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20 th Century Post WWII ‘Less is More’ Chapter 34.

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Presentation on theme: "20 th Century Post WWII ‘Less is More’ Chapter 34."— Presentation transcript:

1 20 th Century Post WWII ‘Less is More’ Chapter 34

2 Abstract Expressionism Movement from 1940’s-1950’s Artists expressed their inner feelings through abstract paintings - with few identifiable objects. NYC was the center of the movement AH: 2 varieties – gestural abstraction and chromatic abstraction

3 Gestural Abstraction…. Expressive application of paint leaving visible and often chaotic brushstrokes Also called – “action painting” – Jackson Pollock & William de Kooning

4 Chromatic Abstraction… Lacks energetic application of painting but uses blocks and lines of color to express complex feelings about the universe. Mark Rothko and Barnett Newman are chromatic abstract expressionists. AH: have referred to their canvases as color field paintings; and also refer to the movement (A.E.) as the New York School.

5 Jackson Pollock On a raw, unprimed canvas he dribbled, flinged, splashed and poured paint on the floor of his studio. He walked around, even stepped on the canvas Gave a feeling of actually being in the painting.

6 “Jack the Dripper” Time magazine 1951 No hidden meanings or symbols Body movements and gestures. Non-representation – Pollock’s paintings resemble (G.E.) Kandinsky – no depth Kandinsky expressed spirituality – Pollock subconscious

7 William de Kooning Dutch painter Action painter Inner thoughts/emotions Reworked his canvases – wiping off layers and repainting “Woman I” a piece from his series of large female images.

8 Mark Rothko Huge blocks of color Incorporated light hues and muted dark shades. A.E. because he lacks identifiable imagery and uses color to express vision. Saw life as a cycle of tragic and happy times. Used abstract blocks of color of express deep feelings about life.

9 Barnett Newman Used color to express feelings about humanity and relationship with the universe. Painted the canvas 1 color, with stripes vertically through it- stripes were referred to as ZIPS. Concord, 1949 Barnett Newman (American, 1905–1970) Oil and masking tape on canvas


11 Helen Frankanthaler Combined Abstract Expressionism and a style referred to as POST-PAINTERLY ABSTRACTION Although lacks subconscious expressiveness of action painting, Frankenthaler used Pollock’s method of laying canvas on the ground to do her work She diluted her paints then poured the paint onto a raw, unprimed canvas, letting the colors soak in the material AH: refer to the technique as color stains

12 Bay Side 1967

13 New York School Sculpture The NY school artists also produced sculpture. Resembled Abstract Expressionists paintings because they are primarily NONREPRESENATIONAL and express subjectivity of the artists that created them. These artists used industrial materials such as metal and wood

14 David Smith’s Cubi Series Welded pieces of metal together in abstract compositions. The spaces between the lines of welded metal bear an interesting resemblance to the paintings of Pollock. Smith’s influences included artists such as Picasso.

15 David Smith’s Cubi Series As his career progressed, his style evolved Most famous is the Cubi series came out in the early 1960’s Basic geometric shapes such as squares, rectangles, and circles Welded in a way that the shapes are in a precarious way (as they would fall from the sculpture).

16 David Smith’s Cubi Series They are cantilevered in space, similar to F. L. Wright implemented in his architecture Smith uses machines with wire brushes to burnish the metal – gives a textural feel. AH: Believe Smith’s Cubi series as having some human characteristics…life is a precarious balance

17 David Smith’s Cubi Series Some critics also note Cubi’’s resemblance to Native American totem poles in their size and the way they are stacked. This is plausible to due his interest in spirituality and Existential philosophy.

18 Louise Nevelson Assemblage sculpture out of wood and welded metal Russian born, raised in Maine, became acquainted with wood at the lumberyard her father owned Became a part of the NYS Showed UNITY with repeating shapes and color

19 Louise Nevelson Her sculptures often consisted of stacked, boxlike compartments with a variety of shapes inside them. Often painted her sculptures one color, so as to NOT distract the viewer.

20 Departure from Abstract Expressionism Hard Edge OR Post Painterly Abstraction Sought to extract the qualities of Expressionism, like action painting, while creating abstract canvases of crisp lines and solid colors.

