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At Scene TRAFFIC SAFETY. Special Thanks  Freeport Fire Department  Maine Dept. of Transportation  Maine Municipal Association  Presque Isle Fire Department.

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Presentation on theme: "At Scene TRAFFIC SAFETY. Special Thanks  Freeport Fire Department  Maine Dept. of Transportation  Maine Municipal Association  Presque Isle Fire Department."— Presentation transcript:

1 At Scene TRAFFIC SAFETY

2 Special Thanks  Freeport Fire Department  Maine Dept. of Transportation  Maine Municipal Association  Presque Isle Fire Department

3 (NJ) August 27, A township senior citizens bus plowed into a parked firetruck Friday, sending the bus driver to the hospital. Bus rams a parked firetruck ENGINE STRUCK/FIREFIGHTER STRUCK- IN CALIFORNIA Tuesday, August 2, 2005 New Jersey Firefighter Killed by Suspected Drunk Driver Missouri EMT Struck and Killed at Scene

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5 Overview  The training also identifies parking practices for Fire Rescue Apparatus Emergency Vehicles Provide maximum protection and safety for personnel operating in or near moving vehicle traffic. Practices to keep personnel safe

6 Objectives  Maine Law  MUTCD  Liability  Duration of Incidents  Parts of a traffic control zone  Proper devices  Firefighter “Do’s and Don'ts

7 Maine Law 29-A, MRSA § 2091  Enacted as PL 2005 Ch. 167 under LD 1337  Defines a “public safety traffic flagger”  Specifies training requirements  Defines authority & necessary apparel  Explains registered owner’s liability

8 “Public Safety Traffic Flagger”  “A municipal firefighter, a volunteer firefighter, or a member of an emergency medical service licensed by the Dept. of Public Safety, MEMS who is trained in accordance with subsection 2 and authorized by the chief official of the fire department or emergency medical service to control vehicular traffic”

9 “Subsection 2--- training”  “all PSTF’s must receive training approved by the Dept. of Labor, Bureau of Labor Standards in controlling traffic on public ways. Training may consist of video instruction, instruction in a classroom, distribution of informational handbooks, or other educational materials or other training materials.”

10 “Subsection 3--- authority”  “….. a PSTF shall wear a reflective traffic vest or protective clothing as defined in 26 MRSA § 2103(3), and has the authority to control vehicular traffic on a public way at or to reroute vehicular traffic around a public safety emergency, accident, fire……., unless otherwise directed by a law enforcement officer.”

11 Subsection 4 “obeying the flagger ”  “….. an operator of a motor vehicle on a public way shall obey a request or signal of a person who is reasonable identifiable as a PSTF. A violation…… is a traffic violation.”

12 Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices (MUTCD)  NOT State law….but it is the national standard for all traffic control  Federal law 23 CFR adopts the MUTCD as “the national standard for all traffic control devices installed on any street, highway, or bicycle trail open to public travel.”  The MUTCD “describes the application of traffic control devices, but shall not be a legal requirement for their installation.”

13 Intermediate Traffic Incidents  Expected duration of 30 minutes to 2 hours. Diverting traffic past the blockage. Using a Detour for a short duration. Be aware of your visibility to oncoming traffic

14 “Minor” Traffic Incidents  Expected duration under 30 minutes Typically disabled vehicles and “fender benders” Diversion of traffic to other lanes is not needed or only needed briefly. If blocking a lane, move it to the shoulder as quickly as possible

15 Responder Safety Considerations  Training– all responders directing traffic shall be trained.  Worker Clothing – Responders exposed to the risks of moving traffic shall wear hi-visibility safety apparel meeting ANSI  Temp. traffic barriers – depends on type and length of the emergency, traffic volume & speed, time of day, type of road……  Speed reduction – Emergency Responders, lane restrictions, etc.

16 Liability Exposures  In addition to providing protection and safety for emergency personnel other considerations are: Through our actions, not causing or contributing to:  Injury to the public  Damage to other vehicles  Damage to property

17 Maine Tort Claims Act  The Maine Tort Claims Act addresses Entity Liability. The Rule: (Sovereign Immunity) The City/Town is immune.  City/Town Immunity Waived – Immunity may be waived under certain circumstances such as the ownership, maintenance and use of equipment or the construction or repair of streets, operation and use of public buildings.

18 Maine Tort Claims Act Cont’…  Immunity that overrides waiver: If a City/Town losses immunity in a waived category it may get it back if the acts are: Legislative Acts Judicial Acts Discretionary Function Decision not to provide certain services Prosecutorial Acts Leasing Government property to others

19 Maine Tort Claims Act Cont’…  An employee has no automatic immunity like a City/Town does. There is a $10,000 damage limit. City/Town must defend.  Employee actions may get immunity discretionary functions (such as making a decision on how to control traffic.  Control of traffic at an emergency scene can reasonably be considered a Discretionary Function.

20 Discretionary Function  Is the defendant an employee of a governmental entity?  Are the defendant’s actions reasonably encompassed by his employment duties as defined by job description, policy, ordinance or statute?

