2Definition: EthicsEthics is doing what is RIGHT to achieve what is GOOD.The key to ethical action is to behave with integrity that is based on sound core of personal values.
3Definition: ValueA principle, standard or quality considered worthwhile or desirable.Value analysis boils down to the ability to distinguish right from wrong.Not all values are ethical.Interest: Regard for one’s own benefit or advantage
4Ethics + Values Ethical value Unethical value Non-ethical value A belief or a principle rooted in moral behavior, based on a sense of what is right.Unethical valueA belief or a principle rooted in immoral behavior, based on a sense of what is wrong (of consciously disregarding what is right).Non-ethical valueA belief or a preference that is not related to right and wrong
5Value analysis: Concentric Ring model Core valuesHonesty, Value of life, Love of family, Respect for others, Personal religious faithAuthority valuesPolitical affiliations, Organized religion, Corporate loyalty, PatriotismPeripheral valuesFashion tastes, Recreational preferences, Favorite sports, Ice cream flavors
6Ethical Conflicts Right Vs Wrong Right Vs Right Wrong Vs Wrong Conflict between clearly ethical and clearly unethical valuesRight Vs RightConflict among two or more values, all ethicalWrong Vs WrongConflict among two or more values, all unethical
7Definition: Business ethics Personal integrityA person who adheres to an ethical value system, a moral codeSocial valueThe sense that we should share and cooperate, even if it means compromising our self interest
8Are good ethics good business? Virtue – It’s the right thing to doDoing what’s right for its own sake out of integrity and pridePrudence – It’s the smart thing to doDoing what’s right for fear of consequences of getting caught doing something wrong
9Ten Basic Values in Technical Communication HonestyOur duty to tell the rightLegalityOur duty to obey the lawPrivacyOur duty to respect the rights of othersQualityOur duty to provide quality products and services that will best serve the user
10Ten Basic Values in Technical Communication TeamworkOur duty to work together to meet mutual objectivesAvoiding conflict of interestOur duty to be loyal and to observe fair playCultural sensitivityOur duty to reflect the growing diversity of the workplace in our technical communications
11Ten Basic Values in Technical Communication Social responsibilityOur duty to preserve and protect the public goodProfessional growthOur duty to maintain and develop our skillsAdvancing the professionOur duty to respect and assist our colleagues and enhance the reputation of our profession
12Honesty: The best policy? Honesty is telling the truth. It’s right.Dishonesty is lying. It’s wrong.Are you honest? – Well, basically I’m honest.Communicating honestly is more than just telling the truth. It’s more than not telling a lie.
13Price for (dis)honesty Professors may feel the pressure to “publish or perish”Students feels it is “pass or perish”In business it is to serve the bottom lineInternal competition for personal advancement is intense
15Lying by CommissionDeliberate outright falsification or prevarication
16Lying by OmissionTechnical communicator not responsible for something that has been omitted before he gets the material.
17Lying with Language Deliberate Vagueness Circumlocution Euphemisms Weaving a verbal tapestry of verbal generalities to disguise the fact.CircumlocutionVerbally talking around the issueEuphemismsNice word used to sugar-coat an unpleasant realityFalse GeneralizationLogical fallacyLoaded and slanted languageTerms that carry strong emotional connotations
18Lying with Statistics Surveys Percentages Averages Misuse of numbers for purpose of deception – by commission, omission or circumlocutionStatistics is like a bikini – it reveals the necessary but conceals the essentialSurveysPercentagesAverages
19Lying with GraphicsIf one picture is worth thousand words, then one lie in the graphics is worth thousand lies.
20Lying with Photographs Since the digital file can be subtly – or not so subtly – altered without a trace, it will become almost impossible to know whether a photograph is genuine or retouched.
21Lying with MultimediaIf still photographs can be altered with major consequences, consider the staggering impact of deceptive or inappropriate use of video footage, sound and animation.
22Lying with Logical Fallacies As trained linguistic specialists, technical communicators may be assumed to understand the logical fallacies; it’s therefore hard to imagine how they could use them without intent to deceive.
23Lying with Propoganda Techniques Cousins of logical fallacies used mostly in advertisements and politics but they crop up in marketing communication.