Presentation on theme: "Yalom’s Therapeutic Factors By Patti Higgins. Yalom’s Therapeutic Factors Yalom (1995) defined therapeutic factors as "the actual mechanisms of effecting."— Presentation transcript:
Yalom’s Therapeutic Factors By Patti Higgins
Yalom’s Therapeutic Factors Yalom (1995) defined therapeutic factors as "the actual mechanisms of effecting change in the patient" (p. xi). Yalom identified 11 factors that influence the processes of change and recovery among group therapy clients.
11 Therapeutic Factors Universality - feeling of having problems similar to others, not alone Altruism - helping and supporting others Instillation of hope - encouragement that recovery is possible Guidance - nurturing support & assistance Imparting information - teaching about problem and recovery Developing social skills - learning new ways to talk about feelings, observations and concerns Interpersonal learning - finding out about themselves & others from the group
11 Therapeutic Factors Cohesion - feeling of belonging to the group, valuing the group Catharsis – release of emotional tension Existential factors – life & death are realities Imitative behavior – modeling another’s manners & recovery skills Corrective recapitulation of family of origin issues – identifying & changing the dysfunctional patterns or roles one played in primary family
Assessment of factors Therapeutic Factors Inventory (TFI) - empirically derived comprehensive assessment of the presence or absence of the 11 therapeutic factors in a group (Lese & MacNair-Semands, 1997) Yalom Q-sort assesses patients’ perceptions of therapeutic factors and consists of 60 statements representing 12 categories of therapeutic factors. A ranking of 1 to 60 is produced. Bloch, Reibstein, Crouch, Holroyd and Themen's (1979) assessment uses independent raters to judge presence of therapeutic factors.
Navajo sweat lodge study Colmant and Merta (1999) explored the Navajo sweat lodge ceremony as a culturally relevant and therapeutic approach to group therapy. They compared the sweat lodge ceremony used at a residential treatment center for Navajo males aged 6-15 years old with disruptive behavior disorders, to modern group work with Yalom’s therapeutic factors.
Differences among factors’ values Older women in an outpatient therapy group ranked existential awareness as the most important therapeutic factor (McLeod & Ryan, 1993). Morgan & Ferrell (1999) found therapists' perceived interpersonal learning, universality, & imparting info highest for group of incarcerated males. Schwartz and Waldo (1999) found imparting of information and development of socializing techniques most valuable in educational groups for batterers. Campbell & Page (1993) found recovering drug addicts ranked highest: information dissemination, corrective recapitulation of the primary family, development of socializing techniques, imitative behavior, interpersonal learning, group cohesiveness, and catharsis. Mawson & Kahn (1993) reported women in career counseling group rated cognitive and affective components as most valuable. Tomasulo, Keller & Pfadt (1991) found psycheducational groups therapeutic. Kivlighan & Goldfine (1991) found guidance increased across the stages of group, universality and hope decreased, and catharsis increased in beginning.
Yalom’s adages: Therapy group is a social microcosm and a reenactment of the primary family. Therapists should listen to their patients. Patients should listen to and learn from one another.