2THE PURPOSE OF SEXUAL REPRODUCTION IS TO MAKE NEW INDIVIDUALS SO THAT A SPECIES MAY CONTINUE
3Female Reproductive System FALLOPIAN TUBE (OVIDUCT)OVARYWOMB (UTERUS)CERVICALCANALCERVIXVAGINA
4Structure of the Uterus It is also known as the womb.It is a muscular hollow organ.It is the size and shape of an upside down pear.It is 7.5cm.long and 5cm.wide.It expands during pregnancy to accommodate the foetus.The lining consists of layers of tissues.The tissues respond to hormonal secretions.These layers thicken every month.This thickened layer acts as a nourishing bed for the fertilised ovum.
5Function of the Uterus It is where the foetus grows and develops. Every month it prepares itself for a possible pregnancy, if there is a fertilised ovum.If there is no fertilised menstruation occurs.
6Structure of the Ovaries They are glands.They are about the size and shape of an almond.One on either side of the uterus.They are just below the fallopian tubes.
7Functions of the Ovaries They secrete the hormones progesterone and oestrogen.It stores the female sex cells called ova.Ova exist in the body at birth. (not mature as follicles)After puberty one follicle develops releasing an ovum every month.This is known as ovulation.
8Structure of the Fallopian Tubes They are funnel shaped tubes.They start at the top of the uterus and continue to the ovaries.Functions of the Fallopian TubesThey are a passage way from the ovaries to the uterus.The ovum travels down these tubes to the uterus.Fertilisation takes place here.Sperm swims up these tubes to reach the ovum.
9Structure of the Cervix It is the narrow neck of the uterus.It opens into the vagina.It is usually the width of a pencil lead.During childbirth it dilates to allow the passage of the baby.Function of the CervixIt forms the first part of the birth canal.The dilation of the cervix is a measurement used to determine how soon childbirth will begin.
10Structure of the Vagina It is a muscular passage.It leads from the cervix to the vulva.During sexual activity the walls fill with blood causing them to swell.Functions of the VaginaIt serves as a passageway for the menstrual blood.It forms part of the birthing canal.It is the site of penetration during intercourse.
11The vulva is made up of the following: The external organs of female reproductive system are known as the vulva.The vulva is made up of the following:Mons pubisLabiaClitoris
12THE MENSTRUAL CYCLEA girl’s menstrual cycle begins after puberty and continues until the menopauseOn average, it is a 28 day cycleThe cycle is controlled by hormonesThe cycle does not take place during pregnancy
13THE MENSTRUAL CYCLE LINING OF WOMB BEGINS TO BREAK DOWN MENSTRUATION (A PERIOD)OVULATION (EGG RELEASED)LINING OF WOMB BUILDS UPLINING OF WOMB BUILDS UPFERTILE PERIOD
14The Menstrual Cycle It occurs every 28 days from puberty to menopause. It occurs only if fertilisation has not taken place.Day 1-5The endometrium (thick lining of the uterus) breaks down. This is called menstruation.Meiosis (cell reproduction) occurs in the ovary to produce a new egg surrounded by the Graafian Follicle.
15Day 6-13Oestrogen is produced by the Graafian Follicle.Oestrogen also stimulates the endometrium to thicken again.One Graafian follicle with one egg develops.Oestrogen stimulated the production of LH (leuteinising hormone).
16Day 14The surge of LH stimulates ovulation.The egg is released from the Graafian Follicle.The egg enters the fallopian tube.It can be fertilised for the next 48 hours.
17Day 15-26The corpus luteum (yellow body) develops from the remains of the Graafian Follicle.This produces progesterone and some oestrogen.The progesterone causes the endometrium to continue to thicken.It also prevents new eggs from forming.The egg that was released at day 14 will die if it is not fertilised.If fertilisation did not take place the corpus luteum begins to break up.
18Day 26-28Oestrogen and progesterone levels decline.The endometrium begins to break down.Day one of the cycle begins.
