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Circulatory and Respiratory System

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Presentation on theme: "Circulatory and Respiratory System"— Presentation transcript:

1 Circulatory and Respiratory System
Honors Biology Powerpoint #4 Unit 8 – Chapter 37

2 Circulatory System

3 Circulatory System Structures: Functions: Heart, Blood vessels, blood
Brings oxygen, nutrients and hormones to cells Fights infection Regulates body temperature.

4 Heart Made of cardiac muscle Beats on average 65-85 beats per minute
Pumps to circulate blood throughout the body

5 Take your heart Rate

6 Blood Vessels: Arteries Capillaries Veins Carry blood to cells
Lined with smooth muscle tissue Three kinds: Arteries Capillaries Veins

7 Arteries (carries blood away)
Carry oxygenated blood from the heart to the rest of the body.

8 Capillaries Branch off of the Arteries
The smallest of the blood vessels some have diameters as small as 1 red blood cell Takes blood to cells

9 Veins Takes deoxygenated blood from the capillaries back to the heart



12 Veins Have valves to prevent backflow because not receiving pressure from heart Muscles help pump blood back to heart through the veins

13 Varicose veins

14 Blood The human body has 4-6 liters of blood Blood:
45% of blood is Cells 55% of blood is plasma

15 Blood Cells: 3 kinds Red Blood Cells: transports oxygen, contain hemoglobin (gives them color) White Blood Cells (leukocytes): attack foreign substances or organisms. Platelets: stick to broken blood vessels to stop bleeding when you are cut


17 Plasma 90% water 10% other materials: Dissolved gases Salts Nutrients
Enzymes Hormones Waste products

18 Upper body Blood Flow in the Heart

19 The Heart The human heart has four chambers Left and right ventricle
Left and right atrium The left side of the heart pumps oxygenated blood to the body The right side of the heart pumps deoxygenated blood to the lungs

20 Left Atrium Right Atrium Right Atrium Left Ventricle

21 1) The right atrium receives deoxygenated blood from the body through the superior and inferior vena cava.

22 2) The right atrium pumps blood through the tricuspid (AV) valve and into the right ventricle

23 3) Right Ventricle Contracts and pushes blood through pulmonary valve towards lungs

24 4) Blood is pushed through the pulmonary arteries to the lungs to receive oxygen

25 5) Oxygenated blood returns to the left atrium from the lungs through the pulmonary veins

26 6) Blood passes through the bicuspid (mitral) valve into the left ventricle.

27 7) Contraction of Left ventricle pumps blood through aortic valve to the aorta

28 8)Blood travels through aorta and then to all regions of the body where it feeds cells with oxygen picked up from the lungs and nutrients from the digestive tract.


30 Blood Pressure Blood pressure is a measure of the force exerted by the blood on the wall of the arteries. An example is 120/80 (systolic pressure/diastolic pressure. Systolic pressure is the result of the contraction of the ventricles (normal ) Diastolic pressure is during the ventricle relaxation (normal 70-90)

31 Disorders of the Circulatory System: Coronary artery disease – Atherosclerosis
Plaque buildup blocks arteries, reducing, or even stopping blood flow Plaques can break off, causing heart attack or stroke

32 Cause: Damaged arteries are ‘invaded’ by bad LDL cholesterol
Cause: Damaged arteries are ‘invaded’ by bad LDL cholesterol. White blood cells try to digest the LDL. Ultimately, a jumble of cholesterol and cells is accumulated. Risk Factors: Smoking, high blood pressure, high LDL cholesterol, diabetes

33 Disorders of the Circulatory System
Heart Attack– Myocardial Infarction (MI) = Death of cardiac muscle cells Cause: Plaque dislodges, blocking an artery to the heart muscle. Cardiac muscle cells are starved for oxygen and die. After, scar tissue forms where cells died, therefore reduces the functionality of heart. Severity of a heart attack depends on size and area supplied by the artery. Risk Factors: Smoking, high blood pressure, high LDL cholesterol, diabetes

34 Disorders of the Circulatory System
Stroke=Death of cells in the brain. Cause: A blood vessel in the brain is blocked (by dislodged plaque, or bursts, starving the cells of oxygen A stroke can have many different symptoms, including: numbness, vision changes, speech changes, or confusion. Risk Factors: Smoking, high blood pressure, high LDL cholesterol, diabetes

35 Disorders of the Circulatory System
Arrhythmia= Irregular / skipped heart beat Cause: The heart uses electrical signals created in the SA node in the right atria, to begin a heartbeat. The conduction of these signals, or irregular firing of the SA node, can cause arrhythmias. Atrial arrhythmias are less dangerous than ventricular arrhythmias. Risk Factors: Generally random, but factors are stimulants (such as caffeine), fevers, stress, or genetic disorders.


37 Disorders of the Circulatory System
High blood pressure - Hypertension Diastolic pressure over 90 Why it is dangerous: Excessive pressure can cause the arteries to thicken, and blood vessels to weaken and rupture. This can lead to heart failure, stroke, kidney failure, loss of sight when vessels in eyes burst. Risk Factors: Genetics, overweight, limited physical activity, smoking, alcohol consumption, certain medications Virtual Cardiology Lab

38 Respiratory System Function:
Bringing Oxygen into the body, and removing carbon dioxide and water vapor.

39 Respiratory System What gases are in our atmosphere? 78% Nitrogen
21% Oxygen 1% Argon

40 Respiratory System Structures: Nose Pharynx larynx trachea bronchi
bronchioles lungs

41 Nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, lungs

42 Respiratory System What is the job of the nose?:
Cilia (small hairs) filter out dirt Moistens and warms the air you breathe

43 Respiratory System Pharynx
Part of both respiratory & digestive systems Aids in swallowing Houses the tonsils

44 Larynx Generates sound Contains vocal chords vocal chords video

45 Trachea

46 Tracheotomy

47 Bronchi/bronchioles

48 Inside of lungs

49 Respiratory System Inhalation: Rib muscles and diaphragm contract
Rib cage expands Lung volume increases Air pressure in lungs decreases Air flows into lungs

50 Respiratory System Exhalation: Rib muscles/diaphragm relax
Rib cage becomes smaller Air pressure in lungs increases Air flows out of lungs

51 Respiratory System Diaphragm: Dome shaped muscle
Located at base of rib cage

52 Smallest Part of Lung= Alveoli
Alveoli: air sacks where gas is exchanged Surface area of a tennis court

53 Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide
Exchanged in the lungs though: Diffusion The process by which materials move from an area of: High concentration to an area of low concentration

54 Asthma

55 Lung Cancer

56 Non-smoker vs. smoker

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