2 Special Thanks Freeport Fire Department Maine Dept. of Transportation Maine Municipal AssociationPresque Isle Fire Department
3 Bus rams a parked firetruck ENGINE STRUCK/FIREFIGHTER STRUCK- IN CALIFORNIATuesday, August 2, 2005Missouri EMT Struck and Killed at Scene New Jersey Firefighter Killed by Suspected Drunk Driver(NJ) August 27, A township senior citizens bus plowed into a parked firetruck Friday, sending the bus driver to the hospital.Bus rams a parked firetruck
5 Overview The training also identifies parking practices for Fire Rescue ApparatusEmergency VehiclesProvide maximum protection and safety for personnel operating in or near moving vehicle traffic.Practices to keep personnel safe
6 Objectives Maine Law MUTCD Liability Duration of Incidents Parts of a traffic control zoneProper devicesFirefighter “Do’s and Don'ts
7 Maine Law 29-A, MRSA § 2091 Enacted as PL 2005 Ch. 167 under LD 1337 Defines a “public safety traffic flagger”Specifies training requirementsDefines authority & necessary apparelExplains registered owner’s liability
8 “Public Safety Traffic Flagger” “A municipal firefighter, a volunteer firefighter, or a member of an emergency medical service licensed by the Dept. of Public Safety, MEMS who is trained in accordance with subsection 2 and authorized by the chief official of the fire department or emergency medical service to control vehicular traffic”
9 “Subsection 2--- training” “all PSTF’s must receive training approved by the Dept. of Labor, Bureau of Labor Standards in controlling traffic on public ways. Training may consist of video instruction, instruction in a classroom, distribution of informational handbooks, or other educational materials or other training materials.”
10 “Subsection 3--- authority” “….. a PSTF shall wear a reflective traffic vest or protective clothing as defined in 26 MRSA § 2103(3), and has the authority to control vehicular traffic on a public way at or to reroute vehicular traffic around a public safety emergency, accident, fire……., unless otherwise directed by a law enforcement officer.”
11 Subsection 4 “obeying the flagger” “….. an operator of a motor vehicle on a public way shall obey a request or signal of a person who is reasonable identifiable as a PSTF. A violation…… is a traffic violation.”
12 Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices (MUTCD) NOT State law….but it is the national standard for all traffic controlFederal law 23 CFR adopts the MUTCD as “the national standard for all traffic control devices installed on any street, highway, or bicycle trail open to public travel.”The MUTCD “describes the application of traffic control devices, but shall not be a legal requirement for their installation.”
13 Intermediate Traffic Incidents Expected duration of 30 minutes to 2 hours.Diverting traffic past the blockage.Using a Detour for a short duration.Be aware of your visibility to oncoming traffic
14 “Minor” Traffic Incidents Expected duration under 30 minutesTypically disabled vehicles and “fender benders”Diversion of traffic to other lanes is not needed or only needed briefly.If blocking a lane, move it to the shoulder as quickly as possible
15 Responder Safety Considerations Training– all responders directing traffic shall be trained.Worker Clothing – Responders exposed to the risks of moving traffic shall wear hi-visibility safety apparel meeting ANSITemp. traffic barriers – depends on type and length of the emergency, traffic volume & speed, time of day, type of road……Speed reduction – Emergency Responders, lane restrictions, etc.
16 Liability ExposuresIn addition to providing protection and safety for emergency personnel other considerations are:Through our actions, not causing or contributing to:Injury to the publicDamage to other vehiclesDamage to property
17 Maine Tort Claims ActThe Maine Tort Claims Act addresses Entity Liability. The Rule: (Sovereign Immunity) The City/Town is immune.City/Town Immunity Waived – Immunity may be waived under certain circumstances such as the ownership, maintenance and use of equipment or the construction or repair of streets, operation and use of public buildings.
18 Maine Tort Claims Act Cont’… Immunity that overrides waiver: If a City/Town losses immunity in a waived category it may get it back if the acts are:Legislative ActsJudicial ActsDiscretionary FunctionDecision not to provide certain servicesProsecutorial ActsLeasing Government property to others
19 Maine Tort Claims Act Cont’… An employee has no automatic immunity like a City/Town does. There is a $10,000 damage limit. City/Town must defend.Employee actions may get immunity discretionary functions (such as making a decision on how to control traffic.Control of traffic at an emergency scene can reasonably be considered a Discretionary Function.
20 Discretionary Function Is the defendant an employee of a governmental entity?Are the defendant’s actions reasonably encompassed by his employment duties as defined by job description, policy, ordinance or statute?
21 Discretionary Function Cont’… Does the challenged act necessarily involve a basic governmental policy or objective?Is the questioned act essential to the realization or accomplishment of that policy or objective?Does the act require the exercise of judgment and expertise?Does the employee possess lawful authority to do the challenged act?Egregious conduct exceeds scope of discretionary function immunity.
