Presentation on theme: "A Classical Quest through Hell, Purgatory, and Paradise"— Presentation transcript:
1A Classical Quest through Hell, Purgatory, and Paradise The Divine ComedyA Classical Quest through Hell, Purgatory, and Paradise
2Dante’s Structure: The Quest For SalvationParadisoInfernoPurgatorio
3DANTE ALIGHIERI Born in Florence, May, 1265. His family was old and of noble origin, but no longer wealthy.He probably spent a year at the University of Bologna as part of his education, studying the Trivium and the Quadrivium, typical of Medival curriculum.
4BEATRICEAs customary, Dante had an arranged marriage in his youth to Gemma Donati, daughter of Manetto Donati.But Dante’s greatest love, and the greatest single influence on his work, was a woman named Beatrice.Dante met Beatrice when he was nine and she eight, at his father’s home, most likely for a May Day festival.Beatrice married another man about 1287, and died in 1290 at the age of 25.
5BEATRICEBeatrice was Dante’s angel. He could not touch her, because this was the age of Courtly love.Dante’s life and work were dedicated to her.Dante’s muse and inspiration— the female aspect behind thegenius.She is the divine light of love.
6DANTE’S MEDIEVAL WORLD Dante’s world was threefold:The world of politicsThe world of theologyThe world of learningHis Comedy utilizes all three; these areas are interdependent, so that it is impossible to say that one was more important than the other.The Middle Ages was dominated by the struggle between thePAPACYand theEMPIRE.Both thought that they were of divine origin and indispensable to the welfare of mankind.
7THE PAPACY The Vatican Rome, Italy One of the few remaining city-states in the world.
8The Empire Constantine I WHERE CHURCH AND STATE WERE FIRST IN CONFLICT.
9CAUSE OF THE STRUGGLE BETWEEN THE PAPACY AND THE EMPIRE This claim created great strife and discord in the empire.Nothing new between politics and religion . . .In the 8th Century the Papal claim to temporal power was justified by the“DONATION OF CONSTANTINE”which stated that the emperor, had given power of the empire to the Pope before leaving for Byzantium.Later this was discovered to be aFORGED DOCUMENT!
10THE IMPORTANCE OF VIRGIL In the Middle Ages Virgil was regarded as a sage and necromancer.His poems were opened in a manner of divination called Sortes.The book was opened at random and a verse was selected as an answer to some question.
12VIRGIL 70 B.C.E. 19 B.C.E He was the greatest of the Roman poets. His Aeneid provided the pattern for the structure of Dante’s Hell.Virgil was chosen as Dante’s guide through Hell, because Dante saw him as his master and inspiration for his poetic style.Virgil is also revered as the poet of the Roman Empire.The Aeneid tells of the Empire’s founding.Virgil also wrote in his fourth ecologue of the coming of a Wonder Child who will bring the Golden Age.This was interpreted in the Middle Ages as the coming of Christ.
13STRUCTURE OF THE DIVINE COMEDY DANTE’S WORLD WAS ONE THAT BELIEVED IN MYSTICAL CORRESPONDENCES AND THE POWER OF NUMBERS, STARS, AND STONESEVENTS OF HISTORY—CONTAINED A MYSTICAL SIGNIFICANCE.DANTE’S NUMERICAL SYMBOLISM:3 A SYMBOL OF THE HOLY TRINITY9 THREE TIMES THREE.33 A MULTIPLE OF 3THE 7 DAYS OF CREATION10 CONSIDERED IN THE MEDIEVAL PERIOD A PERFECT NUMBER100, THE MULTIPLE OF 10.
14INFERNO, PURGATORIO, AND PARADISO THREE SECTIONS OF THE DIVINE COMEDYINFERNO, PURGATORIO, AND PARADISO3 was a holy number to Dante— suggesting the Holy Trinity.
