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CHAPTER 6 Theory Applied to Practice
Five Contemporary Theoretical Orientations ©2011, Brooks/ Cole Publishing, A Division of Cengage Learning, Inc. 1) The psychodynamic approaches 2) The experiential and relationship-oriented approaches 3) The cognitive behavioral approaches 4) The postmodern approaches 4) The family systems approaches Becoming A Helper - Chapter 6 (1)
Psychoanalytic Approach ©2011, Brooks/ Cole Publishing, A Division of Cengage Learning, Inc. Longer-term exploration of personality Main goal: The restructuring of personality Emphasis on transference and countertransference Major techniques: Maintaining the analytic framework free association, interpretation, dream analysis, analysis of resistance, and analysis of transference Many other theoretical models have developed as reactions against psychoanalytic approach Becoming A Helper - Chapter 6(2)
Adlerian Approach ©2011, Brooks/ Cole Publishing, A Division of Cengage Learning, Inc. Clients are viewed as creative, active, and decisional Stresses the individual’s positive capacities to live fully in society Therapeutic relationship is a collaborative partnership Social interest: A sense of identification with humanity, a feeling of belonging, and a concern with bettering society Becoming A Helper - Chapter 6(3)
Adlerian Approach ©2011, Brooks/ Cole Publishing, A Division of Cengage Learning, Inc. Inferiority feelings, the wellspring of creativity, often motivate people to strive for mastery, superiority, and perfection Focus on challenging clients’ mistaken notions and faulty assumptions Emphasis on examining lifestyle and clients’ functioning in the life tasks Cognitive, behavioral, and experiential techniques are used (e.g., encouragement, early recollections, homework) Becoming A Helper - Chapter 6(4)
Existential Approach ©2011, Brooks/ Cole Publishing, A Division of Cengage Learning, Inc. We define ourselves by our choices Freedom and responsibility go together Anxiety is part of the human condition Death gives significance to life Emphasis is on understanding the world of the client Becoming A Helper - Chapter 6(5)
Person-Centered Approach ©2011, Brooks/ Cole Publishing, A Division of Cengage Learning, Inc. Clients are at the center of the helping process Clients are able to change without a high degree of structure and direction from the therapist The aim of counseling is to assist clients’ growth process Effective helping is based on the quality of the helping relationship Techniques are secondary to the counselor’s attitudes Becoming A Helper - Chapter 6 (5)
Gestalt Approach ©2011, Brooks/ Cole Publishing, A Division of Cengage Learning, Inc. Focuses on here-and-now experiencing and present awareness With awareness, clients are able to change Counselors suggest experiments that are done by clients (e.g., symbolic dialogues, exaggerating a gesture) The approach emphasizes the I/Thou dialogue The focus is on doing rather than “talking about” Becoming A Helper - Chapter 6 (6)
Cognitive Behavioral Approaches ©2011, Brooks/ Cole Publishing, A Division of Cengage Learning, Inc. Cognitive behavioral approaches share these attributes: a collaborative relationship between client and therapist psychological distress: the result of faulty cognitive processes a focus on changing cognitions to produce desired changes in affect and behavior a time-limited and educational treatment Becoming A Helper - Chapter 6 (7)
Behavior Therapy ©2011, Brooks/ Cole Publishing, A Division of Cengage Learning, Inc. The focus of this approach is on: observable behavior current determinants of behavior learning experiences to promote change rigorous assessment and evaluation Becoming A Helper - Chapter 6(8)
Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy ©2011, Brooks/ Cole Publishing, A Division of Cengage Learning, Inc. Emotional problems are the result of one’s beliefs, not events The aim: to change disturbances in thinking, feeling, and behaving Cognitive techniques: teaching clients coping statements, disputing faulty beliefs, psychoeducation methods Emotive techniques: rational emotive imagery, humor, shame- attacking exercises, role playing, unconditional acceptance Behavioral techniques: self-management strategies and carrying out homework in daily life Becoming A Helper - Chapter 6(9)
Cognitive Therapy ©2011, Brooks/ Cole Publishing, A Division of Cengage Learning, Inc. Changing how people think tends to result in changing feeling and behaving (schema restructuring) Clients are encouraged to weigh the evidence in support of their beliefs This approach emphasizes a collaboration between counselor and client Counselors guide clients to discover the connection between thinking, feeling, and behaving Becoming A Helper - Chapter 6 (10)
Reality Therapy ©2011, Brooks/ Cole Publishing, A Division of Cengage Learning, Inc. Based on choice theory, reality therapy is active, directive, and didactic Emphasis is on total behavior: acting, thinking, feeling, and physiology Wubbolding (2000) summarizes the procedures for reality therapy through the WDEP model: W= wants, needs, and perceptions D= direction and doing E= evaluation of total behavior P= planning and commitment Becoming A Helper - Chapter 6(11)
Solution-Focused Brief Therapy ©2011, Brooks/ Cole Publishing, A Division of Cengage Learning, Inc. Techniques focus on the future and how best to solve problems rather than on understanding the cause of problems Exception questions ask clients to identify times when their problems did not exist The miracle question allows clients to think of their life without their problem Scaling questions require clients to rate their improvement on a scale of zero to 10 The approach tends to be brief and collaborative Becoming A Helper - Chapter 6(12)
Narrative Therapy ©2011, Brooks/ Cole Publishing, A Division of Cengage Learning, Inc. Examines people’s stories and the meaning of their stories Based on assumption that there is no absolute reality Clients are invited to view their stories from different perspectives and co-create an alternative life story Process involves identifying how societal standards are internalized by the client in a limiting manner Therapist collaborates with client and avoids predicting, interpreting, or pathologizing Therapist and client engage in externalizing conversations Becoming A Helper - Chapter 6 (13)
Family Systems Approaches ©2011, Brooks/ Cole Publishing, A Division of Cengage Learning, Inc. Individuals are best understood through assessing interactions within the entire family A client’s problematic behavior may serve a purpose for the family Problems are often passed on over many generations Actions by any individual in the family influence other family members This approach focuses on here-and-now interactions in the family system Becoming A Helper - Chapter 6 (14)
An Integrative Approach to the Helping Process ©2011, Brooks/ Cole Publishing, A Division of Cengage Learning, Inc. Each theory has something unique to contribute to a counselor’s style Remain open to the value inherent in each of the theories of counseling It is possible to draw techniques from most of the contemporary theoretical models Developing an integrative perspective takes much study and clinical practice Becoming A Helper - Chapter 6 (15)
Important Terms to Know Adlerian approach Behavior therapy Choice theory Cognitive behavioral approaches Cognitive therapy Cycle of counseling Exception questions Existential perspective Experiential approaches Family systems perspective Family therapy Gestalt therapy Inferiority feelings Integrative model Life tasks Lifestyle Miracle question Narrative therapy Person-centered approach Post modern approaches Pre-therapy change Psychoanalytic approach Psychodynamic approaches Rational emotive behavior therapy Reality therapy Relationship oriented approaches Restricted existence Scaling questions Social interest Solution-focused brief therapy Summary feedback Total behavior WDEP model
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