22 Terminology Advance Warning Block Buffer Zone Downstream Flagger ShadowTaperTemporary Work ZoneTransition ZoneUpstream
23 TRANSITION AREA – moves traffic out of its normal path ADVANCE WARNING AREA – tells traffic what to expect ahead (signs, flaggers, etc.)TRANSITION AREA – moves traffic out of its normal pathBUFFER SPACE – provides protection for traffic & workersWORK AREA – set aside for workers, equipment and materialsTERMINATION AREA – allows traffic to resume normal drivingLateral Buffer SpaceActivity Area
24 Advance WarningNotification procedures that advises approaching motorist to transition from normal driving status to that required by the temporary emergency traffic control measures ahead.
25 BlockPositioning Fire Rescue on an angle to the lanes of traffic creating a physical barrier between upstream traffic and the work area.IncludesBlock to the LeftBlock to the Right
27 Buffer ZoneThe distance or space between personnel and vehicles in the protected work zone and nearby moving trafficTurn your wheels so that a vehicle hitting from behind will not send your vehicle into the work area.
28 DownstreamThe direction that traffic is moving as it travels away from the incident scene.
29 FlaggerA Fire Rescue member assigned to monitor approaching traffic and activate an emergency signal if the actions of a motorist do not conform to traffic control measures
30 ShadowProtected area at a vehicle related roadway incident that is shielded by the block from apparatus
31 TaperAction of merging several lanes of moving traffic to fewer lanes of moving traffic
32 Temporary Work ZoneThe area of roadway within which emergency perform their Fire/EMS tasks at a vehicle related incident.
33 Transition ZoneLanes of a roadway within which approaching motorist change their speed and position to comply with traffic control measures at an incident scene
34 UpstreamThe direction that traffic is traveling from as the vehicles approach the incident scene.
35 Apparatus & Emergency Vehicle Benchmarks Always position first arriving apparatus to protect scene, patients and emergency personnel.Positioning of fire apparatus must create a safe parking area for EMS units.
36 Apparatus & Emergency Vehicle Benchmarks When blocking with apparatus to protect the scene, establish a sufficient size work zone that includes (Shadow)Damaged vehiclesRoadway debrisPatient triage and treatment areaOperating personnel, equipment and patients
37 Apparatus & Emergency Vehicle Benchmarks Ambulances should be positioned within the protected work area with their rear patient loading door area angled away from the nearest lanes of moving trafficCommand shall stage unneeded emergency vehicles off the roadway or in a staging area
38 Apparatus & Emergency Vehicle Benchmarks At all intersections or where the incident may be near the middle of the roadway, two or more sides of the incident may need to be protected.
39 Apparatus & Emergency Vehicle Benchmarks Where a charged hoseline may be needed, block so the the pump panel is “downstream” to protect the pump operator
40 Apparatus & Emergency Vehicle Benchmarks Traffic cones shall be deployed from the rear of the blocking apparatus toward approaching trafficPersonnel shall place and retrieve cones while facing oncoming trafficCones shall be deployed at 15-foot intervals upstream of the blocking apparatus
41 Apparatus & Emergency Vehicle Benchmarks Emergency Scene Ahead signs shall be deployed at all roadway incidents, prior to the furthest cone.
42 Incident Command Benchmarks The initial-arriving officer or member, and or Incident Commander must complete critical benchmarks to assure that a safe and protected work environment for emergency scene personnel is established.
43 Incident Command Benchmarks Assure that the first arriving apparatus establishes an initial blockAssign parking location for all ambulances.Lanes shall be identified numerically as Breakdown, Lane 1, Lane 2.Typically, vehicles travel a lower speed in the lower number lanes
44 Incident Command Benchmarks Assign parking location for all ambulances.Directions “Right & Left” shall be as identified as from the approaching motorist point of viewInstruct ambulance to block to the left or right to protect rear patient loading area.
45 Incident Command Benchmarks Assure that all ambulances on scene are placed within the protected work area. (Shadow)Assure that all patient loading into ambulances is done from within the protected work zoneOperate as or assign a Scene Safety OfficerAssure all traffic emitter devices are turned off.
46 Emergency Crew Personnel Benchmarks Always maintain an acute awareness of the high risk of working in or near moving trafficNever trust moving trafficAlways look before you move(look both ways)NEVER turn your back to moving traffic.Exit & enter crew cabs from the protected side (shadow), away from traffic
47 Emergency Crew Personnel Benchmarks Protective clothing and Helmet must be donned prior to exiting the emergency vehicleClass II Vest or bunker coat with a Helmet as a minimum. (Full PPE when performing FF work)
48 Emergency Crew Personnel Benchmarks Always look before opening doors and stepping out of apparatus or emergency vehicles.Be alert when walking around apparatus.Stop at corner of the unit, check for trafficStay on protected side when possibleMaintain reduced profile when moving through any area where a minimum buffer zone exist.
