Presentation on theme: "2 0 1 3 A n n u a l C h i l d A b u s e C o u n c i l S p r i n g C o n f e r e n c e “Strengthening the Social and Emotional Health of Children?” Depression."— Presentation transcript:
2 0 1 3 A n n u a l C h i l d A b u s e C o u n c i l S p r i n g C o n f e r e n c e “Strengthening the Social and Emotional Health of Children?” Depression is Adolescents’ Greatest Risk Greg Billiard, LMSW Marilyn Cleary, RN Randy Koch, LPC Michael Lucido, PHD Suicide Prevention Workgroup
Suicide Prevention Workgroup Human Services Coordinating Body of Charlevoix & Emmet Counties
Mental Health Defined: Mental health is a state of well-being in which an individual realizes his or her own abilities, can cope with the normal stresses of life, can work productively and is able to make a contribution to his or her community. In this positive sense, mental health is the foundation for individual well-being and the effective functioning of a community. World Health Organization
If you have good mental wellness you: are in control of your thoughts & behaviors; feel positive about yourself; have good relationships; keep problems in perspective; have both self-awareness and self-control If you have good mental wellness you: are in control of your thoughts & behaviors; feel positive about yourself; have good relationships; keep problems in perspective; have both self-awareness and self-control
Adolescents are exposed to increased rates of stressful life experiences and there is some evidence that increases in stressors account, at least in part, for the increased rates of psychological problems associated with this developmental period. Stress and Mental Health Problems Grant, K.E. at el. 2005
Youth Today May feel overwhelmed by the emotional & physical changes they are going through. PRESSURES: Fitting in o Relationships o Body changes Bullying especially Cyber-bullying (e.g., facebook)!!! o Teens/young adults are committing suicide with a significant history of being victimized in bullying. o Playground/bus incident-re-victimized Performing well o Academics/job o Family o Sports
A Tragedy: Alex Harrison Cadillac, MI- Alex was a bright and truly gifted who was taking college level courses He never told anyone about being bullied o Tennis team called him names- “Creeper” o Student said, “Don’t you know everyone hates you” At the age of 16, he shot himself at 2 am. Parents advocate for anti-bullying programs to prevent more casualties. http://www.eyesonbullying.org/
When transitioning from childhood into adulthood, youth may struggle with being dependent while wanting to be independent. They “try-on” styles, ideas & friends as they define themselves.
Symptoms of Stress Feeling tired for no good reason Headaches; body pains Eating more or less than usual Trouble sleeping More colds than usual Flashes of anger / tears Irritability Sad, moody, lonely Forgetful, trouble concentrating, cloudy thinking
Mental disorder is a term for psychophysiological disorders affecting mood, thought, or behavior. 1 in 5 will have a mental health disorder. 1 in 10 will be a severe impairment. About 3 children in a class of 30 will have a mental health condition that needs treatment. Common in children include: Depression Bipolar Disorder OCD Conduct Disorder Oppositional Defiant Eating Disorders Anxiety/Phobias/PTSD/OCD Autism Spectrum Conditions ADHD Tourette’s
What is the deadliest mental disorder for teens?
DEPRESSIONDEPRESSION Major Depressive Disorder is the leading disease related cause of death in the U.S. for ages 11-24 More than 90 percent of people who take their lives have a diagnosable mental disorder, most commonly a depressive disorder and/or a substance abuse disorder. National Institute of Mental Health
Terminal Depression: Suicide According to the CDC, 1,386 children and adolescents between the ages 13 to 18 committed suicide. According to the Journal of Adolescent Health, 1 in 8 teenagers had persistent suicidal thoughts at some point and a third of those made an attempt. 40% of adolescents who have attempted to take their own life admitted they first tried to kill themselves prior to high school. A Harvard study found that 55% of adolescents who plan or attempt suicide have had at least some mental health treatment prior to the attempt which contradict the notion that they lacked treatment services.
Bipolar Disorder A third of children with depression have misdiagnosed bipolar Often presents as ADHD Manic episode must last 1 week o Typically not up and down throughout the day Impulsive, lack judgment Rage, defiant, disrespect property Rapid mood swings- many times a day Elevated, expansive, irritable mood Grandiosity “I hate myself!” Distractible Decreased need for sleep Increased talking Racing thoughts Increased activity, agitation Engage in Risky behaviors Possible psychosis
Be aware of the factors that put youth at risk. Family history of depression Substance abuse, chronic illness, death/loss, disabilities, absent parent/family conflict Personality traits that change dramatically can signal trouble Impulsive, obsessiveness, fears, aggression, antisocial, poor social skills, poor self worth, overachieving, pressure to perform Personal competence (learning disability, ADHD) Medical conditions such as hypothyroid may increase risk Social events that contribute to problems and stress Loss experienced, problems with friends, rejection, pregnancy, financial issues, or relocations/moves to another location
Biological Basis Significant genetic loading with higher rates when a first degree relative has depression of 34% Serotonin hypothesis with dysregulated levels This is the reason for selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) treatment in depression.
