Rationing during WWII Rationing was a system that provided everyone with the same amount of scarce goods. Some things were scarce because they were needed to supply the military - gas, oil, metal, meat and other foods They didn't make Coca-Cola during the war because sugar was so scarce. Other things disappeared entirely as well, like silk stockings. Everyone was given a ration book. Each book had a bunch of ration stamps in it.
Rationing continued Grocers and other business people would post what your ration stamps could buy that week. It was up to you to decide how to spend your stamps. Ration books became a way of life for everyone at home during World War II You had to have ration stamps to buy things at the store. It still cost money, but you couldn't even buy it unless you had stamps.
North Africa On November 8, 1942, the Allies launched Operation Torch- code name for their invasion of North Africa British and American forced carried out an amphibious landing on the coast of North Africa which involved more than 100,000 men and over 600 ships The successful mission allowed the Allies to take more than 1,000 miles of North African coastline The Allies were able to launch an attack on Southern Europe from North Africa
Allied Invasion of Italy From July 10, 1943-July 22, 1943 U.S. and British forces began Operation Husky- code name for Allied invasion of the island of Sicily using gliders, parachutes, and boats The next day, July 23, 1943, Italy’s fascist ruler Benito Mussolini was ousted in a peaceful coup On September 8, 1943 Italy announced its unconditional surrender to the Allies As Allied forces advanced through southern Italy, German forces resisted in central Italy forming the Winter Line- a fortified line of German forces which resisted Allied advance for six months After months of bombing and considerable casualties on both sides, the Allies forced the Germans to northern Italy and Rome was liberated from German occupation on June 4, 1944
D-day Beginning in 1943, Allied forces led by U.S. general Dwight D. Eisenhower had been planning an invasion of France The Germans had anticipated such and invasion and began building the Atlantic Wall- a series of heavily armed fortifications all along the French coast The Allies instigated a mass disinformation campaign in hopes of directing German forces away from the actual landing point Double agents in Britain (former German spies) helped to convince the German leadership that the invasion would take place near Calais, the point where the English Channel was narrowest, while in fact the invasion was targeted farther south in Normandy
D-day Before dawn on June 6, 1944 175,000 allied soldiers began to come ashore along a 60 mile coast of Normandy, France Overnight 20,000 British and American airborne troops had been dropped by parachute and glider a short distance inland of the coast and were ordered to do as much damage as possible to the German fortified coastal defenses Over 6,000 boats, 11,000 airplanes, along with motorcycles, tanks and bulldozers were used to invade occupied France via Normandy Although the Allies faced heavy casualties, they were successful in securing the landing areas in the first day
The Battle of the Bulge continued The Battle of the Bulge was the largest battle in Western Europe during WWII and the largest battle ever fought by the U.S. Army 600,000 GIs, 80,000 were killed, wounded or captured German losses totaled about 100,000 The Battle of the Bulge was the last German offensive of the war The road into Germany was now open The Allies now saw first hand what had been happening in Nazi Germany
The Holocaust When Allied forces entered Germany in 1945, the uncovered Hitler’s planned effort to wipe out Jews, Slavs, Gypsies, Communists and homosexuals referred to as the Holocaust In 1942 Hitler put in place what he called his “final solution” to eliminate Jews in Nazi Germany and its territories Nazi soldiers rounded up Jews from all over Europe and sent them to concentration camps Prisoners were subjected to slave labor, medical experiments, and other atrocities
F.D.R. and the Holocaust Although news of the Holocaust was reaching the Allies in 1942, it was not until Allied forces invaded Germany that it was discovered that more than six million Jews and several million others died in Nazi concentration camps. F.D.R. is criticized by some as having known of the horrors of the Holocaust and not acting fast enough to stop it
V-E Day As Allied forces pushed into German-occupied lands from the west, Soviet troops pushed in from the east April 12, 1945 F.D.R. died and Vice President Harry S. Truman became president April 30, 1945 Hitler killed himself in his bombproof bunker in Berlin May 7, 1945 Germany surrendered to the Allies The Allies declared May 8, 1945 V-E Day or Victory in Europe Day
F.D.R. dies Harry Truman become president August 1939- F.D.R. received a letter from Albert Einstein warning that physicists in Germany could be developing a powerful new type of bomb called the atomic bomb. Manhattan Project- top secret program for the United States to develop an atomic bomb before Germany. The project was led by Dr. J. Robert Oppenheimer. April 12, 1945- President Franklin Delano Roosevelt died of a cerebral hemorrhage. Vice President Harry S. Truman (1882-1972) is sworn in as president. April 24, 1945- Truman is told of the Manhattan Project by Secretary of War Henry L. Stimson