Presentation on theme: "Circulatory and Respiratory System Honors Biology Powerpoint #4 Unit 8 – Chapter 37."— Presentation transcript:
Circulatory and Respiratory System Honors Biology Powerpoint #4 Unit 8 – Chapter 37
Structures: o Heart, Blood vessels, blood Functions: o Brings oxygen, nutrients and hormones to cells o Fights infection o Regulates body temperature.
Heart Made of cardiac muscle Beats on average beats per minute Pumps to circulate blood throughout the body
Take your heart Rate
Blood Vessels: Carry blood to cells Lined with smooth muscle tissue Three kinds: 1.Arteries 2.Capillaries 3.Veins
Arteries (carries blood away) Carry oxygenated blood from the heart to the rest of the body.
Capillaries Branch off of the Arteries The smallest of the blood vessels o some have diameters as small as 1 red blood cell Takes blood to cells
Veins Takes deoxygenated blood from the capillaries back to the heart
Veins Have valves to prevent backflow because not receiving pressure from heart Muscles help pump blood back to heart through the veins
Blood The human body has 4-6 liters of blood Blood: o 45% of blood is Cells o 55% of blood is plasma
Blood Cells: 3 kinds Red Blood Cells: transports oxygen, contain hemoglobin (gives them color) White Blood Cells (leukocytes): attack foreign substances or organisms. Platelets: stick to broken blood vessels to stop bleeding when you are cut
Plasma 90% water 10% other materials: o Dissolved gases o Salts o Nutrients o Enzymes o Hormones o Waste products
Blood Flow in the Heart Upper body
The Heart The human heart has four chambers o Left and right ventricle o Left and right atrium The left side of the heart pumps oxygenated blood to the body The right side of the heart pumps deoxygenated blood to the lungs
Right Atrium Left Atrium Left Ventricle
1) The right atrium receives deoxygenated blood from the body through the superior and inferior vena cava.
2) The right atrium pumps blood through the tricuspid (AV) valve and into the right ventricle
3) Right Ventricle Contracts and pushes blood through pulmonary valve towards lungs
4) Blood is pushed through the pulmonary arteries to the lungs to receive oxygen
5) Oxygenated blood returns to the left atrium from the lungs through the pulmonary veins
6) Blood passes through the bicuspid (mitral) valve into the left ventricle.
7) Contraction of Left ventricle pumps blood through aortic valve to the aorta
8)Blood travels through aorta and then to all regions of the body where it feeds cells with oxygen picked up from the lungs and nutrients from the digestive tract.
Blood Pressure Blood pressure is a measure of the force exerted by the blood on the wall of the arteries. o An example is 120/80 (systolic pressure/diastolic pressure. Systolic pressure is the result of the contraction of the ventricles (normal ) Diastolic pressure is during the ventricle relaxation (normal 70-90)
Disorders of the Circulatory System: Coronary artery disease – Atherosclerosis Plaque buildup blocks arteries, reducing, or even stopping blood flow Plaques can break off, causing heart attack or stroke
Cause: Damaged arteries are ‘invaded’ by bad LDL cholesterol. White blood cells try to digest the LDL. Ultimately, a jumble of cholesterol and cells is accumulated. Risk Factors: Smoking, high blood pressure, high LDL cholesterol, diabetes
Disorders of the Circulatory System Heart Attack– Myocardial Infarction (MI) = Death of cardiac muscle cells Cause: Plaque dislodges, blocking an artery to the heart muscle. Cardiac muscle cells are starved for oxygen and die. After, scar tissue forms where cells died, therefore reduces the functionality of heart. Severity of a heart attack depends on size and area supplied by the artery. Risk Factors: Smoking, high blood pressure, high LDL cholesterol, diabetes
Disorders of the Circulatory System Stroke = Death of cells in the brain. Cause: A blood vessel in the brain is blocked (by dislodged plaque, or bursts, starving the cells of oxygen A stroke can have many different symptoms, including: numbness, vision changes, speech changes, or confusion. Risk Factors: Smoking, high blood pressure, high LDL cholesterol, diabetes
Disorders of the Circulatory System Arrhythmia = Irregular / skipped heart beat Cause: The heart uses electrical signals created in the SA node in the right atria, to begin a heartbeat. The conduction of these signals, or irregular firing of the SA node, can cause arrhythmias. Atrial arrhythmias are less dangerous than ventricular arrhythmias. Risk Factors: Generally random, but factors are stimulants (such as caffeine), fevers, stress, or genetic disorders.
Disorders of the Circulatory System High blood pressure - Hypertension Diastolic pressure over 90 Why it is dangerous: Excessive pressure can cause the arteries to thicken, and blood vessels to weaken and rupture. This can lead to heart failure, stroke, kidney failure, loss of sight when vessels in eyes burst. Risk Factors: Genetics, overweight, limited physical activity, smoking, alcohol consumption, certain medications Virtual Cardiology Lab
Respiratory System Function: Bringing Oxygen into the body, and removing carbon dioxide and water vapor.
Respiratory System What gases are in our atmosphere? 78% Nitrogen 21% Oxygen 1% Argon
Respiratory System Structures: Nose Pharynx larynx trachea bronchi bronchioles lungs