Depression Leads to Impaired Immunity and Neurotransmission
PET Scan Imaging Comparison Comparing brain activity during depression with normal brain activity. o An increase of blue and green colors, along with decreased white and yellow areas, shows decreased brain activity due to depression. o PET scans measures blood flow and volume, oxygen usage, tissue acidity (pH), and glucose metabolism.
Development of Depression ADHD diagnosis 4-6 y/o increases risk for depression. Children – o Do not verbalize depressive thoughts o More physical complaints or exaggerated when sick or aching o More irritability, o Uncooperativeness, apathy, disinterested o Lower rate of hypersomnia and more psychomotor agitation Adolescents- o Hopelessness, verbalize symptoms, hypersomnia, weight loss o Decrease with age- appear depressed, somatic complaints, low self- esteem o Increase with age-anhedonia, psychomotor retardation, diurnal variation o Major depressive disorder onset at 14. Milder depression seen at around 11 Girls have longer depressive episodes than boys.
Signs and Symptoms of Depression Sadness and hopelessness Most children/adolescents deny depression Poor performance or failing performance in school Withdrawal from friends and activities Lack of enthusiasm, energy or motivation Anger, overreaction to criticism, problems with authority Feelings of being unable to satisfy ideals Poor self-esteem or guilt Indecision, lack of concentration or forgetfulness Restlessness and agitation Changes in eating or sleeping patterns Substance abuse Severe symptoms cause paranoia and hallucinations
Behavioral Signs Disruptive Social withdrawal/loss of interests Fearful Crying Falling asleep in class Cutting/self-injury Low energy/exhaustion Restlessness Insomnia/hypersomnia Increase/decrease in appetite Complains about illnesses & pain Cuts/burns/bruises (wear sweaters to hide)
Things you may see in school Unexplained drop in performance Overly invested in achieving good grades Loss of interest in activities like sports or games Turning in poor quality work Low tolerance for frustration/gives up easily Complains of being tired and fatigued Unmotivated/can’t finish work Changes in attendance Apathetic Disrespect Aggression
Cognitive Signs Cognitive errors o catastrophizing, personalization, overgeneralization o Negative triad- self, world, and future. Negative self-talk Problems concentrating Forgetful Indecisiveness & Confusion Negative memory bias Hopelessness Helplessness Worthlessness Severe depression leads to psychotic symptoms such as hallucinations/delusions (less common)
I ncreased Risk for Depression Mixed with Substance Abuse What came first, the chicken or the Egg? Self-medication? Associated Risks Impact of Alcohol and Marihuana Use
The Survey Says: 33 percent of 8 th graders & 70 percent of 12 th graders in the United States said they tried alcohol at some time in their lives (SAMSHA 2012) 6.5 percent of 8th graders, 17.0 percent of 10th graders, and 22.9 percent of 12th graders had used marijuana in the past month (NIDA 2012) Perception of risk: Alcohol ~ 39.3% in 2007 to 40.7% in 2011& Marihuana ~ 11.1% in 2004 to 7.4% in 2011(NSDUH 2012) Significant differences by sex in the perceived danger of using marihuana and alcohol
Perception of Great Risk from Using Selected Substances Once or Twice a Week Adolescents Aged 12 to 17, by Gender: 2011
Alcohol 56.8% of males aged 12 or older were current drinkers; 47.1% of females (NSDUH 2011) Impulsivity and aggression are strongly implicated in suicidal behavior - Alcohol use impairs reasoning & increases impulsive behavior Evidence suggests association between: aggression ~ serotonin deficiency AND between aggression ~ alcohol consumption (Columbia University) 35% of students who reported alcohol use prior to age 13 had increased risk for violent behaviors and significant increase in suicide attempts (SAMHSA 2012)
Marihuana THC affects the nerve cells in the part of the brain where memories are formed Marihuana affects self-control & decision making abilities Chronic/heavy use (3 or more times per week) increases likelihood of depression, anxiety and panic attack Cannabis dependence = 2.9 times as likely to think about suicide without attempting it & 2.5 times as likely to make a suicide attempt (Michael Lynskey, PhD, Washington University School of Medicine 2012) The Double Whammy ~ Cannabis withdrawal increases anxiety, depression, insomnia, irritability
Other Considerations… Alcohol & Marijuana ~ gateways to other substance use Additional risk taking behaviors Impaired social and academic functioning Increased injury or death from accidents Para-suicidal behaviors Family History Don’t forget the synthetics: Spice/K2 & Bath Salts
What is professional help? Early intervention does begin in early elementary school. What is professional help? Evaluation and diagnosis (Beck’s checklists, CBCL, Conner’s, MMPI-A, observation reports) Psychotherapy o Individual therapy like cognitive behavioral therapy o Family therapy (PMTO) o Group therapy (youth groups) Psychopharmacological interventions Special academic support o 504 o IEP
Who are licensed professionals? Physician Psychiatrist Psychologist Clinical counselor* Social worker* School psychologist* *(may have limitations for service)
Depression is Treatable Early intervention does begin in early elementary school Depression can be effectively treated with a combination of psychotherapy and antidepressants. Mild depression may be treated with psychotherapy alone, but serious episodes may require medication. For the treatment to be fully effective, it is critical that the treatment continue for several months or longer. One half of the children diagnosed with depression are likely to have a relapse over a five-year follow-up Young people who suffer from depression are also likely to suffer from depression in their adult lives. Early interventions are critical! University of Michigan Depression Center (2010)
Psychotropic Intervention Antidepressant medications have been historically helpful Includes MAOIs, tricyclics, SSRI, SNRI, and other medications that have similar effects on serotonin. May have side effects such as increased irritability and have “black box” warnings for risk of suicide. Only medication proven to be helpful in preventing suicidal ideations and behaviors was lithium. Always monitor and/or administer the medication. o Often teens are unreliable even with their self care habits. Always be sure to right down questions, comments or other notes prior to talking with the doctor.