21 Frank Stella’s Pinstripe Paintings A famous Post Painterly Abstractionist Developed canvases of solid color separated by areas of bare canvas Canvases emphasized flatness with no sense of recessional space From a distance it appears that his canvases actually have pinstripes… Stella said “What you see is what you see.” Used canvases of different sizes and shapes

22 Frank Stella’s Pinstripe Paintings Some are shaped like protractors Pinstripe motif

23 Minimalism…. ‘Less Is More’ An American Movement 1960’s and 70’s Emphasized hard shapes and straight edges (like the PPA) Sculptors infused NO surface decoration, narrative elements, figures, or other imagery Donald Judd, leading Minimalist, described the idea as “getting rid of the things that people used to think were essential to art” These artists did not seek to create abstractions of figures, but like Stella, created geometric sculptures (so the viewer saw what they saw)

24 Minimalism…. ‘Less Is More’ Their sculptures were typically large and made of metal Removed visible signs of themselves in the work Donald Judd, Untitled 1969 Several metal boxes, in a vertical composition attached to a wall with steel brackets.

25 Minimalism…. ‘Less Is More’ The boxes are evenly spaced and prefabricated Did not hide his material Polished brass; could see inside the boxes (used colored Plexiglas)

26 Vietnam Veteran’s Memorial Maya Ying Lin’s Minimalist Masterpiece While a college student won a commission to design the VVM, in DC Designed as an angled, black wall that slowly increases to 10’ tall at the corner and gradually recedes back into the ground “The Wall” is geometric and simple in appearance; made of black granite that is reflected and incised with the names of 58,000 casualties and missing American soldiers of the VW.

27 Pop Art A reaction to the AE movement, Pop Art was developed Pop Art strived to attempt to meet people’s demand for more recognizable art Popular in the 1960’s – based on recognizable imagery drawn from POPULAR CULTURE; such as advertising, consumer products, comic books and celebrities In the 50’s the U.S. economy became increasingly consumer based

28 Pop Art Artists produced artwork that reflected the consumerism of American Society Pop Artists developed graphic art techniques; like photographic transfer to create images, supplying color by using benday dots and silkscreens BUT, Pop Art was not a new phenomenon since Dada artists incorporated imagery from the 1910’s culture with photomontages and ready- mades …

29 Richard Hamilton British created Just What Is It That Make’s Today’s Homes So Different, So Appealing? Small collage with pop culture references Expressed mass media with the TV, a newspaper, and a theater marquee Included advertising with Hoover vacuums, Ford cars…

30 Richard Hamilton Hormel canned ham, and Tootsie pops To express pop culture, he used images of a famous bodybuilder (Charles Atlas); and an image from an erotic magazine Viewers felt that they were stepping into a display of a department store window The expression of the mundane elements of pop culture became the new avant garde

31 Jasper Johns Influenced the the development of Pop Art in the United States Created his famous Target with Four Faces, painted plaster casts of 4 faces from the nose down with a target painted below Johns presents only parts of the faces, and their juxtaposition with the target encourages the viewer to think about the piece.

32 Jasper Johns -Flag Recognizable imagery Encaustic painting of an American flag 3’6”x 5’ 5/8” Under the flag are newspaper clippings (unusual context); because the wax is translucent one can see the newspaper

33 Robert Rauschenberg Used scraps of newspaper, photographs and discarded materials to make his assemblages Collected items from the environment “Painting relates to both art and life. Neither can be made. (I try to act in the gap of the two).”

34 Robert Rauschenberg Combed the streets of NYC for materials to use in his assemblage paintings, which he called combines. He “combines” multiple meanings in his works Recognizable objects and images of objects may seem odd when juxtaposed, but on closer view his arrangements have connections Canyon

35 Canyon, 1959 A stuffed eagle placed on a pedestal shares a connection with the pillow suspended by fabric from the pedestal; the eagle is covered with feathers while the pillow is stuffed with them… A photograph with a young boy, hand is raised; echoes the pose of a postcard of the Statue of Liberty holding the torch.

36 Roy Lichenstein Comic-strip-style paintings Often used images from romantic comic strips and war comics Re-created a melodramatic moment in his paintings His paintings have flat areas of color surrounded by heavy black lines His trademark – BENDAY DOTS …name derivative of Benjamin Day printer, who used the method of dots for printing color on cheap paper.

37 Roy Lichenstein “Hopeless” Benday dots are solid dots of color; RED on WHITE give flesh tone; BLUE on WHITE give the impression of light blue When looked at from a distance it looks a solid block of color Lichenstein used this method for an authentic comic book feel

38 Andy Warhol Went to art school where he designed newspaper advertisements for shoes Influenced him to develop the art of the commodities – objects that are bought and sold Used graphic arts production methods such as photographic transfer and silkscreen… These methods allowed him to make multiple copies of consumer items such as Campbell’s Soup cans, Coca-Cola bottles, and Brillo Pad boxes.

