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CHAPTER 6 Theory Applied to Practice
Five Contemporary Theoretical Orientations ©2011, Brooks/ Cole Publishing, A Division of Cengage Learning, Inc. 1) The psychodynamic approaches 2) The experiential and relationship-oriented approaches 3) The cognitive behavioral approaches 4) The postmodern approaches 4) The family systems approaches Becoming A Helper - Chapter 6 (1)
Psychoanalytic Approach ©2011, Brooks/ Cole Publishing, A Division of Cengage Learning, Inc. Longer-term exploration of personality Main goal: The restructuring of personality Emphasis on transference and countertransference Major techniques: Maintaining the analytic framework free association, interpretation, dream analysis, analysis of resistance, and analysis of transference Many other theoretical models have developed as reactions against psychoanalytic approach Becoming A Helper - Chapter 6(2)
Adlerian Approach ©2011, Brooks/ Cole Publishing, A Division of Cengage Learning, Inc. Clients are viewed as creative, active, and decisional Stresses the individual’s positive capacities to live fully in society Therapeutic relationship is a collaborative partnership Social interest: A sense of identification with humanity, a feeling of belonging, and a concern with bettering society Becoming A Helper - Chapter 6(3)
Adlerian Approach ©2011, Brooks/ Cole Publishing, A Division of Cengage Learning, Inc. Inferiority feelings, the wellspring of creativity, often motivate people to strive for mastery, superiority, and perfection Focus on challenging clients’ mistaken notions and faulty assumptions Emphasis on examining lifestyle and clients’ functioning in the life tasks Cognitive, behavioral, and experiential techniques are used (e.g., encouragement, early recollections, homework) Becoming A Helper - Chapter 6(4)
Existential Approach ©2011, Brooks/ Cole Publishing, A Division of Cengage Learning, Inc. We define ourselves by our choices Freedom and responsibility go together Anxiety is part of the human condition Death gives significance to life Emphasis is on understanding the world of the client Becoming A Helper - Chapter 6(5)
Person-Centered Approach ©2011, Brooks/ Cole Publishing, A Division of Cengage Learning, Inc. Clients are at the center of the helping process Clients are able to change without a high degree of structure and direction from the therapist The aim of counseling is to assist clients’ growth process Effective helping is based on the quality of the helping relationship Techniques are secondary to the counselor’s attitudes Becoming A Helper - Chapter 6 (5)
Gestalt Approach ©2011, Brooks/ Cole Publishing, A Division of Cengage Learning, Inc. Focuses on here-and-now experiencing and present awareness With awareness, clients are able to change Counselors suggest experiments that are done by clients (e.g., symbolic dialogues, exaggerating a gesture) The approach emphasizes the I/Thou dialogue The focus is on doing rather than “talking about” Becoming A Helper - Chapter 6 (6)
Cognitive Behavioral Approaches ©2011, Brooks/ Cole Publishing, A Division of Cengage Learning, Inc. Cognitive behavioral approaches share these attributes: a collaborative relationship between client and therapist psychological distress: the result of faulty cognitive processes a focus on changing cognitions to produce desired changes in affect and behavior a time-limited and educational treatment Becoming A Helper - Chapter 6 (7)
Behavior Therapy ©2011, Brooks/ Cole Publishing, A Division of Cengage Learning, Inc. The focus of this approach is on: observable behavior current determinants of behavior learning experiences to promote change rigorous assessment and evaluation Becoming A Helper - Chapter 6(8)
Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy ©2011, Brooks/ Cole Publishing, A Division of Cengage Learning, Inc. Emotional problems are the result of one’s beliefs, not events The aim: to change disturbances in thinking, feeling, and behaving Cognitive techniques: teaching clients coping statements, disputing faulty beliefs, psychoeducation methods Emotive techniques: rational emotive imagery, humor, shame- attacking exercises, role playing, unconditional acceptance Behavioral techniques: self-management strategies and carrying out homework in daily life Becoming A Helper - Chapter 6(9)
Cognitive Therapy ©2011, Brooks/ Cole Publishing, A Division of Cengage Learning, Inc. Changing how people think tends to result in changing feeling and behaving (schema restructuring) Clients are encouraged to weigh the evidence in support of their beliefs This approach emphasizes a collaboration between counselor and client Counselors guide clients to discover the connection between thinking, feeling, and behaving Becoming A Helper - Chapter 6 (10)