15STRUCTURE OF THE DIVINE COMEDY Each section has 33 cantos (small division of poetry; canto means “song.”)The Inferno includes an introductory canto, which makes 100 cantos total (1oo representing the idea of perfection or spiritual enlightenment achieved after the journey).Three major divisions of sin:IncontinenceViolenceFraudulenceBy the time you finish reading, you will know which circle of hell you may find yourself in!Three-line poetric structure:Terza Rima
16Dante’s Use of Terza Rima Nel mezzo del cammin di nostra vita mi ritrovai per una selva oscura, ché la diritta via era smarrita.Ahi quanto a dir qual era è cosa dura esta selva selvaggia e aspra e forte che nel pensier rinova la paura!Tant’ è amara che poco è più morte; ma per trattar del ben ch’i’ vi trovai, dirò de l’altre cose ch’i’ v’ho scorte.Io non so ben ridir com’ i’ v’intrai,10 tant’ era pien di sonno a quel punto che la verace via abbandonai.Ma poi ch’i’ fui al piè d’un colle giunto, là dove terminava quella valle che m’avea di paura il cor compunto,guardai in alto e vidi le sue spalle vestite già de’ raggi del pianeta che mena dritto altrui per ogne calle.Midway upon the journey of our life I found myself within a forest dark, For the straightforward pathway had been lost.Ah me! how hard a thing it is to say What was this forest savage, rough, and stern, Which in the very thought renews the fear.So bitter is it, death is little more; But of the good to treat, which there I found, Speak will I of the other things I saw there.I cannot well repeat how there I entered,10 So full was I of slumber at the moment In which I had abandoned the true way.But after I had reached a mountain's foot, At that point where the valley terminated, Which had with consternation pierced my heart,Upward I looked, and I beheld its shoulders, Vested already with that planet's rays Which leadeth others right by every road.
17THE INFERNOThe sign above the gates to the entrance to hell
18THE SPIRALING INFERNOITS REGIONS ARE ARRANGED IN A SERIES OF DESCENDING CIRCULAR STAIRCASES THAT DIMINISH IN CIRCUMFERENCE THE DEEPER THAT VIRGIL AND DANTE TRAVEL.THE HIGHER UP A SINNER, THE LIGHTER THE SIN, THE DEEPER THE SINNER, THE DARKER AND MORE TERRIBLE THE SIN.DANTE’S HELL IS A HUGE FUNNEL SHAPED PIT.THE CENTER IS LOCATED BENEATH JERUSALEM.THE NINE REGIONS ARE DESIGNATED FOR A PARTICULAR SIN.
22Circle of Hell Sin Vestibule Uncommitted Acheron River Circle I—Limbo Virtuous UnbaptizedCircle IILustfulCircle IIIGluttonousCircle IVProdigal, AvariciousCircle V (Styx)WrathfulCity of Dis: Capitol of HellCircle VIHereticsCircle VII:ViolenceAgainst Neighbors,Self, God, NatureAbyss (Geryon)Circle VIII: Malebolge(Evil Ditches)FraudPanderers, Seducers, Flatterers,Simonists, Soothsayers, GraftersHypocrites, Thieves, False Counselors,Counterfeiters, FalsifiersCircle IX (Cocytus)Traitors to:Kindred, Country, Guests, Masters
23AT THE BOTTOM OF THE INFERNO DANTE’SSATANTHEEPITOMEOF EVIL,THE FALLENANGEL
24CONCEPT OF DIVINE RETRIBUTION PUNISHMENTS IN HELL ARE REGULATED BY THE LAW OF RETRIBUTION.THESE PUNISHMENTS ARE RELATED TO THE SINS EITHER BY ANALOGY OR ANTITHESIS.AS ONE SINNED IN LIFE, SO HE OR SHE IS PUNISHED IN DEATH.CONTRAPASSO: “SUFFER THE OPPOSITE”—PUNISHMENT OF SOULS BY A PROCESS EITHER RESEMBLING OR CONTRASTING WITH THE SIN ITSELF
25POINTS TO REMEMBERTHE INFERNO IS PART OF A WORK CALLED THE DIVINE COMEDY.IN THE MIDDLE AGES COMEDY MEANT SOME HUMAN EXPERIENCE THAT BEGAN IN TRAGEDY AND ENDED IN HAPPINESS.IT IS ALSO AN ALLEGORY.THE MORAL PURPOSE IS TO POINT OUT TO THOSE STILL LIVING THE ERROR OF THEIR WAYS AND TO PUT THEM ON THE PATH OF SALVATION.
