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Veijo Meisalo Department of Applied Sciences of Education An Introduction to the Concepts of Interest and Motivation IPUC TFPC Torun 2007 29274-IC-2-2005-1-AT-ERASMUS-

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Presentation on theme: "Veijo Meisalo Department of Applied Sciences of Education An Introduction to the Concepts of Interest and Motivation IPUC TFPC Torun 2007 29274-IC-2-2005-1-AT-ERASMUS-"— Presentation transcript:

1 Veijo Meisalo Department of Applied Sciences of Education An Introduction to the Concepts of Interest and Motivation IPUC TFPC Torun 2007 29274-IC-2-2005-1-AT-ERASMUS- IPUC-19

2 2 Structure of the presentation 1. Discussion of the problems of Physics and Chemistry Education, general background 2. Definition and classification of motivation and interest, how to motivate students… 3. Some surveys including international and Finnish research outcomes: ROSE International ROSE Finland Eurobarometer 2005

3 3

4 4 The problems of Physics and Chemistry Education as Discussed in International Conferences Too few students learn the contents or skills on the level of the goals written in the science curricula. Too few students choose facultative courses in upper secondary schools or in higher education. Physics is not interesting for students (especially girls), physics and schemistry are dull and difficult subjects. Teaching follows too often the model of transmission of knowledge, the pedagogical approaches are not versatile. Student practical work, teacher demonstrations and other experimental work are performed mechanically without thinking the goals. There are too much contents – never enough time! Modern ICT use in science learning is minimal.

5 5 Growing Ambivalence: The two faces of S&T Compare Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde! S&T in the service of the good; saving lives, improving material conditions, providing knowledge, pushing back ignorance and superstition, providing insight, wisdom and cultural values. But also: Providing tools for oppression and material and cultural domination, means for the exploitation of nature and weapons for mass destruction. As always …?

6 6 Classification of Models of Teaching by Joyce & Weil (on the basis of goals)

7 7 The Emphasis of the Experimental Approach as Expressed in the Finnish Core Curricula The Framework Curriculum of 1994 : 1. Experimental work may include laboratory work, demostrations and study visits 2. Experimental approach (action as well as narrative) is a pedagogical principle, where introduction to concepts, quantities,models, natural laws as well as making acquintance with applications is based on experimental information (emphasising concept formation). The Finnish Core Curriculum of 2004 emphasises supporting with experimental activities 1.Learning of concepts 2.Learning of experimental skills 3.Understanding the experimental nature of sciences 4.(motivation)

8 8 Student Interest Interest in the subject under study determines what is learned and how students learn (Krapp 2002). Individual and event-specific interest (cf. Krapp et al. 1992): 1. Individual interest is aroused gradually, it has an effect on both individual knowledge and values and it is rather stable. 2. Event-specific interest can be aroused very fast occasionally, it is emotional and may fade rapidly (Hidi 1990). There is a correlation between gender and interest: e.g. boys are more interested in physics and technology than girls.

9 9 How to Motivate Students? There are surveys and case studies on how interested students are in 1.sciences and science subjects as well as the themes under study, 2.In the contexts where science is met, 3.In pedagogical approaches (Hoffman, 2002; Osborne 2003) 4.In the relevance (e.g. further studies, working life). Arousing interest is one of the goals in the Finnish Core Curriculum 2004! There are also numerous textbooks giving practical advice for teachers, e.g. Davis, 2002, Tools for Teaching Jossey- Bass: San FranciscoJossey- Bass

10 Ten basic approaches to motivating students IPUC TFPC Torun 2007 Veijo Meisalo Department of Applied Sciences of Education

11 11 Ten basic approaches to motivating students 1. Fastening attention 2. Social motivation 3. Curiosity and usability as sources of motivation 4. Need for scaffolding 5. Optimal goals 6. Immediate feedback is the most efficient 7. Rewards and punishment motivate 8. Avoid excessive stress and anxiety 9. Behaviour models motivate striving towards professional objectives 10. Value discussion motivates for the appreciation of values

12 12 1. Fastening attention At the first stage of the teaching and learning situation the teacher will first draw the students' attention to her/himself Then moves it to the objectives of the beginning studies. One can use as a starting point in the fastening of the attention the normal routines and usages embedded in the working culture of the educational institution concerned at simplest for example by slight raising of her/his voice. Short videoclips or demonstrations are tried and found methods to fasten attention to the essentials.