19SEXUAL INTERCOURSEDuring intercourse, the man places his penis inside the woman’s vaginaSemen is released (ejaculation), containing hundreds of millions of sperm cellsThe sperm enter the womb and swim towards the fallopian tubes
20SEXUAL INTERCOURSE Only one sperm can fertilise an egg This can take place successfully only in the fallopian tubeFertilisation is also known as conception
21PREGNANCYThe fertilised egg travels down the fallopian tube, growing as it does so into a ball of cellsBefore a woman can be pregnant, this ball of cells must attach itself to the inside wall of the wombThis step is called implantation
22PREGNANCYThe ball of cells grows and becomes an embryo (up to eight weeks)Once the embryo is recognisably human, it is called a foetusIt takes 40 weeks (9 months) for the foetus to fully develop inside the womb
23PREGNANCYInside the womb, the foetus is attached to the placenta by the umbilical cord (which joins to the baby’s navel)The placenta is attached to the inside wall of the wombThe foetus is surrounded by amniotic fluid, which acts as a shock-absorber and to keep the baby warm
24THE FOETUS IN THE WOMB WOMB PLACENTA FOETUS UMBILICAL CORD AMNIOTIC FLUIDCERVIXVAGINA (BIRTH CANAL)
27Functions of the Parts: The placenta is the baby’s “life-support” inside the wombIt filters food and oxygen from the mother’s blood and passes it to the babyIt removes waste such as CO2 from the baby’s blood and passes it to the mother’s blood so that she can excrete it
28It also keeps the mother’s and baby’s blood separate, so that the mother’s immune system doesn’t reject the baby
29BIRTHDuring birth, the baby passes down the vagina and out of the mother’s bodyThis stage is known as labourAfter birth, the umbilical cord must be cut
30The baby must now breathe on its own for the first time
32PARTS OF THE MALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM BLADDERSPERM DUCTPROSTATE GLANDURETHRATESTICLEEPIDIDYMISSCROTUMPENIS
33Structure of the Penis The main external sexual organ of the male. It consists of erectile tissue, foreskin and urethra.The urethra, a tube runs through the centre and acts as a duct for urine and semen.The tip of the penis is known as the “glans”This tissue is full of blood vessels.Surrounding the glans is the foreskin which protects the glans.
34Function of the Penis It is an organ of excretion. (urine) It is an organ of reproduction.It becomes erect during intercourse.This increases the amount of blood circulating in the penis.It will become rigid which allows for penetration into the vagina.It delivers semen.
35Structure of the Testes The testes are two glands.They are within a sac of skin called the scrotum.They develop in the abdomen and descend into the scrotum before birth.
36Functions of the Testes They produce sperm.Testosterone (hormone) is responsible for male sexual characteristics.Sperm is also stores in the testes, because they must be kept at a slightly lower temperature than average body temperature.
37Structure of the Epididymis It is a tightly coiled tube.It straightens out into the sperm duct.Function of the EpididymisIt stores semen.It transports semen.Its where immature sperm develop.
38Structure of the Scrotum It is a sac containing the testes, epididymis.It has an outer layer of skin.An inner layer of muscle.Functions of the ScrotumIt protects the testes keeping them at the right temperature.The testes are outside the body to keep them cooler.
39Structure of Sperm Sperm look like tadpoles. They have a head, middle section and a tail.The tail helps to propel the sperm along the vagina.The head is the nucleus and has 23 chromosomes.
40Function of Sperm It fertilises the ova. The head inserts itself into the ovum and the tail breaks away.Only one sperm is needed to fertilise an ovum.The semen is a fluid which contains sperm.Semen is excreted from the prostate gland and seminal vesicle.
41Structure of the Prostrate Gland It’s a small gland.It lies between the bladder and rectum.Functions of the Prostrate GlandIt produces two secretions.One moistens the urethra.The other is part of the seminal fluid, which helps the semen to travel along the urethra.