Presentation on theme: "Job design involves systematic attempt to organize tasks, duties and responsibilities into a unit of work to achieve certain objectives. Job design is."— Presentation transcript:
Job design involves systematic attempt to organize tasks, duties and responsibilities into a unit of work to achieve certain objectives. Job design is the process of a) Deciding the contents of the job. b) Deciding methods to carry out the job. c) Deciding the relationship which exists in the organization.
Job design is the conscious efforts to organize tasks, duties and responsibilities into one unit of work. It involves › identification of individual tasks › specification of methods of performing the tasks › combination of tasks into specific jobs to be assigned to individuals
JOB REDESIGN - aimed at reducing or overcoming job dissatisfaction and employee alienation arising from repetitive and mechanistic tasks. Through job redesign, organizations try to raise productivity levels by offering non-monetary rewards such as greater satisfaction from a sense of personal achievement in meeting the increased challenge and responsibility of one's work. Job enlargement, job enrichment, job rotation, are the various techniques used in a job design exercise.
The complexity of the work - to be carried out, both in terms of its variety or breadth and its technical difficulty or depth. The work processes involved -It might be desirable for one person to be involved in an entire process, or the work flows may be such that the work process has to be divide between several different people. The nature of the people currently employed in the organization-The extent to which jobs can be redesigned depend largely on the kind of people employed
The timescales - where immediate responses are required. The geographical scattering of the organization’s activities. The effect of information technology The growth level of an organization & available The level of resources available expertise need to perform a task. Availability of human resource in the environment.
Engineering Approach › The most important single element in the Engineering approaches, proposed by FW Taylor, was the task idea. › “The work of every workman is fully planned out by the management at least one day in advance and each man receives in most cases complete written instructions, describing in detail the task which he is to accomplish
The scientific management principle › Work should be scientifically studied › Fragmentation and routinization of work will reap the advantages of specialization › Work should be arranged so that workers can be efficient
Employees selected for work should be matched to the demands of the job › Employees should be trained to perform the job › Monetary compensation should be used to reward successful performance of the job
› Walker and Guest Repetition: Performing a few tasks repeatedly led to boredom Mechanical pacing: Assembly line workers were compelled to maintain a certain regular pace of work and could not take needed breaks
No end product: Not turning out any identifiable end product led to less enthusiasm in work Little social interaction: Because the assembly line demanded constant attention, there was very little opportunity to interact on a casual basis and share work experiences
No input: No opportunity to choose the methods for performing their jobs the tools which they used the work procedures This created little interest in the job because there was nothing which employees could improve or change
Hackman and Oldham - Employees will work hard when they are rewarded for the work they do when the work gives them satisfaction
Any job can be described in terms of five core job dimensions: › Skill variety: The degree to which the job requires workers to use a variety of different › activities › talents › skills in order to successfully complete the job requirements
› Task identity: The degree to which the job allows workers to complete whole tasks from start to finish, rather than disjointed portions of the job › Task significance: The degree to which the job significantly impacts the lives of others both within and outside the workplace
› Autonomy: The degree to which the job allows workers freedom in planning, scheduling and the methods used to complete the job › Feedback: The degree to which the job itself provides workers with clear, direct and understandable knowledge of their performance
Modern management recognizes the disadvantages of highly specialized jobs - specialization increases cost of employee absenteeism and turnover, and decreases productivity and quality HR managers have to balance employees’ human needs and employers’ economic goals
Job design involves periodic assignment of an employee to completely different sets of job activities. job rotation is low in both impact and complexity because it typically moves employees from one routine job to another.
At McDonald's, cross-functional job rotations are encouraged, globally and in India. "It is a win- win situation -- win for the organization, the team and the employee," says Amit Jatia, joint venture partner and managing director, McDonald's, Western India
It is an effective way to develop multiple skills in employees, which benefits the organization while creating greater job interest and career options for the employee. Job rotation may be of considerable benefit if it is part of a larger redesign effort and/or it is used as a training and development approach to develop various employee competencies and prepare employees for advancement.
Job enlargement combines into one job with two or more tasks which are to be performed. Sometimes it is called “ horizontal loading” as all tasks involve the same level of responsibility.The job enlargement approach often has positive effects on employee effectiveness. However, some employees view job enlargement as just adding more routine, repetitive tasks to their already boring job. Other employees regard it as disturbing their time to perform their core jobs.
Job Enlargement is the horizontal expansion of a job. It involves the addition of tasks at the same level of skill and responsibility. It is done to keep workers from getting bored. It is different than job enrichment Thus the worker who previously only bolted the seat to legs might attach the back as well
Job enlargement and job rotation approaches are useful in many work settings. One of their biggest advantages is that : They offer a form of training. They allow workers to learn more than one task, thus increasing their value to the employer. As they allow workers to perform many tasks, they can be used more flexibly as circumstances require
Examples: Small companies may not have as many opportunities for promotions, so they try to motivate employees through job enlargement.
Frederick Herzberg, suggested a clear and distinct job design method called “job enrichment”. Job enrichment seeks to add profundity to a job by giving workers more control, responsibility, and freedom of choice over how their job is performed. It occurs when the work itself is more challenging, when there is prospect for growth, and when responsibility, feedback, and recognition are provided. Nonetheless, employees are the final judges of what enriches their jobs.
Herzberg developed the following set of principles for the enrichment of jobs: removing some controls while retaining accountability increasing personal accountability for work; assigning each worker a complete unit work with a clear start and end point; granting additional authority and freedom to workers; making periodic reports directly available to workers rather than to supervisors only; the introduction for new and more difficult tasks into the job
provide variety in terms of the kind of work carried out allow people to get direct feedback on results; allow scope for development by enabling the job to become bigger as the person becomes more skilled and knowledge; have clear objectives and outputs;
have clear reporting lines; give people some control over output and pace; give people the opportunity to comment and suggest changes to the work process; be supported by the appropriate level of resources and effective process