. Partners and production of social integration: 1. At least 23 institutions (governmental and NGOs); 2. Range of various projects and researches on integration issue every year and a lot more. Financial recourses: 1. EU; 2. Government. The resources as well as whole infrastructure of refugee social integration is not being used for labour migrant integration.

19 Thank you Questions?


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