Presentation on theme: "AUSTRIA-HUNGARY >earni>. Austria faced problems similar to Russia in 1800s – Numerous languages, cultures, no modern government – Feudal system still."— Presentation transcript:
Austria faced problems similar to Russia in 1800s – Numerous languages, cultures, no modern government – Feudal system still in place, censorship used, arrests of critics – Ruled by a royal family for centuries and did not embrace modernization
Revolution of 1848 – showed weakness of government … National assembly and constitution created – Did not last because groups were not united – Minister of Foreign Affairs von Metternich worked to put down ethnic groups, radicals
Francis Joseph comes to the throne for 68 year reign He works to restore the old order – conservative, dissolves revolutionary assembly and rejected the constitution – Austria loses land in – 1850s and 1860s in – war
1867 – Franz Joseph grants Hungary some freedoms – Dual Monarchy created – he is king of Austrian Empire and Kingdom of Hungary Two nations share foreign affairs, money but not internal affairs … each with own constitution, parliament and prime minister Reliant on each other economically (Austria had manufacturing and Hungary had food products)
– System worked for a while, but problems erupted – 3/5 of people in A-H were Slavs with no rights (Poles, Slovaks, Czechs, Serbs, Montenegrins, Bosnians all wanted a Slav kingdom)
The Balkan Region of Europe known as “powder keg of Europe” – Region of ethnic/religious hatred for 100s of years (even war in 1990s) – Where Muslim world meets Christian world … where differing forms of Christianity (Catholic and Orthodox) meet … centuries of war, bloodshed, massacres.
Map of the Balkan Peninsula
– Ottoman Empire (Muslim) had dominated for centuries, but in decline in mid-1800s – Romania, Serbia, Bulgaria rise up … Turks brutally putting down revolts Russia comes to aid of fellow Slavs against Turks in Serbia Great Britain wants to contain Russia so joins in on side of Turks (France and others join and beat Russia in Crimean War in 1854)
A-H Empire tries to take advantage of this and take land Various ethnic groups in this region want independence – Serbia, Bosnia, Croatia (today independent states)
1877 Russia goes to war with Turkey “on behalf of Slavic people” and wins large piece of Bulgaria … Treaty of San Stefano angers many in Europe … particularly Britain who fears Russian expansion – Jingoism (extreme patriotism, usually provoked by perceived foreign threat, comes from British song) became the mood of Europe by late 1800s “We don’t want to fight but by Jingo if we do We’ve got the ships, we’ve got the men, we’ve got the money too We’ve fought the Bear before, and while we’re Britans true The Russians shall not have Constantinople”
Congress of Berlin tries to establish stability, but pleases nobody By early 1900s … Balkan League of Nations defeats Turkey in 1912 war – Its own members turn on each other by 1913 – France, Britain, Germany all try to contain these conflicts Fear Russia or A-H getting too powerful
By the beginning of the 20 th century, it is clear that this region of Europe would be the likely place that a huge war would erupt.
Steps to WWI Think back to everything we have talked about during our Nationalism Unit….. Identify and explain how the actions of these countries led to WWI
Which of the following is not accurate about Austria-Hungary prior to WWI? 1.More than one nationality 2. Dual monarchy 3. Agricultural and Industrial bases 4. Unified under one religion