STATUTORY REQUIREMENTS Dimensions to accommodate facilities as required under Petroleum Rules Dimensional requirements & distance requirements per MORTH Norms. Requirement of Local statutory bodies such as Municipalities, State PWD, Fire Service Departments etc. for setbacks & distance from the reference point of the road on which outlet is proposed to be located. Sites for Retail outlet shall comply with the following :
CCOE RULES Sites under selection must be able to comply with the following : Vent pipe shall observe a clear horizontal distance/ht of 4 mtr from adjoining property or likely sources of fire. DUs must observe a clear distance of 6 mtr from a building, boundary etc. Tanks shall be placed at a minimum distance of 1.5 mtr from boundary wall (1.2mtr high)of retail outlet. Unloading point shall observe an allround clear distance of minimum 3 mtrs from property line/ bldgs.
MORTH NORMS Sites must be so chosen that they comply with the following : Minimum size of the plot as per MORTH guidelines. Minimum distance from intersecting roads as per the guidelines of MORTH. Minimum distance between two fuel stations as per the guidelines of MORTH. SITE SELECTION
MORTH NORMS On undivided carriage way in plain terrain – 35 mtrs X 35 mtrs On divided carriage way in plain terrain – 35 mtrs (F) X 45 mtrs In hilly terrain – 20 mtrs X 20 mtrs In urban stretches – 20 mtrs X 20 mtrs Minimum Plot Sizes Required :
MORTH NORMS With NHs / SHs /MDR mtrs With rural roads of 3.5 mtr width mtrs Rural roads less than 3.5 mtr width mtrs Minimum Distances from Intersecting Roads in plain terrain & non urban stretches :
With NHs / SHs /MDR mtrs With all other roads / tracks mtrs Minimum Distances from Intersecting Roads in hilly terrain & non urban stretches : MORTH NORMS
Following guidelines are applicable in areas with population more than 20,000 and less than 1 lakh: Any road 3.5 mtr wide and above mtrs With roads less than 3.5 mtr wide mtrs Minimum Distances from Intersecting Roads in plain and rolling terrain & urban stretches : MORTH NORMS
Following guidelines are applicable in areas with population more than 1 lakh : Any category of roads mtrs Minimum Distances from Intersecting Roads in plain and rolling terrain & urban stretches : MORTH NORMS
Following guideline is applicable : Any category of roads mtrs Minimum Distances from Intersecting Roads in hilly terrain & urban stretches :
MORTH NORMS Following guidelines are applicable : Undivided carriage way(For both sides of carriageway) – 300 mtrs Divided carriage way – 1000 mtrs (with no gap in median) Note : The distance norms include deceleration and acceleration lanes. Minimum Distances between two outlets in plain terrain in rural (non urban) areas :
MORTH NORMS Following guidelines are applicable : Undivided carriage way – 300 mtrs (clear distance) Divided carriage way – 300 mtrs (clear distance) Minimum Distances between two outlets in hilly terrain and urban stretches :
MORTH NORMS Guidelines on Right Of Way (ROW) and Building Line : Width of ROW prescribed in Plain and Rolling Terrain : 40M to 60M Building Line : In Plain and Rolling Terrain – 80 M In hilly Terrain - 70 M Note :1 Fuel Pumps are to be located beyond Building Lines 2 Changes have been proposed and the drafts have been received by Oil companies
MORTH NORMS OTHER GUIDELINES: Station shall be atleast 150mm below the level at the edge of Highway. Buffer Strip must start from the edge of the ROW and must extend minimum 3M inside the plot. Minimum length of Buffer Strip shall be 12 M. Deceleration lane shall be 5.5 M wide and 70 M long with a shoulder of 2.25M. Acceleration lane shall be 5.5 M wide and 100 M long with a curvature of minimum radius of 650M for the first 70 M.
THUMB RULES Utmost care to be exercised while selecting site. When all other things are equal emphasis must be placed on / preference given to: Sites with Minimum or Nil EARTHWORK Sites where the SOIL is good – not clayey or black cotton in nature. Clayey or black cotton soil increase cost of construction. Sites where power and water are available at or in close proximity to site. No overhead lines passing through plot. Sites where there are no trees in the approach particularly under the custody of forest department. Site from which rain water drainage arrangement is available for discharge into a proper nullah or drain. Where visibility is better.