Psychotherapy Interventions Dialectal behavioral therapy provides reduction in self harm behaviors. o Cognitive behavioral therapy approach- acceptance based strategies, skills training, motivational enhancement, generalization outside of clinical setting, structure of environment, and group facilitation. o Very problem-solving focused and on emotional regulation with validation, mindfulness and acceptance. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) for Adolescent Depression o The use of concrete examples to illustrate points, education about the nature of psychotherapy and socialization to the treatment model, active exploration autonomy and trust issues, focus on cognitive distortions and affective shifts that occur during sessions, and acquisition of problem-solving, affect-regulation, and social skills. o The treatment program is delivered in 12 to 16 weekly sessions. Interpersonal Psychotherapy for Depressed Adolescents o Short term manual driven treatment for ages 12-18 for mild to moderate depression. o Improves adolescents' communication and social problem-solving skills to increase their personal effectiveness and satisfaction with current relationships. o Identifies risk factors like separation from parents, development of dyadic relationships, death of a relative or friend, peer pressure, single-parent families. o Parental involvement is strongly encouraged (but not mandatory).
School-Based Interventions Red Flags Program o Mental health awareness program for middle/Jr high schools o Teaches signs of depression & other mental health issues o Encourages peers to react and get help for others Zippy's Friends o School-based mental health program for children ages 5-7. o Teacher 24 weekly sessions, each 45-60 minutes o Identifying and describing feelings; communication; friendship; bullying/conflict resolution; change/loss; and coping. TeenScreen o Middle to high school age youth with undetected mental illness. o 10-minute screen for teens at risk for suicide or mental illness. o A clinical interview and onsite mental health professional. o If need is beyond school based support then referral to more in depth mental health evaluation.
When you suspect a problem... Ask questions Listen Don’t ignore the signs If you have a “hunch”, ask others to gain perspective. Trust your instincts! Educate yourself Discuss concern with parent Encourage them to get it “checked out”
Teach Young People To… Learn to identify problems or stress agents Practice coping strategies o emphasize self-responsibility and offer positive, nondestructive ways of finding relief Find good listeners Express feelings Communicate problems Develop problem solving skills Set goals and make plans to achieve them Act positively to assist their friends/peers Recognize their own warning signs
1. ASK Take it seriously. 70% of who commit suicide give warnings. Be willing to listen. 2. Care Voice your concern. Take the initiative to ask what is troubling, and attempt to overcome any reluctance to talk. Let the person know you care and understand. Asking about suicide does not cause suicide. 3. TELL get professional help immediately. If the person is unwilling to accept treatment get them to a local emergency room or community mental health center. They will be more likely to seek help if you accompany. Stop a Suicide-Screening for Mental Health (2010) ACT: Ask, Care, & Tell
Survivors of Suicide Support Group Attending monthly at the Vital Care Hospice of Little Traverse Bay in the Hiland Cottage Petoskey, MI 6-7:30 pm and every second Tuesday of the month (next meeting May 14) Provides support for after the loss of suicide Facilitated by a therapists and survivor
Final Thought It is through awareness and recognition of adolescent stress, depression and mental health that parents and caring adults engage youth positively and constructively to stimulate their emotional development.
Resources Local Healthcare Practitioners First line support/referral service Third Level Crisis Center (800) 442-7315 North Country CMH Access Center (800) 834-3393 National Suicide Prevention Lifeline (800) 273-TALK Hospice of Little Traverse Bay-Survivors of Suicide Group (231) 487-4825 Michigan Department of Community Health National Institute of Mental Health SAMHSA for national resources