27In your WNB, make a chart to keep track of the cantos and levels of hell: Circle/RegionSinnersPunishmentAllusionsSymbols
28Cantos 1-2 The Dark Wood Three Beasts: Leopard Lion She-wolf Virgil as GuideThree Blessed Women:Virgin MarySt. LuciaBeatrice
29Meeting with the Mentor Dante, the speaker, suddenly finds himself lost in a dark forest.He tries to climb up a hill but he is blocked by three beasts: a leopard, a lion, and a she-wolf, so he is trapped.He is alone in the dark valley when suddenly a spirit appears. This is Virgil, the Roman poet.Canto 1:Mid-Life CrisisThe CallMeeting with the Mentor
30When Dante asks about the beasts, Virgil tells him that the she-wolf will kill anyone who tries to pass her, but someday the great Greyhound will come and destroy her and send her back to Hell.Because of the beasts, Virgil tells Dante that he must take a different path and that he will guide Dante.Virgil also tells Dante that they must first pass through Hell and see the eternal punishment of the sinners before being able to reach Heaven.Then Virgil sets out on the journey and Dante follows behind him.
31Symbol: The Shadowed Forest represents the dark time in Dante’s life Symbol: The Shadowed Forest represents the dark time in Dante’s life. He has come to a crossroads, perhaps a mid-life crisis, where he is questioning good and evil and the purpose and meaning of his life.
32The Three Beasts by Priamo della Quercia (1444-1452) Symbols: The three beasts (leopard, lion, and she-wolf) are symbols that represent the three divisions of sin (fraud, violence, and incontinence). These are the sins that were believed to have caused the downfall of humankind, and since Dante is at a crossroads in his life, this journey is intended to make him question his life and what punishment might await him for the sins he has committed.
33She-Wolf by Gustave Dore Symbolism and Allusion: The three beasts might also symbolize the politics of the day. Because of the conflict between the Pope and the Emperor, leadership was continually in question. The Greyhound was believed to be an allusion to the hope for a future leader who would come to save Italy.She-Wolf by Gustave DoreLion by Gustave Dore
34Allusion: Virgil--Publius Vergilius Maro (70 BC – 19 BC) Virgil was the Roman poet of the epic The Aeneid. He is considered Rome’s greatest poet, and he was an inspiration to Dante.In the poem he serves as Dante’s guide and mentor, as Dante even refers to how much he has been influenced by him.
35A poet was I, and I sang that just Son of Anchises, who came forth from Troy, After that Ilion the superb was burned But thou, why goest thou back to such annoyance? Why climb'st thou not the Mount Delectable Which is the source and cause of every joy?" "Now, art thou that Virgilius and that fountain Which spreads abroad so wide a river of speech? I made response to him with bashful forehead. "O, of the other poets honour and light, Avail me the long study and great love That have impelled me to explore thy volume! Thou art my master, and my author thou, Thou art alone the one from whom I took The beautiful style that has done honour to me.
36Behold the beast, for which I have turned back; Do thou protect me from her, famous Sage, For she doth make my veins and pulses tremble.' "Thee it behoves to take another road," Responded he, when he beheld me weeping, "If from this savage place thou wouldst escape; Because this beast, at which thou criest out, Suffers not any one to pass her way, But so doth harass him, that she destroys him; And has a nature so malign and ruthless, That never doth she glut her greedy will, And after food is hungrier than before. Many the animals with whom she weds, And more they shall be still, until the Greyhound Comes, who shall make her perish in her pain.
37Dante’s Refusal of the Call Beatrice Calls for Back-up Canto 2:Dante’s Refusal of the Call&Beatrice Calls for Back-up
38Paraphrase of Canto 2Dante calls on the Muses, the ancient goddesses of art and inspiration, to ask them to help him tell his story.“O Muses, o high genius, help me now. . .”As he begins to tell his story, he thinks that he is not strong enough to face the terrors of Hell. He knows of only two other men who have returned after their journeys to the afterlife—the Apostle Paul (“the successor of Peter”) and Aeneas (“the one who fathered Sylvius”). He does not feel worthy of the greatness of either of these two:“But why should I go there? Who sanctions it?For I am not Aeneas, am not Paul;nor I nor others think myself so worthy.”He reminds Virgil that he was even too cowardly to face the hill and the beasts who blocked his way. When Virgil found him, Dante had already given up and had started downhill.Virgil tells Dante that his feelings of cowardice are common to man, but then he tells him about how he came to be his guide:“I was among those souls who are suspended;a lady called to me, so blessed, so lovelythat I implored to serve at her command.”