FORMAT OF TECHNICAL VISIT TO SITE
EVALUATION OF LAND BY : SITE SELECTION COMMITTEE
The following MUST be ensured jointly by the Site Selection Committee members: Physically verify the dimensions of the site. Estimate average depth of filling or cutting by suitable engineering methods.[ 5MX5M GRID] Measure the distance of Cross-roads/Intersections and Identify locations of check barriers in case of highways. Jointly record field observations and sign. Notify Applicants before visit to site - in a legally acceptable way, mentioning date and time of visit EVALUATION OF LAND BY : SITE SELECTION COMMITTEE
BUDGETTING & NPCB
TRADE CODES OLD SYSTEMNEW SYSTEM DESCRIPTIONCODE1st DIGIT2nd DIGIT3rd DIGIT CO OWNED STATION1001LONE MS 1CLASS OF CITY CO OWNED MS & CO LEASED HSD1062LONE HSD 2A 1 CO OWNED HSD & CO LEASED MS1073MS/HSD 3B 2 CO LEASED STN1104 C1 3 LEASED STN (DLR IS THE LESSOR)1195 C2 4 DEALER OWNED STN1206 D 5 DEALER OWNED LAND LEASED1257 E 6 DEALER OWNED INCL LAND/PUMPS/TANKS1318
CLASSES OF MARKET “A” CLASS- CITIES OF POPULATION>10 LAKH “B” CLASS- CITIES WITH POPULATION BETWEEN 2LAKH TO 10 LAKH “C” CLASS –OTHER THAN A,B& E MARKETS “D” CLASS- OUTLETS ON NH/SH “E” CLASS- REMOTE AREAS OTHER THAN NH/SH
BUDGETTING / NPCB Investment must depend on returns. It is advisable to choose, where choice is available, on the following alternatives : Driveway : Paver block / RCC Boundary wall / Chain link fencing. City pylon /Signature pylon. Canopy banding with RVI signages /Painted with RVI signages. RCC box culvert / Pipe culvert / Hume pipe (90cm dia.) Costing has a bearing on IRR & Payback Period.
REVISED INVESTMENT POLICY GUIDELINES
Before developing proposal for investment, please ensure that the following conditions are met: Valid dealership agreement is available in our records 119 category outlets should be upgraded to Club HP during the modernisation No investments in the outlets where samples of MS, HSD, Power, Turbojet have failed in the last three years period from the date of implementation of this revised policy (05 th Feb 2006). Date of drawing the sample to be considered for calculating the three year period. REVISED INVESTMENT POLICY GUIDELINES
DEALER LEASED OUTLETS (119) Applicable for : Conversion of dealer owned to 119 Resitements under 119 Existing as well as new outlets under 119 Tenure of lease for site and superstructure : Preferred 15 yrs with renewal option of yrs – for new outlets Min 10 yrs for earlier dealer owned outlets being converted Rentals: Fair market rentals up to a max of 8% of market value based on negotiations >8 % : to put up to MCC (HQO) Rentals to be recovered as additional licence fee REVISED INVESTMENT POLICY GUIDELINES
Investment The total investment (first time as well as second time put together) at any 119 outlet should not exceed the limits specified below: TMF sales - KL pm Max investment in lakhs Authority to approve AR 150 to 200Max 30 lakhsRBC upto 25 Lakhs 201 to 300Max 40 Lakhs 301 to 400Max 50 lakhsZonal bids upto 50 Lakhs above 401Max 100 lakhsMCC upto 100 lakhs For outlets selling 125 to 150 KL pm and having the potential between 150 KL to 200 KL pm : Proposal to be approved by Zonal bids committee Average sales pm is the min last six months sales from the time of proposal. The reference of AR No and amount spent should be specified in the AR for second investment IRR should be atleast 15%. The year of lease should be starting year for net margin calculations for IRR. The IRR shall be calculated for 16 yrs min. 119 REVISED INVESTMENT POLICY GUIDELINES