13 13 2. Social motivation It should be pointed to the students what is expected from them. An attempt should be made to create active learning communities and an atmosphere of positive solidarity to efficient studying among the students. Team working skills should be developed to promote mutual support. The expectations of professional communities to lifelong learning and self-development should be discussed. The willingness of young pupils to do something just for pleasing the teacher should not be cultivated excessively.

14 14 3. Curiosity and usability as sources of motivation Courses or study periods should be systematically started by co-operative planning where students have a say. Advance organisers are used to show the interesting matters to be expected. There are always novel inventions and new branches in science and technology – teachers can use Internet resources etc. to keep abreast of the development. Human curiosity is a generally comprehensive principle but particularly long-range work needs also other sources of motivation. Students need to know, where the topics they are supposed to learn, can be utilised later. Conceived usability depends on the context where the topic is studied

15 15 4. Need for scaffolding The achievement motivation, a desire to succeed, is the general principle most prominently visible in ST studies. This need is natural on everybody and possibilities must be found for the saturating of it in spite of the students' different ability and performance profiles. Guide students in the Proximal Zone of Development Provide scaffolding when needed through tutoring etc. Students must be given information about possible successful study paths and vocational development. The significance of studies for career development is shown also generally. It also is good to bring up the possibilities of technology in the positive control of the environment. Theoretical studies and applications must be in balance at all stages of studying.

16 16 5. Optimal goals A student is often very strongly indeed motivated by success in the reaching of a certain goal – the stronger the more challenging the task in question has been. Correspondingly, a failure weakens motivation. Therefore, attention must be paid to setting of objectives to a proper level. The targets must not be set too high, hopeless to reach. The idea of optimal goals/objectives also includes the fact that they should not be set too low. A task that has no challenge by itself is reduced to a routine.

17 17 6. Immediate feedback is the most efficient Students must be first given feedback immediately after the performance as clearly as possible and from many sides. This principle is universally applicable in spite of the criticism which has been directed to behaviourism. However, one must take into consideration that in the performances which touch a student's personality, feedback must be softened especially in tender moments, using for example the “+++ and how" method. Students are directed gradually to estimate their performance level also independently and to correct the mistakes by themselves. Not only the teacher but also fellow students etc. can and should give feedback.

18 18 7. Rewards and punishment motivate Stick and carrot are classical tools of motivation. Rewards strengthen desired behaviour. Punishment either weakens the inclination to that behaviour or causes experiencing of the whole situation unpleasant and leads to avoiding such situations or the punisher(s). The basic solution is to utilise the principles of continuous formative evaluation and to give encouragement whenever students improve their performance compared to the earlier performances. Lead students to realise that e.g. to operate a finished self-designed experimental setup and to be able to analyse data is as such an encouraging reward. Punishments are used carefully in specific situations only. The Stick Method produces stress and anxiety: see below! Be very specific when giving negative feedback.

19 19 8. Avoid excessive stress and anxiety There are many examples of stress and anxiety leading to burnout, or other negative phenomena in the modern information society: excessive motivation means stress! The result can be a change of the whole personality and manifested problems as disturbances of all behaviour. Harmful effects can come in sight very dramatically, indeed. Students must get an opportunity to relax before demanding tasks, especially before creative problem solving, ideation etc. Possibility of having certain privacy in learning environments is important for avoiding stress. Possible stress effects must be taken into consideration when giving prizes and punishments. Experiencing success has usually big significance for avoiding mounting of stress.

20 20 9. Behaviour models motivate striving towards professional objectives The teacher her/himself always functions as a behaviour model. Be enthusiastic about what you teach! Students must be given an opportunity to get a versatile picture of pioneers and current significant researchers and developers of science and technology. The perseverance of both the operation of a model and steady self-confidence must be brought out, but also simultaneously the importance of working as a member of a team. Good behaviour, social skills and empathy are often important even professionally!

21 21 10. Value discussion motivates for the appreciation of values Moral and ethical problems will rise forth in many ways in the applications and studying environments of science and technology. It is important that these problems are jointly discussed and an attempt is made to find solutions to them. The application of the methods of the creative problem solving in this area is recommended. Teachers and the whole educational system have to follow high moral and ethical principles!

22 22 Definition of Motivation Motivation is an organised entity of psychological functions, which guide and control goal-oriented actions. These include Personal goals: affective, cognitive, empowering, social, integrative, … Emotional arousal: pleasure, joy, enjoyment; satisfaction, pride, stress, fear; shame Personal beliefs: expectations of success and failure; belief in the manageability and controllability of things; belief in one’s own abilities.