39Virgil has been assigned to the outer edge of Hell—Limbo, that is (we’ll learn more about this later). Beatrice came down from Heaven to Limbo to ask Virgil for help. Beatrice was Dante’s unrequited love from life. She learned about Dante’s suffering from St. Lucia (a 4th century saint of sight and grace) who was also in Heaven and who had heard about Dante from the Virgin Mary.These three women—Beatrice, St. Lucia, and Mary—are all looking out for Dante, and Virgil questions why Virgil hesitates with such fear when these women put such faith in him and Beatrice was crying and begging Virgil to help.Dante seems to feel reassured after hearing about Beatrice:"O she, compassionate, who has helped me!And you who, courteous, obeyed so quicklythe true words that she had addressed to you!This gives Dante the strength to continue on the path with Virgil:Now go; a single will fills both of us:you are my guide, my governor, my master."These were my words to him; when he advanced I entered on the steep and savage path.
40TheNine MusesDante and Beatrice ascend to the Heaven of the Moon (Giovanni di Paolo 1540)Allusion to the Muses: The Muses are the daughters of Zeus and Mnemosyne (Memory); they are the goddesses of literature, music, dance and other intellectual pursuits.Dante invokes the muses to gain poetic inspiration to tell the story of his journey through Hell with Virgil.The allusion is important as a poetic device. The invocation of the Muses is a common motif that appears in classical poetry.
41Allusion to St. PaulSt. Paul is considered one of the most influential of Christ’s followers and early missionaries of Christianity. His conversion on the road to Damascus is the most famous story about him. He is also responsible for writing the Epistles in the New Testament. Fourteen of these epistles are believed to be written by him.Dante refers to him when he hesitates before following Virgil through the gates to Hell. Dante feels inferior in comparison to St. Paul and Aeneas, who are the only men Dante knows of who have returned from a journey to Hell.
42The Three WomenAllusion: Beatrice, The Virgin Mary, and St. Lucy are all believed to be watching over Dante. Beatrice intervenes on behalf of Dante and begs Virgil to help him in his time of suffering.
43Word Choiceand Imagery:Rugged pass, deathless world, dark air, battle, dark land, shadows, phantoms, fires flaming, wars,
44Canto 2 Passage Analysis She said: "You, Beatrice, true praise of God,Why have you not helped him who loves you soThat for your sake he’s left the vulgar crowd?Do you not hear the anguish in his cry?Do you not see the death he wars againstupon that river ruthless as the sea?”No one within this world has ever been soquick to seek his good or flee his harm asI—when she had finished speaking thus—to come below, down from my blessed station;I trusted in your honest utterance,which honors you and those who’ve listened to you.’
45When she had finished with her words to me, she turned aside her gleaming, tearful eyes,which only made me hurry all the more.And, just as she had wished, I came to you”I snatched you from the path of the fierce beastthat barred the shortest way up the fair mountain.What is it then? Why, why do you resist?Why does your heart host so much cowardice?Where are your daring and your opennessas long as there are three blessed womenConcerned for you within the court of Heavenand my words promise you so great a good?”