What infrastructure can be put up ?? FIRST INVESTMENT Canopy Toilet blocks Extension of sales bldg or an additional bldg for ARB activities Driveway – Asphalting, RCC or Paver block Yardlighting Landscaping Lube shelving, Tiling, Al glazing, Curtain wall with HP logo RVI elements – Pylon, spreaders, signages Club HP elements – Q&Q tower, Quick care point Hoardings and high mast Note : Payback should conclude atleast 2 yrs before the expiry of lease. SECOND INVESTMENT Extension/modifications to canopy made earlier Extension of DW area –RCC/PB where investments were made earlier Extension of sales bldg or an additional bldg for ARB activities where investments were made earlier Extension/Modification of Toilet block where investment was made earlier. Additional yard lighting Landscaping 119 M & R of the facilities provided by the corporation should be carried out by the dealer at his cost. REVISED INVESTMENT POLICY GUIDELINES
DEALER OWNED OUTLETS (120) Applicable for : Outlets where dealer has taken site on lease and the lease has expired and he is unable to renew the head lease to offer sublease to OMC Minimum qualifying norm is 150 KL TMF pm. Investment – Maximum 8 lakhs or limited to 3 years payback whichever is lower. Investment can be done on – Driveway, Ingress/Egress and yardlighting One time investment Investment should be covered through a BG for a period of 3 yrs. Approval – Zonal bids committee REVISED INVESTMENT POLICY GUIDELINES
CONVERSION OF DEALER OWNED OUTLETS (120) TO COMPANY OWNED OUTLETS (100) Tenure of lease for site and superstructure : Preferred 15 yrs with renewal option of yrs – for new outlets Min 10 yrs for earlier dealer owned outlets being converted Rentals : Fair market rentals up to a max of 8% of market value based on negotiations >8 % : to put up to MCC (HQO) Minimum qualifying norm : LONE MS 80 KLPM MS/HSD or LONE HSD 200 KLPM TMF Min. IRR 15%, calculated for minimum 16 yrs. The year of lease should be starting year for net margin calculations for IRR. REVISED INVESTMENT POLICY GUIDELINES
CONVERSION OF DEALER LEASED OUTLETS (119) TO COMPANY OWNED OUTLETS (100) Tenure of lease for site and superstructure : No change in terms and rental. Preferred 15 yrs with renewal option of yrs – for new outlets Min 10 yrs for earlier dealer owned outlets being converted Rentals : Fair market rentals UP TO A MAXIMUM of 8% of market value based on negotiations >8 % : to put up to MCC (HQO) Minimum qualifying norm : LONE MS 80 KLPM MS/HSD or LONE HSD 200 KLPM TMF Min. IRR 15%, calculated for minimum 16 yrs. The year of lease should be starting year for net margin calculations for IRR. REVISED INVESTMENT POLICY GUIDELINES
RETAIL VISUAL IDENTITY
To be chosen keeping in view visibility, volumes & presence of similar identities of Competitors. Depending on the above we can choose : City Pylon / Signature Pylon. ACM Facia Banding on Canopy & Building/ Painting RVI Signages on Canopy & Building. Orientation of Logo on canopy- decided on visibility.
WHAT IS SAFETY ? Conventional English language Dictionary describes SAFETY - FREEDOM FROM RISK OR DANGER
Need for safety PROTECTION OF PERSONNEL FROM SUFFERING PROTECTION OF PLANT AND PROPERTY UNINTERRUPTED PRODUCTION STATUTORY REQUIREMENT WELFARE OF THE COMMUNITY BY AVOIDING POLLUTION REPUTATION AND SELF RESPECT. PREVENT FINANCIAL LOSSES
Safety policy of OMC AS AN INTEGRAL PART OF ITS BUSINESS, OMC BELIEVES THAT NO WORK OR SERVICE OR ACTIVITY IS SO IMPORTANT OR URGENT THAT SAFETY BE OVERLOOKED OR COMPROMISED. SAFETY OF THE EMPLOYEES AND PUBLIC, PROTECTION OF THEIR AS WELL AS CORPORATION’S ASSETS SHALL BE PARAMOUNT.