Reality Therapy ©2011, Brooks/ Cole Publishing, A Division of Cengage Learning, Inc. Based on choice theory, reality therapy is active, directive, and didactic Emphasis is on total behavior: acting, thinking, feeling, and physiology Wubbolding (2000) summarizes the procedures for reality therapy through the WDEP model: W= wants, needs, and perceptions D= direction and doing E= evaluation of total behavior P= planning and commitment Becoming A Helper - Chapter 6(11)
Solution-Focused Brief Therapy ©2011, Brooks/ Cole Publishing, A Division of Cengage Learning, Inc. Techniques focus on the future and how best to solve problems rather than on understanding the cause of problems Exception questions ask clients to identify times when their problems did not exist The miracle question allows clients to think of their life without their problem Scaling questions require clients to rate their improvement on a scale of zero to 10 The approach tends to be brief and collaborative Becoming A Helper - Chapter 6(12)
Narrative Therapy ©2011, Brooks/ Cole Publishing, A Division of Cengage Learning, Inc. Examines people’s stories and the meaning of their stories Based on assumption that there is no absolute reality Clients are invited to view their stories from different perspectives and co-create an alternative life story Process involves identifying how societal standards are internalized by the client in a limiting manner Therapist collaborates with client and avoids predicting, interpreting, or pathologizing Therapist and client engage in externalizing conversations Becoming A Helper - Chapter 6 (13)
Family Systems Approaches ©2011, Brooks/ Cole Publishing, A Division of Cengage Learning, Inc. Individuals are best understood through assessing interactions within the entire family A client’s problematic behavior may serve a purpose for the family Problems are often passed on over many generations Actions by any individual in the family influence other family members This approach focuses on here-and-now interactions in the family system Becoming A Helper - Chapter 6 (14)
An Integrative Approach to the Helping Process ©2011, Brooks/ Cole Publishing, A Division of Cengage Learning, Inc. Each theory has something unique to contribute to a counselor’s style Remain open to the value inherent in each of the theories of counseling It is possible to draw techniques from most of the contemporary theoretical models Developing an integrative perspective takes much study and clinical practice Becoming A Helper - Chapter 6 (15)
Important Terms to Know Adlerian approach Behavior therapy Choice theory Cognitive behavioral approaches Cognitive therapy Cycle of counseling Exception questions Existential perspective Experiential approaches Family systems perspective Family therapy Gestalt therapy Inferiority feelings Integrative model Life tasks Lifestyle Miracle question Narrative therapy Person-centered approach Post modern approaches Pre-therapy change Psychoanalytic approach Psychodynamic approaches Rational emotive behavior therapy Reality therapy Relationship oriented approaches Restricted existence Scaling questions Social interest Solution-focused brief therapy Summary feedback Total behavior WDEP model
Person-Centered Therapy (Carl Rogers) Definition: “Person-centered therapy, which is also known as client-centered, non-directive, or Rogerian therapy.
Copyright © 2012 Brooks/Cole, a division of Cengage Learning, Inc. Chapter 13 Using Counseling Theories in Groups ©2016. Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.
Theory and Practice of Counseling and Psychotherapy Psych422 Chapter11: Reality Therapy.
Theory and Practice of Counseling and Psychotherapy Psych422 Chapter7: Person-centered Therapy.
Theory and Practice of Counseling and Psychotherapy Psych422 Chapter 5: Adlerian Therapy Theory and Practice of Counseling and Psychotherapy - Chapter.
Postmodern Approaches ©2013 Brooks/Cole Cengage Learning.
Reality Therapy (William Glasser) Basic Beliefs Key person: William Glasser Key theory: Choice theory and control theory Focus on responsibility for.
Theoretical Approaches Gestalt Group Therapy Gestalt is a German word for whole or configuration and Gestalt therapy is concerned with the foreground.
Theory and Practice of Counseling and Psychotherapy Chapter 14 by Gerald Corey Brooks/Cole, A division of Cengage Learning.
Review of Chapter 13 EPSY 6363 Dr. Sparrow Postmodern Therapy.
Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Cognitive Behavior Therapy, Self-Directed Coping Methods, and ACT Chapter 27.
© 2011 Brooks/Cole, A Division of Cengage Learning Chapter 3 The Counseling Process We shall not cease from exploration And the end of all our exploring.
Theory and Practice of Counseling and Psychotherapy Psych422 Chapter13: Postmodern Approach (solution-focused brief therapy and narrative therapy)
Noemi Legaspi-Valverde. Albert Ellis Born September 27, 1913 REBT was founded in the 1950’s Believed the role of the therapist was to help clients understand.