49 Interstate Highway Operations State Police and DOT have a desire to keep the traffic moving on these roadways.When in the judgment of the IC it becomes essential for the safety of operating personnel and patients, any or all lanes can be shut downThis should rarely occur and should be for a short period of time as practical
50 Interstate Highway Operations First arriving engine company shall establish an initial block of Lane 1 or Lane 2.Traffic cones shall be placed farther apart with the last cone approximately 150 feet upstreamPersonnel shall place and retrieve cones while facing traffic“Emergency Scene Ahead” signs shall also be deployed at all highway incidents, prior to the furthest traffic cone.
51 Interstate Highway Operations Assign a flagger to monitor approaching traffic.Notify Command via radio of approaching traffic not responding to speed changesPolice vehicles also used for advanced warning techniquesStaging of additional companies off the highway may be required
52 Interstate Highway Operations Establish liaison with State Police as soon as possible to jointly coordinate a safe work zoneTermination of the incident, removal of crews, apparatus and equipment must be done promptly to reduce exposure to moving traffic and minimize traffic congestion.
53 Officer’s Safe Parking “Cue Card” BlockBlock at least One LaneBlock so pump panel is “Down Stream”Block most critical or highest traffic volume direction firstConsider requesting addition PD units or Fire/Police
54 Officer’s Safe Parking “Cue Card” Crews wear proper PPE w/HelmetBunker Coat or Class II vests at all timesHelmet or hard hat at all times
55 Officer’s Safe Parking “Cue Card” Establish more than adequate advance warning.Traffic cones at 15’ intervalsDeploy minimum 5 cones upstreamDeploy “Emergency Scene Ahead” sign prior to last cone upstreamCones only Suggest, they don’t blockExpand initial safe work zone
56 Officer’s Safe Parking “Cue Card” Direct placement of ambulancesAssure ambulances park within shadow of larger apparatus as directedLane 1 is furthest right lane, next is Lane 2 from approaching motorist’s point of viewDirect ambulance to “block to the right or left” to protect loading doorsAll patient loading is done from within a protected work zone
57 Officer’s Safe Parking “Cue Card” You are the Scene Safety OfficerConsider assigning a FF as upstream flagger or spotter as necessary for approaching traffic
58 Officer’s Safe Parking “Cue Card” Night or Reduced Light ConditionsTurn off HeadlightsTurn off Traffic emitterProvide overall scene lightingAll personnel in PPE w/helmets or vestConsider additional company for additional upstream block if necessary
59 Officer’s Safe Parking “Cue Card” Highway OperationsEstablish initial block of one lanePlace cones and signs upstream of apparatusLast Cone 150’ upstreamDeploy “Emergency Scene Ahead” sign prior to furthest coneMonitor approaching trafficTerminate incident aggressively
60 Traffic Control devices SignsChannelization DevicesLighting DevicesPavement Markers
61 Traffic Control Devices Should meet 5 basic requirementsFulfill the needCommand AttentionConvey a clear and simple meaningCommand respect from road users, andGive appropriate time for response (reaction time)
62 Protective ClothingThe outer garment shall have retro-reflective material which meets NFPA or ANSI standards.Firefighter helmet or hard hat with retro-reflective tape on front, sides and rear of helmet or hard hat.
63 Channelizing Devices (cones, barricades, etc.) Warn and alert road users of work conditions in or near the roadwayGuide drivers and pedestrians safelyShould provide a smooth, gradual, and obvious transition28” plus 2 retroreflectorized white bands--one 6” band about 2” above one 4” band
64 Traffic SignsTypically diamond shaped with black lettering on orange or fluorescent pink retroreflective sheetingShould be placed in advance of hazardMay be rigid or flexible materialSize –generally 36” by 36”
66 General Safety for Flaggers Stand on side of Road facing trafficAlways have an escape routeDon’t stand in shadowsBeware of where the sun is, it may blind driversBeware of the contrasting colors behind you.Stand alone
67 Hand SignalsStop on-coming trafficBeckoning on-coming traffic
69 Safety Benchmarks Never trust approaching traffic NEVER turn your back to approaching trafficEstablish an initial “Block” with first arriving fire apparatusAlways wear firefighting helmet or hard hat with retro reflective tape.Wear Proper PPE
70 Safety BenchmarksTurn off sources of vision impairment to approaching motorist at nighttime incidents.Use apparatus or police vehicles to redirect the flow of moving trafficEstablish advance warning upstreamUse traffic cones and incident signs to control traffic directionEstablish “Flagger” to monitor approaching traffic
71 Junior emergency personnel shall not be allowed to direct traffic. Under 18 years of age