CORPORATION CONSIDERS THAT SAFETY IS ONE OF THE IMPORTANT TOOLS TO ENHANCE PRODUCTIVITY AND TO REDUCE NATIONAL LOSSES. THE CORPORATION WILL CONSTANTLY ENDEAVOUR TO ACHIEVE AND MAINTAIN HIGH STANDARDS OF SAFETY IN ITS OPERATIONS. Safety policy of OMC
1.VIOLATION OF PROCEDURES / RULES. 2.LACK OF PROPER INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE. 3.PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT NOT USED. 4.LACK OF COMMUNICATION. 5.HOUSEKEEPING. 6.UNSAFE CONDITIONS. 7.UNSAFE ACTS. 8.IMPROPER TOOLS AND EQUIPMENT. 9.INATTENTION / NEGLIGENCE. 10.POOR JUDGMENT. 10 common causes of accidents
Risk hazards at a retail outlet..1 Hazardous ActivitiesRisk Potential Dangers Unloading of product from tank truck Static electricitySpillages and fires Working at height for canopy Fall from heightInjury, fatality Operation of DG Set Improper installation / operation Hearing impairment, shock, fatality Working in confined spaceLack of ventilation Temporary/permane nt physical impairment, asphyxia, fatality Fueling activities Static electricity, excess filling Fire and fatality
Hazardous Activities Risk Potential Dangers Working in tank Presence of hydrocarbon Injury, asphyxia, fatality Construction of a tank Soil / Wall collapse Injury - Temporary or Permanent, fatality Construction of building Scaffolding failure / unsafe working condition Injury - Temporary or Permanent, fatality Electrical Short circuit / under/oversizing of equipments Shock, injury, fire, fatality Risk hazards at a retail outlet..2
Hazardous Activities Mitigatory Measures Unloading of product from tank truck. Provide earth pits. Ensure continuity of earthing. Use only hoses with couplings. Allow relaxation time (10 mins.). Ensure electrical continuity in hoses. Ensure men involved do not wear synthetic clothing and rubber shoes. Working at height. Do it under supervision. Wear protective equipments like safety belt and helmets. Secure scaffolding. Ensure adequate lighting. Risk mitigatory measures at a retail outlet.. a
Hazardous Activities Mitigatory Measures Operation of DG Set Provide acoustics enclosure. Ventilate the exhaust. Earth the body and neutral. Working in confined space Provide adequate ventilation. Ensure the space is gas free. Fueling activities Ensure proper earthing is available. Ensure workmen do not wear synthetic clothing. Ensure workmen do not wear rubber shoes and wear only leather shoes which provides better conduction. Risk mitigatory measures at a retail outlet.. b
Hazardous ActivitiesMitigatory Measures Working inside a tankTank must be gas freed. The presence of gas must be checked with a gas meter. Construction of a tank Provide adequate shoring. Provide barricades and caution boards. Ensure workmen wear protective equipments. Ensure usage of proper lifting equipments. Construction of building Ensure proper and secure scaffolding. Ensure safe footwear. Risk mitigatory measures at a retail outlet.. c
Hazardous ActivitiesMitigatory Measures Electrical Ensure cables of right sizes. Ensure proper insulation resistance. Ensure proper earthing. Ensure use of gloves, rubber mats Ensure electrical isolation for working Risk mitigatory measures at a retail outlet.. d
Two men died while drilling on a tank Learning : Modification of tank manhole was in progress for the purpose of Automation. The tank had not been degassed. Alteration on the manhole cover could have been carried out at a safe place in the outlet itself or tank should have been degassed before carrying out any hot work. Recent Accidents at our outlets & Learnings..1 One worker while died fixing false ceiling during night. Learning : The worker was not wearing protective equipments like safety belts and helmets. It is mandatory to wear protective equipments while working at heights and should be done under supervision.
