Presentation on theme: "Ethnic groups at WWII Objective:"— Presentation transcript:
1Ethnic groups at WWII Objective: Evaluate the roles of Minorities and their contributions to WWII for AmericaStd
2ImportanceWorld War I and World War II brought about changes for minorities and women because these conflicts led tothe creation of new job opportunitiesthe passage of the Equal Rights Amendmenta greater number of high-level management positionsgreater integration in housing and schools throughout the nation
3442ndObjective:Evaluate the roles of Minorities and their contributions to WWII for AmericaStd
4442nd Infantry Combat Group Made up of Japanese Americans NiseiMany had families that were internedMainly fought in EuropeMost decorated battalion in WWIIAverage height was 5’4”
5Decorations - 100th Infantry Battalion and The 442nd RCT 8Major campaigns in Europe7Presidential Unit Citations9,486Casualties (Purple Hearts)18,143Individual decorations including:20Congressional Medals of Honor52Distinguished Service Crosses1Distinguished Service Medal560Silver Stars, with 28 Oak Leaf Clusters in lieu of secondSilver Star Awards22Legion of Merit Medals4,000Bronze Stars1,200Oak Leaf Clusters representing second15Soldier's Medals12French Croix de Guerre with two Palms representing second awards2Italian Crosses for Military MeritItalian Medals for Military Valor
10The 442nd helped liberate the concentration camp at Dachau.
11The 442nd helped liberate the “Lost Battalion” in Germany The 442nd helped liberate the “Lost Battalion” in Germany. They saved more than a hundred Americans at a cost of 120 killed and 680 wounded of their own unit.
19The Tuskegee Airmen The first black pilots Impressive fighting record Helped lessen the racism directed towards African-Americans
20The Tuskegee Airmen They were trained by Ben O. Davis Davis was the first African American graduate at West Point, an exclusive military collegeDuring his four years there, he never had a roommate, and no one ever spoke to him unless they had to do so because of schoolThe Tuskegee Airmen
21At the time he graduated, the U. S At the time he graduated, the U.S. Military had two African-American officers, Benjamin O. Davis Sr. (his father) and Benjamin O. Davis Jr.Before the beginning of WWII, President Roosevelt, in response to public pressure for greater black participation in the military as war approached, ordered the War Department to create a black flying unitDavis was one of the first trainedThe Tuskegee Airmen
22The Tuskegee AirmenHis military decorations included the Air Force Dusinguished Service Medal, Army Distinguished Service Medal, Silver Star, Legion of Merit, Distinguished Flying Cross, Air Medal,
23Benjamin O. Davis paved the way for other African-Americans in the military and in politics
24The Tuskegee AirmenThe Training of the Tuskegee Airmen began in June 1941They overcame a great deal of discrimination and racism to do an amzing jobTheir accomplishments included: a destroyer sunk only by machine gun fire, and numerous fuel dumps, trucks and trains.
25The Tuskegee AirmenThey flew more than 15,000 sorties and 1500 missions. The unit received recognition through official channels, and won two Presidential Unit Citations, 744 Air Medals, 150 Distinguished Flying Crosses, 14 Bronze Stars, and several Silver Stars.
26The Tuskegee AirmenIn all, 992 pilots were trained in Tuskegee from 1940 to About 450 deployed overseas and 150 lost their lives in training or combat.Never lost a bomber to enemy fire!!!
27The Tuskegee Airmen and the First Lady First Lady Eleanor Roosevelt flew for an hour with one of the African-American instructorsShe also corresponded with one of the airmen throughout the warShe personally encouraged her husband to use them to their full potential
43The WASP’s - Women Airforce Service Pilots Jackie Cochran was a very famous female pilot who had already set several flying records and won many air racesShe wrote Mrs. Roosevelt a letter suggesting that female pilots could provide much help in war times. By taking over non-combat duties, more male pilots could be relieved for the active fighting.Jacqueline "Jackie" CochranFirst Lady, Eleanor Roosevelt
44Women Airforce Service Pilots In May 1940, another women pilot, Nancy Harkness Love, made a similar proposal to the Army’s Air Corps Ferrying Command.She suggested that about 50 very experienced female flyers could ferry planes for the Army from factories to air bases to relieve male pilots of this duty.Nancy Harkness Love
45Jackie Cochran was able to convince an officer to let her help deliver a plane to England In June 1941, Jackie Cochran was the first woman allowed to fly a military aircraft across the Atlantic (although she was not allowed to handle the takeoff and landing). She ended up staying an England, volunteering for the British Air Transport Auxiliary
46Both Love and Cochran ended up running Air programs for the U. S Both Love and Cochran ended up running Air programs for the U.S. Military
47WAC-Women’s Auxiliary Corps Officially not a part of the Army- at firstThey took over non-violent jobs to free up menTheir job list included adjutant, administrative, bombing records, civilian classification, cryptography, engineering exchange, fiscal and budget, information and filter center, insurance, intelligence, laundry management, legal, mess, meteorology, message center, motion picture, motor transport, music, personnel, photography, postal, public relation registrar, ration, signal officer, special services, statistical, school secretary and supply.WAC-Women’s Auxiliary CorpsMore than 200,000 women worked more than 239 different jobs!