21 Discretionary Function Cont’…  Does the challenged act necessarily involve a basic governmental policy or objective?  Is the questioned act essential to the realization or accomplishment of that policy or objective?  Does the act require the exercise of judgment and expertise?  Does the employee possess lawful authority to do the challenged act?  Egregious conduct exceeds scope of discretionary function immunity.

22 Terminology  Advance Warning  Block  Buffer Zone  Downstream  Flagger  Shadow  Taper  Temporary Work Zone  Transition Zone  Upstream

23 ADVANCE WARNING AREA – tells traffic what to expect ahead (signs, flaggers, etc.) TRANSITION AREA – moves traffic out of its normal path BUFFER SPACE – provides protection for traffic & workers WORK AREA – set aside for workers, equipment and materials TERMINATION AREA – allows traffic to resume normal driving Lateral Buffer Space Activity Area

24 Advance Warning  Notification procedures that advises approaching motorist to transition from normal driving status to that required by the temporary emergency traffic control measures ahead.

25 Block  Positioning Fire Rescue on an angle to the lanes of traffic creating a physical barrier between upstream traffic and the work area.  Includes Block to the Left Block to the Right

26 Block  To the Left

27 Buffer Zone  The distance or space between personnel and vehicles in the protected work zone and nearby moving traffic  Turn your wheels so that a vehicle hitting from behind will not send your vehicle into the work area.

28 Downstream  The direction that traffic is moving as it travels away from the incident scene.

29 Flagger  A Fire Rescue member assigned to monitor approaching traffic and activate an emergency signal if the actions of a motorist do not conform to traffic control measures

30 Shadow  Protected area at a vehicle related roadway incident that is shielded by the block from apparatus

31 Taper  Action of merging several lanes of moving traffic to fewer lanes of moving traffic

32 Temporary Work Zone  The area of roadway within which emergency perform their Fire/EMS tasks at a vehicle related incident.

33 Transition Zone  Lanes of a roadway within which approaching motorist change their speed and position to comply with traffic control measures at an incident scene

34 Upstream  The direction that traffic is traveling from as the vehicles approach the incident scene.

35 Apparatus & Emergency Vehicle Benchmarks  Always position first arriving apparatus to protect scene, patients and emergency personnel.  Positioning of fire apparatus must create a safe parking area for EMS units.

36 Apparatus & Emergency Vehicle Benchmarks  When blocking with apparatus to protect the scene, establish a sufficient size work zone that includes (Shadow) Damaged vehicles Roadway debris Patient triage and treatment area Operating personnel, equipment and patients

37 Apparatus & Emergency Vehicle Benchmarks  Ambulances should be positioned within the protected work area with their rear patient loading door area angled away from the nearest lanes of moving traffic  Command shall stage unneeded emergency vehicles off the roadway or in a staging area

38 Apparatus & Emergency Vehicle Benchmarks  At all intersections or where the incident may be near the middle of the roadway, two or more sides of the incident may need to be protected.

39 Apparatus & Emergency Vehicle Benchmarks  Where a charged hoseline may be needed, block so the the pump panel is “downstream” to protect the pump operator

40 Apparatus & Emergency Vehicle Benchmarks  Traffic cones shall be deployed from the rear of the blocking apparatus toward approaching traffic Personnel shall place and retrieve cones while facing oncoming traffic Cones shall be deployed at 15-foot intervals upstream of the blocking apparatus

41 Apparatus & Emergency Vehicle Benchmarks  Emergency Scene Ahead signs shall be deployed at all roadway incidents, prior to the furthest cone.

42 Incident Command Benchmarks  The initial-arriving officer or member, and or Incident Commander must complete critical benchmarks to assure that a safe and protected work environment for emergency scene personnel is established.

43  Assure that the first arriving apparatus establishes an initial block  Assign parking location for all ambulances. Lanes shall be identified numerically as Breakdown, Lane 1, Lane 2. Typically, vehicles travel a lower speed in the lower number lanes Incident Command Benchmarks

44  Assign parking location for all ambulances. Directions “Right & Left” shall be as identified as from the approaching motorist point of view Instruct ambulance to block to the left or right to protect rear patient loading area.

45 Incident Command Benchmarks  Assure that all ambulances on scene are placed within the protected work area. (Shadow)  Assure that all patient loading into ambulances is done from within the protected work zone  Operate as or assign a Scene Safety Officer  Assure all traffic emitter devices are turned off.

46 Emergency Crew Personnel Benchmarks  Always maintain an acute awareness of the high risk of working in or near moving traffic  Never trust moving traffic  Always look before you move(look both ways)  NEVER turn your back to moving traffic.  Exit & enter crew cabs from the protected side (shadow), away from traffic

47 Emergency Crew Personnel Benchmarks  Protective clothing and Helmet must be donned prior to exiting the emergency vehicle Class II Vest or bunker coat with a Helmet as a minimum. (Full PPE when performing FF work)

48 Emergency Crew Personnel Benchmarks  Always look before opening doors and stepping out of apparatus or emergency vehicles.  Be alert when walking around apparatus. Stop at corner of the unit, check for traffic Stay on protected side when possible Maintain reduced profile when moving through any area where a minimum buffer zone exist.