One person got killed inside a tank pit during the progress of work. Learning : The sides of the tank pit caved in bringing down the masonry also. It is mandatory to shore the sides of a tank pit during construction and also cut the soil at or close to its angle of repose. One person died while cleaning a tank. Learning : The tank was being cleaned to make it ready for receiving Ethanol blended petrol. The workmen had got inside the tank without checking / ensuring that the tank had been freed of residual gases. It is mandatory to degas tanks which are to be cleaned. Recent Accidents at our outlets & Learnings..2
Fire occurred in ARB area. Learning : The accident took place on account of undersized cabling used by our ARB partner. It is incumbent for ARB partners to specify the size of the cabling against loads to be catered to and take clearance from OMC’s Engineers wherever ARB partners need to provide cabling under the terms of agreement. One person got electrocuted while operating a mobile DG set. Learning : The DG Set had not been earthed at all. It is mandatory to ensure 4 earthings – 2 for body and 2 for neutral – for all types of DG Sets. Recent Accidents at OMC outlets & Learnings..3
A major fire occurred in an outlet having ALDS facilities during unloading of a POL tanker. Fire occurred during unloading of tank truck at a few retail outlets. Learning : Accidents took place on account of static electric discharge and there were no earth pits in all the locations for tank truck decantation. Also, the hoses did not have proper couplings and electrical continuity. It is mandatory to have : Dedicated earthing arrangement for tank truck decantation. Brass / Aluminium or any other non sparking metallic couplings. Hoses with electrical continuity. Recent Accidents at OMC outlets & Learnings..4
SAFETY The following must be ensured as measures of Safety/Security : Nuts on valves and manhole nuts are welded so that pilferage / adulteration could be reduced. Relaxation time of atleast 10 minutes is allowed before sampling from/gauging of TTs Before unloading of T/T, the T/T must be bonded to earth pit Dealer/s and his/their staff are trained in safe method of unloading T/T Plastic buckets / funnels/metal buckets with plastic wire wrapped around are not be used. Sampling jars are be inserted using only manila ropes. Nylon ropes are not used for lowering sample jars. Dealer and their men at retail outlets do not wear synthetic clothing and rubber footwear
SAFETY The following must be ensured as measures of Safety/Security Dedicated earthing for unloading of T/Ts. Earth pits checked and records are available at respective outlets. 2 dry buckets of sand and two portable type fire extinguishers-for each DU. Any accident reported to the nearest magistrate or offices in-charge of the nearest police station and the Chief Controller of Explosives, Nagpur. List of important phone numbers like that of statutory authorities and staff concerned must be displayed in each outlet.
SAFETY AT RETAIL OUTLETS THE FOLLOWING SAFE PRACTICES SHOULD BE ENSURED : Availability of Earthing for dispensers, tanks. Dedicated Earthing for T/T decantation in all outlets. Only electrically continuous hoses with proper couplings are used in decantation. Availability of two FES and two buckets of dry sand per pump. FES are checked periodically - once in six months. CO 2 type fire extinguisher is provided in Electrical room / panel room. Adequate all round clearances around electrical Panel. Availability of Rubber mat and gloves.
SAFETY AT RETAIL OUTLETS THE FOLLOWING SAFE PRACTICES SHOULD BE ENSURED : Only armoured cables are used. Only FLP glands are used. There is NO LEAK from Lipseal. Cables do not pass below Lipseal. In electronic pumps : Electronic Totaliser readings taken. Shift total (where facility is available) taken. Verify the no. of calibrations made (where there is electronic calibration facility). AMC agency checks and confirms the integrity of electronics – No external circuits are introduced, etc.
Following must be ensured : In electronic pumps : Electronic Totaliser readings are being taken. Shift total (where facility is available) are being taken. Verify the no. of calibrations made (where there is electronic calibration facility). AMC agency is reporting exceptions regarding integrity of electronics – External circuits are introduced, etc. Monitor performance of Comprehensive AMC for quality and timeliness.
Storage Tank Air Vent Junction Box ERA 230 V IN Combination Pump Signal for Motor 230 V Line In DC Voltage Motor Filter Meter Mech. Totaliser Solenoid Valve Nozzle Pulsar Display Keypad
Norms for the size of the Plot and offsite distance norms : The minimum plot size required for an ALDS Station is 21 mtrs X 18 mtrs. The minimum safety distances shall be as per the guidelines under SMPV rules. The site for ALDS should be so chosen that the following safety distances are observed to fill point and center of hard stand : From Hospitals/Schools/Colleges/Old Age Homes/Child Care Centre-50 mts. Shopping /Commercial Complexes /Multistoried residences more than Ground plus four floors – 22 mtrs Shopping /Commercial Complexes /Multistoried residences upto Ground plus four floors – 15 mtrs
SAFETY DISTANCES FOR ALDS
SAFETY DISTANCES - ALDS
AUTO LPG Following Safety Measures must be ensured : Unloading procedure as per OISD 210. Remote Operating Valves (ROVs) must close within 15 secs.This must be checked at each outlet every day. Quarterly maintenance of Fire Extinguishers (FE). Maintenance of Log on closure of ROVs, Gasometer Readings. Checking Earth.Resistance readings and continuity of earthing. Have unloading lines, vapour lines & dispensing line clearly marked. Check for corrosion of pipelines and tank manholes. Fire Extinguisher requirement as per OISD Kg – DCP – 2 10 Kg – DCP – 2 Unloading 10 Kg – DCP – 1 Dispenser 10 Kg – DCP – Transfer Pump
AUTO LPG Safety audit shall be carried out once in six months Electrical Audit shall be carried out once in a year.. Periodic testing of equipments/facilities as per OISD210. Training shall be imparted to the staff attached to ALDS as per OISD 210 and records maintained
AUTO LPG Following Precautions & Instructions must be displayed in Vernacular as well as English in the interest of Customer Safety and Awareness : LPG expands to 260 times from liquid state to gaseous state. Do not comb. Do not fill to more than 80% capacity. Fill only in vehicles approved by RTO for LPG. Avoid wearing silk/polyester clothing as it increases risk of Electro Static Discharge. Leakage of liquid LPG is more dangerous than gaseous LPG. LPG vapour is heavier than air by 1.5 times and tends to settle down. Do not start engine / drive away till filling nozzle is disconnected from filler cap of vehicle’s tank. Do not fill Auto LPG tank due for Pr. Testing. Do not re-fuel while LPG is being decanted. Do not handle LPG without protective gloves.