56NavajoObjective:Evaluate the roles of Minorities and their contributions to WWII for AmericaStd
57Navajo Code talkersDuring war, it is important for commanders to communicate with each otherSecure and secret communication systems were slow and expensiveWWI vet, Philip Johnson, stumbled upon the idea that Navajo’s could be secret messengers
58Navajo Code talkersThe idea came to him while reading a newspaper article about NA participation during WWIIHe grew up on a Navajo Reservation and was fluent in their language and cultureThe Navajo language does not have an alphabet or symbolsIt is also complex and very difficult to learnIt was estimated that fewer than 30 non-Navajo people in the world were familiar with the language
59Navajo Code talkersHe took his idea to the military, where it was quickly welcomedA demonstration was set up. A 3 sentence code was transmitted and decoded in 20 seconds. It would have taken a machine a half hour to do the same task29 Navajos were recruitedThese recruits were successful, hundreds more were requestedAn estimated 400 code talkers worked in the Pacific Campaign
60Navajo Code talkersDuring the battle of Iwo Jima, six code talkers transmitted 800 messages over two days, all without errorA major, who was at the battle, later stated that if it were not for the code talkers, the Marines may have been defeated at Iwo JimaA captured Navajo soldier was asked by the Japanese to interpret the code. Although he understood some of the words they were using, it didn’t make any sense to him.
61Navajo Code talkersThe code talkers activities were classified until 1968They have been honored several timesIn 1992, they were honored at a ceremony in the Pentagon. A permanent exhibit is set up there.In 2001, President Bush honored them at a White House ceremonyThe original 29 were given gold medals and the others were given silver medalsThey also have a statue honoring their contributions in Phoenix Arizona
63English: America Attack Submarine Navajo CodeEnglish: America Attack SubmarineNavajo: Ne-ha-mah al-ta-je-jay besh-loLiteral: Our mother attack iron fish
64BraceroObjective:Evaluate the roles of Minorities and their contributions to WWII for AmericaStd
65Mexicans and Mexican Americans Contributions of Mexicans and Mexican Americans in WWIIMore than 300,000 Mexican Americans served in the U.S. Army during WWIIMore than 17,000 Mexicans and Mexican Americans worked in the Los Angeles shipyards during WWII
66The Bracero ProgramMore than 200,000 Mexicans came to the U.S. to work as farmers – they replaced the labor shortage due to the warUnfortunately, they suffered through terrible working conditions and low wages. Many companies cheated them out of a portion of their wages.
67ImportanceWorld War I and World War II brought about changes for minorities and women because these conflicts led tothe creation of new job opportunitiesthe passage of the Equal Rights Amendmenta greater number of high-level management positionsgreater integration in housing and schools throughout the nation
68ClosureThe experiences of African Americans serving in the military forces during World War II influenced their postwar decision torenew support for the principle of separate but equaljoin the armed forces in record numbersincrease efforts to end racial discriminationmove back to the rural south
69ClosureWith respect to finding better jobs, the war years marked a period of ___ for African Americans.declineadvancestagnationuncertainty
70ClosureWhich statement best describes the contribution made by many Navajo soldiers toward winning the war in the Pacific?They became kamikazes, suicide pilots, intentionally crashing planes into Japanese ships.They served as code talkers, using the Navajo language for military communications.They helped develop the Manhattan Project - a secret program to build an atomic bomb.They used Navajo technology for island hopping, using captured islands as a base.
71Closure Which description best defines the Tuskegee Airmen? Mexican Americans who volunteered for service and trained in Tuskegee, Alabamaan elite troop of fliers from Tuskegee, Alabama, trained for the most dangerous missionsAfrican-American pilots who trained at Tuskegee, Alabama, and fought bravely overseasAfrican-American pilots, trained at Tuskegee, Alabama, who never saw action overseas