Presentation on theme: "Thailand I Campbell University Government/History 354."— Presentation transcript:
Thailand I Campbell University Government/History 354
Thailand United in mid-14 th Century as Siam. Took name Thailand in 1938. National religion is Theravada Buddhism. Became a constitutional monarchy in 1932. Subject of the Broadway musical,The King and I. Allied with U.S. during Vietnam conflict. Major R & R center; tourism and AIDS. Facing armed Muslim violence in South.
The King of Thailand Bhumiphol Adulyadej (Rama IX) –Born in U.S.A. in 1927; became king in 1946. –Father was a doctor; younger son of a younger son. Married Sirikit. –Played sax with Goodman & Armstrong. Wrote “Blue Night” –Still anachronistically considered a god by subjects. –Exercises great moral authority.
The King’s Role Politically – to moderate. Economically – to pioneer. –The Greening of Isarn. –Artificial rainmaking. –New strains of fish(tilapia), rice & tapioca (casava). –Irrigation projects and dams –Alternate crops for Hmong – cabbages, turnips, brussels sprouts, etc., instead of poppies. –Demonstration projects – dairy farming, bio-gas & forests. Traditional Mediator – hill tribesman’s complaint..
Questions What is the national religion of Thailand? With what major power was Thailand allied during the Vietnam conflict? Name the current king of Thailand. For how many years has he been king? Name the fish that the king pioneered raising commercially?
Nan Chao The Thais migrated over a period of 4,500 years from Mongolia to China and eventually to modern Thailand. Along the way, they established many kingdoms. Nan Chao in Yunnan Province. Is the oldest Thai kingdom. Forced to migrate by the 13 th Century Mongol invasion of China.
Sukhothai Sukhothai was founded in 1238 thru a revolt against the Ankgor Khmer Empire. King Rama Khamheng extended the kingdom to encompass parts of Laos, Cambodia & the Korate plateau. He created the Thai alphabet & adopted the divine monarchy concept. A rock inscription reads, “This Muang Sukhothai is good. In the water there are fish; in the field there is rice.”.
Lan Na & Ayudhya Lan Na founded by Mangrai in 1296 in the mountainous north. Encompassed parts of Burma and south China. The capital was Chang Mai. Ayudhya (Ayutthaya) founded by Ramadhipati (the law giver) in 1351 on the Menam River. Had been part of the Khmer Angkor kingdom. Ayudhya succeeded in eventually conquering the Khmer kingdom in 1431 & Sukhothai in 1438.
Ayudhya King Trailok had a lasting impact on the country’s administrative and social structure. –Converted (feudal style) principalities into provinces, each headed by a chao phraya (governor). Local armies were placed under central control. –Established a departmental system for the central administration: Interior, Local Gov. (capital), Finance (& foreign trade), Agriculture, Palace & Justice. –Organized society based on sakdi na (field power)grades. Amount of land held determined social position and status in legal system. –The Palatine Law of 1458 dealing with royalty.
Ayudhya Ayudhya was sacked in 1569 by a Burmese coalition including Lan Na and Lan Xang (Laos). Thai independence restored by King Naresuan the Great, who personally killed the Crown Prince of Burma in a dual.conducted on the elephant back. Ayudhya became a very prosperous entrepot for European, Indian and Asian trade. Employed several hundred foreigners as experts (weapons) and advisors. Was receptive to Catholic missionaries. The “Revolution” of 1688 was a succession dispute over the replacement of King Narai, who had no heir. Led to a new dynasty under King Phetracha.
Ayudhya’s Last Dynasty (1688-1767) The “revolution” contained a strong anti foreign, particularly anti-French, anti-Catholic element, and led to the execution of Constantine Phaulkon, the king’s pro- French Greek advisor. Troops had already been garrisoned in Thailand near Bangkok as part of a plot to make it a French protectorate. Fear of foreign influence, especially European, marked the remainder of the Ayudhya period. Moors and Chinese tended to replace Europeans as experts and advisors King’s role as “principal” trader continued: India for textiles, Japan and China, Java for horses, Europe for weapons – muskets & cannon.
Bangkok The Burmese sacked Ayudhya again in 1767. Destruction and looting were extensive; 30, 000 prisoners were taken. King Phya Taksin restored and enlarged the the kingdom and established Bangkok as the new capital. Chaophraya Chakri replaced Taksin in a coup in 1782. He became Rama I of the Chakri Dynasty.
Questions What was the name of the Thai kingdom that existed in China? Name the three great founding kings of Thailand. Which one invented the Thai alphabet? Which instituted Sakdi Na? What was the Sakdi Na system? Name the capital of Lan Na? The Revolution of 1688 led to the death of what European adventurer? What was the name of the king who founded Bangkok? Who founded the current Thai dynasty?
Maintaining Thai Independence Both the French and the British were real threats. The British in Burma, the French in Laos, Cambodia & Vietnam. Ultimately, Thailand was saved by becoming a buffer state. The King and I portrays a real effort to modernize Thailand. The king was Mongkut, Rama IV. Anna was Anna Leonowens. The king’s son was Chulalongkorn, Rama V.