46Canto 3 Gates of Hell Vestibule “Abandon all hope ye who enter here.” CowardsThe Indecisive AngelsPunishment:They are stung by insects and endlessly chase banners.Acheron RiverCharon
47Canto 4 Circle 1: Limbo The Unbaptized and Virtuous Pagans Punishment: BoredomForever separatedfrom GodVirgil, Homer, Horace, Ovid, Socrates, Plato
48Canto 5 Circle 2 Lust Punishment: The lustful souls are blown about in a violent storm, without hope of rest.MinosFrancesca da Riminiand her lover Paolo
49They are forced to live in vile freezing slush, guarded by Cerberus. Canto 6Circle 3GluttonyPunishment:They are forced to live in vile freezing slush, guarded by Cerberus.Ciacco of FlorenceFlorentine PoliticsLast Judgment
50Canto 7 Circle 4 Avarice Prodigality Punishment: Plutus Fortuna The Miserly and Spendthrift push great heavy weights together, crashing them time and time againPlutusFortuna
51Filippo Argenti Fallen Angels Cantos 7-8Circle 5WrathSullennessPunishment:The Wrathful fight each other on the surface of the Styx, while the Sullen gurgle beneath it.PhlegyasFilippo Argenti Fallen Angels
52Cantos 8-9 City of Dis Lower Circles of Hell Circles 6-9 Furies and MedusaHarrowing of HellTheseusHercules
53Guelphs and Ghibellines Canto 10Circle 6HeresyPunishment:Heretics are trappedin flaming tombsFarinataCavalcantiGuelphs and GhibellinesEpicurus
54Tomb of Pope Anastasius Canto 11Tomb of Pope AnastasiusThe StenchIntermissionVirgil pauses to explain the structure of Lower Hell and God’s plan outlined by Aristotle in his Nichomachean Ethics.
55Cantos 12-17 Circle 7 Violence: Punishment: Murderers: They drown in the river Phlegethon,filled with boiling blood, while the Minotaurguards them, and if they attempt to escape, theyare shot with bows and arrows by centaurs.Suicides: They have become stunted and gnarled treeswith poisoned fruit and twisting branches from whichtheir bodies will hang while the Harpies, foul birdlike creatures with human faces, make their nests.Blasphemers, Sodomites and Usurers: They are showered with flakes of fire that rain down against their naked bodies, while they are stretched, running, or huddled on burning sand. Sodomites can't stop running just as they couldn't stop their passions. Usurers have to stare at the money they made on earth with fire raining down on them.
56Cantos 18-22 Circle 8 Bolges 1-5 Fraud Panderers and Seducers: They are forced to march, single file around the circumference of their circle, constantly lashed by horned demons.Flatterers: They are immersed forever in a river of human excrement, like what their flatteries were.Simonists: They are turned upside down in large baptismal fonts cut into the rock, with their feet set ablaze by oily fires. The heat of the flames burns according to the guilt of the sinner.Astrologists, seers, sorcerers , diviners: Their heads have been twisted around to face backwards, and thus they are forced to walk backwards around the circumference of their circle for all of time.Grafters : They are thrown into a river of boiling pitch and tar. If they try to escape the pitch, a horde of demons armed with grappling hooks and barbs stands guard over them, ready to tear them to pieces.
57Cantos 23-30 Circle 8 Bolges 6-10 Fraud Hypocrites : They are forced to wear heavy lead robes as they walk around the circumference of their circle. The robes are golden and resemble a monk’s cowl but are lined with heavy lead, symbolically representing hypocrisy.Thieves: Serpents, dragons, and other vengeful reptiles torture the thieves endlessly. The bites of some of the snakes cause the thieves to spontaneously combust, only to regenerate their bodies for further torment in a few moments. They are pursued by the monstrous fiery Cacus.Deceivers: They are constantly ablaze, appearing as nothing so much as living, speaking tongues of flame.Creators of discord and scandal: They are forced to walk around the circumference of the circle bearing horrible, disfiguring wounds inflicted on them by a great demon with a sword.Falsifiers: They endure different degrees of punishment based on horrible, consumptive diseases such as rashes, dropsy, leprosy and consumption.
58Cantos 31-34 Circle 9 Betrayal Caïna—Traitors to kindred: They are immersed in ice up to their faces.Antenora—Traitors to country/political entities: They are immersed in ice and forced to eat out the skull of another sinner or have their skulls eaten by another sinner.Ptolomaea—Traitors to their guests: They lie supine in the ice, which covers them, except for their faces. Their bodies on Earth are immediately possessed by a demon, so what seems to be a walking man has reached the stage of being incapable of repentance.Judecca—Traitors to their lords and benefactors: They are completely encapsulated in ice, distorted in all conceivable positions. Satan appears upside down with three faces, and in each mouth eternally being eaten are Brutus, Cassius, and Judas Iscariot.
59Ugolino della Gherardesca Count Ugolino and Archbishop Ruggieri and SonsCantos 32-33Count Ugolino and Archbishop RuggieriCircle 9: Antenora