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Ethnic groups at WWII Objective: Evaluate the roles of Minorities and their contributions to WWII for America Std 11.7.3.

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Presentation on theme: "Ethnic groups at WWII Objective: Evaluate the roles of Minorities and their contributions to WWII for America Std 11.7.3."— Presentation transcript:

1 Ethnic groups at WWII Objective: Evaluate the roles of Minorities and their contributions to WWII for America Std 11.7.3

2 Importance World War I and World War II brought about changes for minorities and women because these conflicts led to –the creation of new job opportunities –the passage of the Equal Rights Amendment –a greater number of high-level management positions –greater integration in housing and schools throughout the nation

3 442nd Objective: Evaluate the roles of Minorities and their contributions to WWII for America Std 11.7.3

4 442 nd Infantry Combat Group Made up of Japanese Americans Nisei Many had families that were interned Mainly fought in Europe Most decorated battalion in WWII Average height was 5’4”

5 Decorations - 100th Infantry Battalion and The 442nd RCT 8Major campaigns in Europe 7Presidential Unit Citations 9,486Casualties (Purple Hearts) 18,143Individual decorations including: 20Congressional Medals of Honor 52Distinguished Service Crosses 1Distinguished Service Medal 560 Silver Stars, with 28 Oak Leaf Clusters in lieu of second Silver Star Awards 22Legion of Merit Medals 4,000Bronze Stars 1,200Oak Leaf Clusters representing second Bronze Stars 15Soldier's Medals 12 French Croix de Guerre with two Palms representing second awards 2Italian Crosses for Military Merit 2Italian Medals for Military Valor

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10 The 442 nd helped liberate the concentration camp at Dachau.

11 The 442 nd helped liberate the “Lost Battalion” in Germany. They saved more than a hundred Americans at a cost of 120 killed and 680 wounded of their own unit.

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13 Monument dedicated to the 442 nd in Los Angeles, Ca.

14 Italy Fort Benning, Ga

15 U.S. Senator (Hawaii) Daniel Inouye, a member of the 442 nd. Bravely led his men. Grenade injury led to amputation of his arm.

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17 Tuskegee Objective: Evaluate the roles of Minorities and their contributions to WWII for America Std 11.7.3

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19 The Tuskegee Airmen The first black pilots Impressive fighting record Helped lessen the racism directed towards African- Americans

20 The Tuskegee Airmen They were trained by Ben O. Davis Davis was the first African American graduate at West Point, an exclusive military college During his four years there, he never had a roommate, and no one ever spoke to him unless they had to do so because of school

21 The Tuskegee Airmen At the time he graduated, the U.S. Military had two African-American officers, Benjamin O. Davis Sr. (his father) and Benjamin O. Davis Jr. Before the beginning of WWII, President Roosevelt, in response to public pressure for greater black participation in the military as war approached, ordered the War Department to create a black flying unit Davis was one of the first trained

22 The Tuskegee Airmen His military decorations included the Air Force Dusinguished Service Medal, Army Distinguished Service Medal, Silver Star, Legion of Merit, Distinguished Flying Cross, Air Medal,

23 Benjamin O. Davis paved the way for other African-Americans in the military and in politics

24 The Tuskegee Airmen The Training of the Tuskegee Airmen began in June 1941 They overcame a great deal of discrimination and racism to do an amzing job Their accomplishments included: a destroyer sunk only by machine gun fire, and numerous fuel dumps, trucks and trains.

25 The Tuskegee Airmen They flew more than 15,000 sorties and 1500 missions. The unit received recognition through official channels, and won two Presidential Unit Citations, 744 Air Medals, 150 Distinguished Flying Crosses, 14 Bronze Stars, and several Silver Stars.

26 The Tuskegee Airmen In all, 992 pilots were trained in Tuskegee from 1940 to 1946. About 450 deployed overseas and 150 lost their lives in training or combat. Never lost a bomber to enemy fire!!!

27 The Tuskegee Airmen and the First Lady First Lady Eleanor Roosevelt flew for an hour with one of the African-American instructors She also corresponded with one of the airmen throughout the war She personally encouraged her husband to use them to their full potential

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33 Women Objective: Evaluate the roles of Minorities and their contributions to WWII for America Std 11.7.3

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43 Jackie Cochran was a very famous female pilot who had already set several flying records and won many air races She wrote Mrs. Roosevelt a letter suggesting that female pilots could provide much help in war times. By taking over non- combat duties, more male pilots could be relieved for the active fighting. First Lady, Eleanor Roosevelt Jacqueline "Jackie" Cochran The WASP’s - Women Airforce Service Pilots

44 Women Airforce Service Pilots In May 1940, another women pilot, Nancy Harkness Love, made a similar proposal to the Army’s Air Corps Ferrying Command. She suggested that about 50 very experienced female flyers could ferry planes for the Army from factories to air bases to relieve male pilots of this duty. Nancy Harkness Love