23 23 Motivation and Learning Learning and accomplishment are not based solely on cognitive factors, but interests and beliefs on own abilities and possibilities of reaching the goals (”I do not cope physics!”) influence learning Goals of the learner influence her performance and they can be classified according to goal theories e.g. as follows: 1. Goals oriented towards task performance or self- assertion 2. Goals oriented towards social expectations 3. Goals of learning, accomplishing or avoiding tasks as supporting one’s ego

24 24 Student with task orientation has performing the task as a goal and feels failing the task as a challenge Student Orientation and Goals Influence Studies and Learning TEACHER STUDENT TASK Student with social orientation has as her goal interaction with her teacher or fellow students: she does not take personal responsibility of performing the task and tries to find out what her teacher expects of her and seeks the acceptance of her teacher and fellow students. STUDENT Student defending her ego feels reducing feelings of fear as an important goal and refuses to perform a task to avoid failing

25 25 1. Task-Oriented Student Task-oriented student has as her goal performing the task or solving the problem finds failing a task as a challenge wants to perform the tasks to ultimate success is not easily disturbed by distractors TEACHER STUDENT TASK Task-oriented student is interested in the task and focuses on performing it.

26 26 2. Socially Oriented Student Student with social-dependence orientation has as her goal maintaining interaction with her teacher or her fellow students does not take responsibility of performing the task tries to find out, what her teacher expects and what pleases the teacher seeks for acceptance and help more than she actually needs can not act autonomously TEACHER STUDENT TASK For a socially oriented student experiences of pleasing and being accepted are important, likewise acting as her teacher expects - taking no responsibility. STUDENT

27 27 3. Student Defending Her Ego Student defending her ego finds reducing fearful feelings as an important goal refuses tasks to avoid failing experiences may justify failing beforehand (headache…) may have physical symptoms when stressed TEACHER STUDENT TASK Student defending her ego tries to protect herself from experiences of failing.

28 28 According to the Motivation Theory by Deci & Ryan: Psychological needs influence motivation: 1) need of feeling competent, 2) need of autonomy, 3) curiosity, and 4) need to belong in a group. There is a continuum of inner - outer motivation  inner, self-determined motivation, (  interest)  integrated control  control through identification  internalised control  externally controlled behaviour Although students primarily produce their own motivation, it can be enhanced and learned.

29 29 Outer towards Inner Motivation Teacher behaviour:  listening to students - even outside lessons  should not copy her memos on the blackboard  allows students time to reflect both alone and in groups  does not give direct answers to student questions  avoids saying ”you have to”, ”you must”,...  is not critical but constructive and emphatic (uses the 3+ and how approach, …)

30 30 External Factors Having Effect on Motivation Ego, self-belief,... Socialisation and gender identity (social environment influences attitudes and interests) Parents, relatives,.. Peers (sisters, pals, …) Media, movies, … Hobbies, … Experiences, especially at early age, in kindergarten and on lower grades Physics is masculine, many boys study physics, … The problem is too many generalisations - the phenomenon of motivation is complex!

31 31 How to Observe Motivational Factors when Teaching? Be conscious of the differences in student motivation Identify interests and how to influence them Support learning goals and utilise performance goals in controlled manner Avoid stress and feelings of failure, find optimal goal levels Support the beliefs of student capability Create Flow experiences which bring pleasure Support observations of student progress, give immediate positive feedback Move from the norms of social acceptance towards task orientation Analyse the reasons for failure – support strategic approaches, unravel self-defensive orientation

32 32 Pupils’ Attitudes to Science and Technology. Summary The positive side: They accept the importance of S&T for society S&T will improve life S&T will make work more interesting S&T has more advantages than dangers Young people love modern ICT: They are great consumers!

33 33 Pupils’ views, the dark side They dislike S&T at school, S&T is difficult and boring etc. They are interested in ’real science’ – but less in ’school science’ (a ’living fossil’?) The curriculum is overloaded with ‘correct answers’ – no room for creativity, fantasy etc. They are very hesitant to study S&T and to work with S&T They often have a negative perception of scientists as persons (no good role models?) Evidence to follow…

34 34 ”My opinions about science and technology” 16 items From 1 = Disagree to 4 = Agree (2,5 is ’neutral’)

35 35 ROSE Update Schreiner & Sjøberg, 2006, Science education and young people identity construction – two mutually incompatible projects? In Science education and youths identity construction. University of Oslo

36 36 Background of the Finnish Survey The international ROSE (The Relevance of Science Education) study Stratified sampling, weighted by the size of the school: - 75 comprehensive schools, mean value 65 students / school yielding 4954 students 81 % of the schools (3699 students) returned the questionnaires - 49 upper secondary schools, 2nd graders 89 % returned the questionnaires yielding 2661 students, of whom 1110 had chosen et least two elective courses in physics