39 Andy Warhol Even named his studio “The Factory” Produced images of 1960’s pop icons like Marilyn Monroe and Elvis Presley

40 Superrealism (Photorealism) Still-life’s or portrait paintings with photographic accuracy during the 1960’s and 70’s Audrey Flack and Chuck Close

41 Audrey Flack Realistic still-life paintings that resemble 17 th century Dutch vanitas paintings in both tromp l’oeil and Symbolism MM real name was Norma Jean; symbolism that tells the story of her life from childhood photograph as well as references that her life was cut short at age 36

42 Audrey Flack Flack included fruit, symbolizing life, some of which a partially peeled Dutch vanitas paintings often had fruit partially peeled to show how life is slowly being peeled away An hourglass and pocket watch = passage of time; calendar page of August month she died; red lipstick perfume and pearls – her trademark The glass and small Dutch cup reference the Dutch influence

43 Audrey Flack She commented…. images she saw were almost exclusively photographic quality. She remarked that much of how we see the world is through photographs Flack used airbrush to blend away and trace of brushstrokes.

44 Chuck Close Painted images of average people, usually friends and family Close revived portraiture “Big Self Portrait” Based on a photograph Very distinct and recognizable

45 Duane Hanson Sculptor of the Superrealist style, whose work reflects American pop culture Created average American people of the 1960’s and 70’s Tourists – a man and woman in gaudy attire The man is overweight and balding, the woman is slightly taller with thick lipstick and sunglasses Perhaps a retired couple?

46 Duane Hanson What is he saying about Americans? His he presenting a stereotype of American tourists? He created many Realistic sculptures, a boxer, weightlifter, a supermarket shopper and a sun bather Took casts of the bodies of real people and made either a bronze/polyester resin sculpture of their forms Used real hair and clothes



49 Art and Politics Feminist and Earth Art!! Exemplify the politically charged climate of America during the 1960’s and 70’s The era of the Cold War and the Vietnam War Peace protests criticizing our military involvement in Vietnam “Sex, Drugs, Rock & Roll” – Rock music proliferated; social more became more relaxed as younger generations experimented with sexuality and drugs (Think Forrest Gump movie)

50 Art and Politics America was forced to come to grips with social racial and gender inequality, that caused protests and riots Amidst the political turmoil, many Americans artists sought to use an unconventional way to express their reactions

51 Feminist Art and Judy Chicago During the 60’s female artists began to use their work to address issues of sexual discrimination Raises awareness of the significant accomplishments of women Judy Chicago’s The Dinner Party is an installation piece, that is an artwork that creates an environment of its own in a section of a museum or gallery The Dinner Party alludes to 39 women that Chicago believed should be recognized by having a seat at “the table”

52 The Dinner Party- Symbolism Originally wanted 13 women (witches coven); the number was inadequate so tripled the number 39 famous women The table is a equilateral triangle with each side measuring 48 feet Triangle symbolic of Mother Goddess

53 The Dinner Party- Symbolism Incorporated traditional women’s art mediums – ceramics and embroidery Each setting had a distinct design with abstract organic imagery resembling female reproductive system Achieved UNITY with the same goblets and utensils for each setting



56 Environmentalism and Earth Art Citizens started to preserve nature in the face of growing industrial and the production of cars Artists began to create works that incorporated natural materials and were placed in outdoor locations The movement of art from the museum to sculpture gardens into new contexts – as the work acts as a dialogue to the site itself Earth Art is site specific, most are in remote locations – the desert…

57 Robert Smithson’s – Spiral Jetty Disliked the idea of turning the natural site into photographs and paintings – believed that it could not be properly captured through a 2D surface So, he created earthworks outdoors Drove around for inspiration Spiral Jetty, Great Salt Lake in Utah…low-level scanning; that is he drove around until the site conveyed shape or design in his mind

58 Robert Smithson’s – Spiral Jetty The Great Salt Lake he visualized a spiraling shape Discovered salt crystals in the lake as having a spiral Moved tons of sand and rocks to create the spiral 1,500 feet long Thus the design has a dialogue with the site

59 Robert Smithson’s Diverse influences: Stonehenge; prehistoric earth mounds in the US; used Minimalist vocabulary to achieve the simplicity and clarity of his design of Spiral Jetty


61 Conclusion Variety of movements after WW II By 1945 the center of the art world was moving to NYC Abstract Exp (Gestural and Chromatic) Color Stains NY School David Smith Louise Nevelson Hard Edge Minimalism Pop Art Superrealism (Photorealism) Judy Chicago Earth Art

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