49 Interstate Highway Operations  State Police and DOT have a desire to keep the traffic moving on these roadways.  When in the judgment of the IC it becomes essential for the safety of operating personnel and patients, any or all lanes can be shut down  This should rarely occur and should be for a short period of time as practical

50 Interstate Highway Operations  First arriving engine company shall establish an initial block of Lane 1 or Lane 2. Traffic cones shall be placed farther apart with the last cone approximately 150 feet upstream Personnel shall place and retrieve cones while facing traffic “Emergency Scene Ahead” signs shall also be deployed at all highway incidents, prior to the furthest traffic cone.

51 Interstate Highway Operations  Assign a flagger to monitor approaching traffic.  Notify Command via radio of approaching traffic not responding to speed changes  Police vehicles also used for advanced warning techniques  Staging of additional companies off the highway may be required

52 Interstate Highway Operations  Establish liaison with State Police as soon as possible to jointly coordinate a safe work zone  Termination of the incident, removal of crews, apparatus and equipment must be done promptly to reduce exposure to moving traffic and minimize traffic congestion.

53 Officer’s Safe Parking “Cue Card”  Block Block at least One Lane Block so pump panel is “Down Stream” Block most critical or highest traffic volume direction first Consider requesting addition PD units or Fire/Police

54 Officer’s Safe Parking “Cue Card”  Crews wear proper PPE w/Helmet Bunker Coat or Class II vests at all times Helmet or hard hat at all times

55 Officer’s Safe Parking “Cue Card”  Establish more than adequate advance warning. Traffic cones at 15’ intervals Deploy minimum 5 cones upstream Deploy “Emergency Scene Ahead” sign prior to last cone upstream Cones only Suggest, they don’t block Expand initial safe work zone

56 Officer’s Safe Parking “Cue Card”  Direct placement of ambulances Assure ambulances park within shadow of larger apparatus as directed Lane 1 is furthest right lane, next is Lane 2 from approaching motorist’s point of view Direct ambulance to “block to the right or left” to protect loading doors All patient loading is done from within a protected work zone

57 Officer’s Safe Parking “Cue Card”  You are the Scene Safety Officer  Consider assigning a FF as upstream flagger or spotter as necessary for approaching traffic

58 Officer’s Safe Parking “Cue Card”  Night or Reduced Light Conditions Turn off Headlights Turn off Traffic emitter Provide overall scene lighting All personnel in PPE w/helmets or vest Consider additional company for additional upstream block if necessary

59 Officer’s Safe Parking “Cue Card”  Highway Operations Establish initial block of one lane Place cones and signs upstream of apparatus Last Cone 150’ upstream Deploy “Emergency Scene Ahead” sign prior to furthest cone Monitor approaching traffic Terminate incident aggressively

60 Traffic Control devices  Signs  Channelization Devices  Lighting Devices  Pavement Markers

61 Traffic Control Devices Should meet 5 basic requirements 1. Fulfill the need 2. Command Attention 3. Convey a clear and simple meaning 4. Command respect from road users, and 5. Give appropriate time for response (reaction time)

62 Protective Clothing  The outer garment shall have retro- reflective material which meets NFPA or ANSI standards.  Firefighter helmet or hard hat with retro-reflective tape on front, sides and rear of helmet or hard hat.

63 Channelizing Devices (cones, barricades, etc.)  Warn and alert road users of work conditions in or near the roadway  Guide drivers and pedestrians safely  Should provide a smooth, gradual, and obvious transition 28” plus 2 retroreflectorized white bands--one 6” band about 2” above one 4” band

64 Traffic Signs  Typically diamond shaped with black lettering on orange or fluorescent pink retroreflective sheeting  Should be placed in advance of hazard  May be rigid or flexible material  Size –generally 36” by 36”

65 Stop and Slow Signs 18 inches

66 General Safety for Flaggers  Stand on side of Road facing traffic  Always have an escape route  Don’t stand in shadows  Beware of where the sun is, it may blind drivers  Beware of the contrasting colors behind you.  Stand alone

67 Hand Signals Stop on- coming traffic Beckoning on-coming traffic

68 Flashlights

69 Safety Benchmarks  Never trust approaching traffic  NEVER turn your back to approaching traffic  Establish an initial “Block” with first arriving fire apparatus  Always wear firefighting helmet or hard hat with retro reflective tape.  Wear Proper PPE

70 Safety Benchmarks  Turn off sources of vision impairment to approaching motorist at nighttime incidents.  Use apparatus or police vehicles to redirect the flow of moving traffic  Establish advance warning upstream  Use traffic cones and incident signs to control traffic direction  Establish “Flagger” to monitor approaching traffic

71 Junior emergency personnel shall not be allowed to direct traffic. Under 18 years of age

72 NOT TOO SMART!!!

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75 Summary  Protect Yourself  Protect your Scene  Don’t Assume that all drivers will follow your directions.

76 Fire Police looking on!

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78 Don’t Get Bit

79 Don’t Become A


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