37 37 Why you chose/ did not choose elective courses in physics? Physics makes largest gender differences in beliefs, then chemistry and smallest differences for biology. Formulation of the items: Evaluate the influence of the following reasons…. 24 items surveying the reasons for not choosing elective courses in physics or dropping out. 20 items surveying the reasons for choosing elective courses in physics

38 38 female, n = 1569 male, n = 1213 Number of students 0 = compulsory courses only Choosing elective courses in physics

39 39 Why not choosing physics? Reason (1 = min, 5 = max)mean No future relevance 3,3 I am no good in physics 3,3 Physics is too technical 2,3 ”Media”, teachers, coucellors 1,9 family, friends 1,3

40 40 Gender differences No statistically significant differences: - physics is technical - physics is important and interesting - future relevance - positive influence of family and friends - positive influence of media, teachers, councellors Statistically significant difference in: - physics is not useful in my future life (f) - I am no good in physics (f)/ I can physics (m) - family and frends have negative attitudes (f) - negative attitude of teacher etc. (f)

41 41 Context survey, comprehensive schools Are there differences in male and female students’ interests in physics studied in different contexts ? Similar survey on chemistry contexts Items of the type: how interested you are in studying the following things?

42 42 Context sum variables Six contexts, e.g. in mechanics: 1. Idealised situations (force and movement) 2. Society (traffic safety) 3. Technical applications (bridge construction, support strength and forces) 4. Human beings and body, (muscular forces) 5. Experiments and investigations, (investigating force phenomena) 6. Technological construction (planning and constructing a toy or a structure)

43 43 Ideal context Number of students female male Difference of means moderate

44 44 Society Communication satellites etc. Traffic safety (starting, braking,...) How to save energy and avoid misuse? Musical instruments and how they produce different sounds How to use and keep in shape everyday electrical appliances? How electricity has influenced the development of our society? Medical use of X-rays, ultrasound etc.

45 45 Social context Number of students female male Difference of means moderate

46 46 Context technical applications Number of students female male Difference of means large

47 47 Human context Muscular strain and forces in sports Hearth, blood pressure and circulation, control of body temperature Effects of solarium and sunlight on skin Electrical shock / electrical muscular phenomena Effect of ionising radiation on human body

48 48 Human context Number of students female male No significant difference of means

49 49 Context of experiments and investigations Number of students female male Difference of means small

50 50 Context of technological construction Number of students female male Difference of means small

51 51 Pedagogical approaches in physics and chemistry teaching How physics and chemistry is taught now (evaluated by teachers and students) How they would like these subjects to be taught Items were of the type:

52 52 Versatile pedagogical approaches Major changes wished to the present situation: 1) more industrial visits etc., 2) teacher-led discussions, 3) small-group activities (practical work, concept maps) female students wish more drawing of concept maps, doing practical work in small groups and following teacher teaching Teacher has to remember that - there are different kinds of students in the classroom (no cloned medians) - there are different types of goals (knowledge, skills, …) – there is a need for various pedagogical approaches

53 53 Europeans, Science and Technology Eurobarometer 55.2 (2001) (one of many surveys) New 2003: Including 13 potential member states S&T related interest and knowledge Values, science, technology Responsibilities and accountability of scientists New, revised study 2005 available at Hodge (2006) What Europeans really think (and know) about science and technology. Science in School 3, 71-77

54 54 Assignment Students in Torun had an assignment to analyse as groupwork their own good and bad experiences as to motivation in science studies. Students worked in five groups and the discussion was most lively. Students had altogether far more positive than negative experiences. Some features were presented positively by one group and respective opposite feature as negative by another.

55 55 Motivating features experienced by students Student participation/social perspective Possibility to do one’s own way Making experiments Variation of teaching methods, use of available technology Doing something useful, having connection to everyday life experiences

56 56 Negative features experienced by students Too difficult or too easy No appreciation/free speech/activation of students Too long and complicated texts

57 57 On interpreting the above lists We have to remember, that the students attending the IP course were not randomly selected, but they were a group of rather special internationally active science student teachers!

58 58 Copyright These slides have been propared in the context of research and development projects at the Centre of Mathematics and Science Education Research at the Department of Applied Sciences of Education, University of Helsinki. There have been extensive co-operation and support programmes with National Board of Education (Finland), City of Helsinki and Federation of Finnish Electrical and Electronics Industry etc. The use of this material for non-commercial purposes is allowed, but commercial use in any form including versions in any other language must be agreed in writing with the Research Centre.

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