RECEIPT OF BULK LPG AT ALDS Check the functioning of level instruments. Bulk LPG at ALDS shall be unloaded preferably in non-peak hours. Unloading of bulk T/T shall be carried out only at location as approved by CCOE. The unloading of LPG shall be done in presence of the authorised person at ALDS & TT Crew. Fire extinguishers (2 nos of 10 Kg DCP type) to be positioned as an immediate aid to extinguish any fire except that of Liquid LPG. Storage tank pressure, temperature and level shall be recorded. Crew/ operating staff at ALDS shall closely monitor unloading activities.
UNLOADING METHOD FOR AUTO LPG T/T Tank Truck shall be placed in drive out position. After placement, engine master control switch shall be switched off. Minimum two wooden chokes shall be placed under wheels. Chassis and LPG vessels are to be earthed independently for which bare metal cleats shall be provided. Liquid and vapour hose shall be connected after examining integrity of joints using proper studs. Bolts shall not to be used. The main control panel and other panels shall be energized to activate automatic over fill protection, emergency shut down systems, remote operated valves and compressed air systems.
The readings of the level gauges provided on the tank/tanks at ALDS shall be recorded. The tank trucks valves shall be crack opened and checked for leaks. LPG level in the storage tanks shall be monitored at regular intervals so that it does not exceed 85 %. On completion of unloading operation, following activities shall be carried out in sequence. Close the valves of T/T and suck the linecontent for delivery into underground tank. The hose contents should be forced into the tank truck by controlled nitrogen pressure. Alternatively, use loading arms or hoses with isolation valves at both ends. Only vapours shall be vented through the vent. Isolate the valves at fill point. Remove hose connection and electrical-bonding wires. Cap the vapour/ liquid outlet lines of the tank trucks. Remove chokes placed under the wheels. Record the roto gauge, pressure gauge, temperature gauge readings and final readings provided on the fixed gauging systems of the storage tank/tanks at ALDS. UNLOADING METHOD FOR AUTO LPG T/T
TESTING : RELIEF AND PROTECTION SYSTEM
SAFETY INSPECTIONS / AUDIT
VAPOUR RECOVERY & SOLAR SYSTEM
VAPOUR RECOVERY There are three stages of Vapour loss : At the unloading T/T – I Stage( At loading points) Refuelling – II Stage ( Applicable to outlets) Tanks idling – II Stage ( Applicable to outlets) We have installed Stage II Vapour Recovery Systems (VRS) in 25 ROs. How it works ??..\E&P\solanki\CVS2 - Final Animation.exe..\E&P\solanki\CVS2 - Final Animation.exe This will also improve air quality in ROs. This is of importance in ROs with ARB activities like C-Store / Food / Refreshment shops. Also, VRS reduces risks of occupational hazards and fire.
SOLAR PV SYSTEM Is a method to utilise abundantly available Solar (and Wind) energy. Through solar cells light energy of the Sun gets converted to Electrical energy through high crystalline silica cells. From Solar Array Power is fed into battery system through MPPT charge controller. From Battery system through PCUs DC is converted to AC. Solar power is useful in places of unreliable Power supply. Solar Power cheaper in the long run in comparison to generators. Power is available is of high quality without spikes, surges etc. MPPT protects battery bank by charging them when charge is low & disconnecting battery bank from solar panel when the charge has reached desired levels.