Foreign Pressure The Thais were under very real pressure from the French and British. –In 1867, the Thais were forced to relinquish their clams to Cambodia in exchange for recognition of their suzerainty over Battambang and Siem Reap. –Fighting between French and Thai forces in Laos led to French gunboats blockaded Bangkok. The Thais were forced to cede Laos to the French in 1893. –In 1907, Chulalongkorn was forced to cede Battambang and Siem Reap to the French. –In 1909, the Thais had to surrender five states in the northern Malay peninsula to Britain
Maintaining Thai Independence Anglo-Thai Treaty of 1855 –Tariff control on imports & exports. –Extraterritoriality. –Most-favored-nation. Modernizaton - Mongkut 1851-1868). –Study of foreign languages. –Foreign advisors from many countries. –Minted coinage. –Eliminated prostration for foreigners.
Maintaining Thai Independence Modernization – Chulalongkorn (1868-1910) –Foreign education of princess. –Eliminated prostration for all subjects. –Regulate debt slavery. –Controlled sale of opium. –Construction of first RR. –Governmental administration overhauled. –Codified and published penal code –Established a judicial system. –Streamlined court procedures. –Opened public schools.
Maintaining Thai Independence The London Declaration by the British and French in 1893 guaranteeing the independence and integrity of the Menam basin. 1897 Thai promise to Britain not to cede rights to Isthmus of Kra that could result in a canal, thereby threatening the commercial value of Singapore. 1909 agreement by British to replace jurisdiction of counselor courts with bi-national courts.
Maintaining Thai Independence Entered WWI on side of allies. In 1919, became only Southeast Asian member of League of Nations. In 1922, U.S abandoned rights of extraterritoriality; other powers followed.
Continued Modernization Maja Vajiravudh, Rama VI (1910-1925) –Was a British educated Anglophile. Highly nationalistic and anti-Chinese, in particular. –Sponsored Wild Tigers program to instill nationalism. –Modernization thru monogamy and western attire. –Compulsory primary education & Chulalongkorn U. Prajadhipok, Rama VII (1925-1935) –Revived Privy Council and Supreme Council of State. –Built Don Muang airport, improved public health facilities, promoted Thai banking & established a new national library and museum.
Questions The King & I portrays a time in history when Thailand feared_______ by _____ & ______. What was the name of the king in the King & I? Who was the son who succeeded him? Name the agreement between European powers that guaranteed Thai independence. Why was Britain concerned about the disposition of the Isthmus of Kra? Who was the king who promoted wearing western attire and compulsory primary education?
Thai Democracy 1932 Revolution led by the “Promoters.” Established a constitutional monarchy. Included a bicameral parliamentary system with separation of powers. Since 1932, 13 revolutions, 8 constitutions & 30 plus changes of administration. Reign of military dictators as prime ministers. –Pridi Phanamyong (1933)&Phraya Phahon (1934-8). Pridi’s attempt to nationalize industry & commerce rejected. Anti Chinese sentiment. –Quota of 10,000/year & deportation of illegal aliens. –Reaction to large scale immigration & KMT assertiveness. Anti-foreign & anti Christian elements.
World War II –Phibun Songkhram (1938-1944) Militant Nationalism Sided with Germany & Japan in WWII –Declared war on France in 1941 demanding return of Battambang and Sien Reap. –Other territorial gains in Laos, Northern Malaya (4 states) & Shan region of Myanmar (2 states). –Free Thai movement. Thai ambassador to U.S. - Seni Pramoj. Secret negotiations with Allies – Pridi Phanamyong Returned all territory gained in WWII.
Bridge Over The River Kwai Located near Kanchanaburi
Cold War Years –In 1946, Pridi returns as P.M. Tenure cut short by King Ananda’s mysterious death. –1947-57 - Phibun once again P.M. Restricts Chinese immigration to 200/year and outlaws Communist Party. Strong pro-U.S., anti-Chinese & N.Vietnamese foreign policy. Becomes a key member of SEATO in 1954.. –1958-63 - Sarit Thanarat rules as P.M. Overturns Phibun on issue of election irregularities, but discards Thai constitution and legislature. Highly authoritarian. Emphasized economic development, increased standard of living & improved infrastructure. 1962 - Rusk-Thanat Assistance Agreement: Granted over $1 Billion in aid, permitted building U.S. bases, stationed 50,000 troops in Thailand and committed 12,000 Thai troops.
Vietnam Conflict –1963-73 - Marshall Thanon Kittikachorn is P.M. 1964 - Contingency Plan for S.E.A. Defense. 1965 - China & North Vietnam retaliate for support of U.S. military with increased insurgency pressure (14,000+/-) –Thai Independence Movement. –Thai Patriotic Front. 1967 - ASEAN established in Bangkok. 1968 - U.S. announces it will seek negotiated settlement of Vietnam conflict. 1969 – Thais asked U.S.to reduce troop levels. 1970 - Concluded trade agreement with USSR. 1971 - Joins ASEAN members in declaring SEA a peace zone.
Nixon Visits China –1969 New constitution adopted by Thanom Kittikachorn’s government and elections held. –1971 Nixon visits China. Turned world upside- down. Blindsided the Thais. Thai public reacts with extreme criticism of its own government. Thai government reacts by abrogating the constitution, dissolving the legislature & abridging personal freedoms. Political activity banned. Thanon Kittikachorn
Questions Who were the Promoters; what did they want? Between 1932 and 1958, Thailand was ruled by which three men who alternated as P.M.s and cabinet members? Which side did Thailand take during WW II? Why? What were the key provisions of the Rusk-Thanat Assistance Agreement? How did China respond to Thailand’s support of the U.S. during the Vietnam conflict? What was the impact on Thailand of Nixon’s visit to China in 1971? Which P.M. after he died in 1963 was found to have been keeping 100+ mistresses at government expense?