Alfred Adler INDIVIDUAL PSYCHOLOGY. 2 Alfred Adler 1902Joined Freud's discussion group on neurotics 1910Co-founder with Freud Journal of Psychoanalyses.
Cognitive Behavior Modification Chapter 27. Cognitive Behavior Modification Cognition –Belief, thought, expectancy, attitude, or perception Cognitive.
Family Systems Therapy. Theory and Practice of Counseling and Psychotherapy - Chapter 14 (1) The Family Systems Perspective Individuals – are best understood.
Theory and Practice of Counseling and Psychotherapy Psych 422 Chapter 1: Introduction and Overview Theory and Practice of Counseling and Psychotherapy.
Individual Psychology Alfred Adler Chapter 3. The Case of James 16-year-old single African American male Behavior problems that might interfere with adjustment.
Copyright © 2005 Wadsworth Group. Brooks/Cole is an imprint of the Wadsworth Group, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. Family Systems Therapy.
Theory and Practice of Counseling and Psychotherapy Psych422 Chapter6: Existential Therapy.
Theory and Practice of Counseling and Psychotherapy Chapter 10 by Gerald Corey Brooks/Cole, A division of Cengage Learning.
Person-Centered Therapy. A reaction against the directive and psychoanalytic approaches Challenges: The assumption that “the counselor knows best” The.
© 2011 Brooks/Cole, A Division of Cengage Learning Chapter 10 Brief Counseling If you want truly to understand something, try to change it. Kurt Lewin.
4 | 1 Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. Alfred Adler.
Rational Emotive Behavioral Therapy (REBT) View of Human Nature: human beings have both rational and irrational thinking are self-talking and self-evaluating.
Free Powerpoint Templates Page 1 Free Powerpoint Templates Solution Focused Brief Therapy Megan Rohlik Solution Focused Brief Therapy Megan Rohlik.
Postmodern Approaches. Overview Postmodernists believe in the subjective realities that do not exist independent of observational processes. Social constructionism.
Cognitive Behavior Therapy Dr. Sparrow EPSY 6363.
Corey, 8e, ©2011, Brooks/ Cole – Cengage Learning Chapter 10 Issues in Theory and Practice.
On Becoming a Counselor “One of the most important instruments you will have to work with as a counselor is yourself as a person.” G. Corey, 2005.
LEADING GROWTH AND COUNSELING GROUPS Joining Together: Group Theory and Group Skills 11 th Edition David W. Johnson Frank P. Johnson.
Theory and Practice of Counseling and Psychotherapy Chapter 11 by Gerald Corey Brooks/Cole, A division of Cengage Learning.
Existential Therapy. Have capacity for self-awareness Have freedom, responsibility, and choice Strive for identity Establish meaningful relationships.
Strategies to create change Skills training for CTO staff.
Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy Chapter 6. The Case of Alan 27-year-old married Caucasian male Complains of symptoms of anxiety Unsure of counseling;
CHAPTER 13: Existential Therapy in the Treatment of Substance Abuse and Addiction Substance Abuse and Addiction Treatment: Practical Application of Counseling.
Class 3 – Psychoanalytic Dr. Charles Pemberton. The Development of Personality ORAL STAGE(First year) Related to later mistrust and rejection issues.
DENISE HASHEMPOUR Cognitive Model. Rationale An individual is not a passive recipient of stimuli. They are actively engaged in interpreting events in.
Psychological Therapies. Introduction Psychotherapy Emotionally charged, confiding interaction between a trained therapist and someone who suffers from.
Gestalt Therapy View of Human Nature: people are self-reliant spontaneous capable of self-regulation able to reintegrate the disown parts of themselves.
Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Mai Thao, Chrissy Evensen, Jenna Schmidt, Tasha Goemer, Anne Roach.
Transparency 0 Copyright © 2009 Wadsworth Group. Brooks/Cole is an imprint of the Wadsworth Group, a division of Cengage Learning, Inc. Theory and Practice.
Counselling Framework Tommy Sheppard, M.Ed (counselling)
6/21/2016PSYCHOLOGY FOR NURSES by Arnel Banaga Salgado1.
Chapter Nine: Choice Theory and the new Reality Therapy.
Cognitive Therapies Module 71. Cognitive Therapy Assumes our thinking effects our feelings –Thoughts intervene between events and our emotional reactions.
Chapter 14 Cognitive-Behavioral Therapies. What are Cognitive- Behavioral Therapies? cognitive-behavioral therapies combine cognitive and behavioral techniques.
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