45 Jackie Cochran was able to convince an officer to let her help deliver a plane to England In June 1941, Jackie Cochran was the first woman allowed to fly a military aircraft across the Atlantic (although she was not allowed to handle the takeoff and landing). She ended up staying an England, volunteering for the British Air Transport Auxiliary

46 Both Love and Cochran ended up running Air programs for the U.S. Military

47 WAC-Women’s Auxiliary Corps Officially not a part of the Army- at first They took over non-violent jobs to free up men Their job list included adjutant, administrative, bombing records, civilian classification, cryptography, engineering exchange, fiscal and budget, information and filter center, insurance, intelligence, laundry management, legal, mess, meteorology, message center, motion picture, motor transport, music, personnel, photography, postal, public relation registrar, ration, signal officer, special services, statistical, school secretary and supply. More than 200,000 women worked more than 239 different jobs!

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54 Watch the Dude check out the female soldier.

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56 Navajo Objective: Evaluate the roles of Minorities and their contributions to WWII for America Std 11.7.3

57 Navajo Code talkers During war, it is important for commanders to communicate with each other Secure and secret communication systems were slow and expensive WWI vet, Philip Johnson, stumbled upon the idea that Navajo’s could be secret messengers

58 Navajo Code talkers The idea came to him while reading a newspaper article about NA participation during WWII He grew up on a Navajo Reservation and was fluent in their language and culture The Navajo language does not have an alphabet or symbols It is also complex and very difficult to learn It was estimated that fewer than 30 non-Navajo people in the world were familiar with the language

59 Navajo Code talkers He took his idea to the military, where it was quickly welcomed A demonstration was set up. A 3 sentence code was transmitted and decoded in 20 seconds. It would have taken a machine a half hour to do the same task 29 Navajos were recruited These recruits were successful, hundreds more were requested An estimated 400 code talkers worked in the Pacific Campaign

60 Navajo Code talkers During the battle of Iwo Jima, six code talkers transmitted 800 messages over two days, all without error A major, who was at the battle, later stated that if it were not for the code talkers, the Marines may have been defeated at Iwo Jima A captured Navajo soldier was asked by the Japanese to interpret the code. Although he understood some of the words they were using, it didn’t make any sense to him.

61 Navajo Code talkers The code talkers activities were classified until 1968 They have been honored several times In 1992, they were honored at a ceremony in the Pentagon. A permanent exhibit is set up there. In 2001, President Bush honored them at a White House ceremony The original 29 were given gold medals and the others were given silver medals They also have a statue honoring their contributions in Phoenix Arizona

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63 Navajo Code English: America Attack Submarine Navajo: Ne-ha-mah al-ta-je-jay besh-lo Literal: Our mother attack iron fish

64 Bracero Objective: Evaluate the roles of Minorities and their contributions to WWII for America Std 11.7.3

65 Mexicans and Mexican Americans Contributions of Mexicans and Mexican Americans in WWII More than 300,000 Mexican Americans served in the U.S. Army during WWII More than 17,000 Mexicans and Mexican Americans worked in the Los Angeles shipyards during WWII

66 The Bracero Program More than 200,000 Mexicans came to the U.S. to work as farmers – they replaced the labor shortage due to the war Unfortunately, they suffered through terrible working conditions and low wages. Many companies cheated them out of a portion of their wages.

67 Importance World War I and World War II brought about changes for minorities and women because these conflicts led to –the creation of new job opportunities –the passage of the Equal Rights Amendment –a greater number of high-level management positions –greater integration in housing and schools throughout the nation

68 Closure The experiences of African Americans serving in the military forces during World War II influenced their postwar decision to –renew support for the principle of separate but equal –join the armed forces in record numbers –increase efforts to end racial discrimination –move back to the rural south

69 Closure With respect to finding better jobs, the war years marked a period of ___ for African Americans. –decline –advance –stagnation –uncertainty

70 Closure Which statement best describes the contribution made by many Navajo soldiers toward winning the war in the Pacific? –They became kamikazes, suicide pilots, intentionally crashing planes into Japanese ships. –They served as code talkers, using the Navajo language for military communications. –They helped develop the Manhattan Project - a secret program to build an atomic bomb. –They used Navajo technology for island hopping, using captured islands as a base.

71 Closure Which description best defines the Tuskegee Airmen? –Mexican Americans who volunteered for service and trained in Tuskegee, Alabama –an elite troop of fliers from Tuskegee, Alabama, trained for the most dangerous missions –African-American pilots who trained at Tuskegee, Alabama, and fought bravely overseas –African-American pilots, trained at Tuskegee, Alabama, who never saw action overseas


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