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The Civil War – 150 Years Ago “Opening Salvo” by Fergus M. Bordewich Smithsonian April 2011 pg 76 How would the United States resolve the clash between.

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Presentation on theme: "The Civil War – 150 Years Ago “Opening Salvo” by Fergus M. Bordewich Smithsonian April 2011 pg 76 How would the United States resolve the clash between."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Civil War – 150 Years Ago “Opening Salvo” by Fergus M. Bordewich Smithsonian April 2011 pg 76 How would the United States resolve the clash between its founding ideals and slavery. The explosive answer came on April 12, 1861 when Confederate forces opened fire on Fort Sumter in Charleston Harbor.

2 On the afternoon of April 11, 1861, a small boat flying a white flag pushed off from the tip of the narrow peninsula surrounding the city of Charleston. The vessel carried three envoys representing the Confederate States government, established in Montgomery, Alabama, two months before. Slaves rowed the passengers the nearly three and a half miles across the harbor to the looming hulk of Fort Sumter, where Lt. Jefferson C. Davis of the U.S. Army - no relation to the newly installed president of the Confederacy – met the arriving delegation. Davis led the envoys to the fort’s commander, Maj. Robert Anderson, who had been holed up there since just after Christmas with a tiny garrison of 87 officers and enlisted men – the last precarious symbol of federal power in passionately secessionist South Carolina. The Confederates demanded immediate evacuation of the fort. However, they promised safe transport out of Charleston for Anderson and his men, who would be permitted to carry their weapons and personal property and to salute the Stars and Stripes, which, the Confederates acknowledged, “You have upheld so long…under the most trying circumstances.” Anderson thanked them for such “fair, manly, and courteous terms.” Yet he stated, “It is a demand with which I regret that my sense of honor, and of my obligation to my Government, prevent my compliance.“ Anderson added grimly that he would be starved out in a few days – if the Confederate cannon that ringed the harbor didn’t batter him to pieces first. As the envoys departed and the sound of their oars faded away across the gunmetal-gray water, Anderson knew that civil war was probably only hours away

3 GHR for Vocabulary In line2, highlight the word that describes an area of land almost completely surrounded by water except for an isthmus connecting it with the mainland. In line 3, highlight the term describing messengers or representatives. In line 3, highlight the word that explains when something is started or begun. In line 5, highlight the words that describe the fort. In line 5, highlight the abbreviation for a lieutenant. In line 7. highlight the two words describing the arriving Confederates. In line 7, highlight the abbreviation for Major. In line 8, highlight the word that means a body of troops stationed in a fortified place. In line 9, highlight the word that describes those who volunteered. Power of the government in Washington D.C. was slim in the south. Highlight the word in line 9 that describes the situation as uncertain; unstable; insecure. In line 10, highlight the word that means in favor of withdrawing or leaving. In line 14, the Confederates recognize the authority, validity of the Stars and Stripes. Highlight the word that describes that recognition. In line 17, highlight the word that means something by which a person is bound to do certain things, and which arises out of a sense of duty. In line 17, highlight the word that describes giving in or yielding readily to others.

4 On the afternoon of April 11, 1861, a small boat flying a white flag pushed off from the tip of the narrow peninsula surrounding the city of Charleston. The vessel carried three envoys representing the Confederate States government, established in Montgomery, Alabama, two months before. Slaves rowed the passengers the nearly three and a half miles across the harbor to the looming hulk of Fort Sumter, where Lt. Jefferson C. Davis of the U.S. Army - no relation to the newly installed president of the Confederacy – met the arriving delegation. Davis led the envoys to the fort’s commander, Maj. Robert Anderson, who had been holed up there since just after Christmas with a tiny garrison of 87 officers and enlisted men – the last precarious symbol of federal power in passionately secessionist South Carolina. The Confederates demanded immediate evacuation of the fort. However, they promised safe transport out of Charleston for Anderson and his men, who would be permitted to carry their weapons and personal property and to salute the Stars and Stripes, which, the Confederates acknowledged, “You have upheld so long…under the most trying circumstances.” Anderson thanked them for such “fair, manly, and courteous terms.” Yet he stated, “It is a demand with which I regret that my sense of honor, and of my obligation to my Government, prevent my compliance. “ Anderson added grimly that he would be starved out in a few days – if the Confederate cannon that ringed the harbor didn’t batter him to pieces first. As the envoys departed and the sound of their oars faded away across the gunmetal-gray water, Anderson knew that civil war was probably only hours away

5 GHR for summary… In line 1 highlight the date this event begins. In line 1 highlight what the small boat was flying. In line 3, highlight whom the envoys were representing. In lines 3 and 4, highlight where and when the Confederate States were established. In line 4, highlight who rowed the envoys across to Fort Sumter. In line 6, highlight the name of the army occupying Fort Sumter. In line 8, highlight how long the soldiers had been holed up at Fort Sumter. In line 8, highlight how many officers and enlisted men were at Fort Sumter. In line 11, highlight what the Confederates demanded. In lines 12 and 13, highlight what the Confederates offered. In lines 16 and 17, highlight Maj. Anderson’s response. In line 18, highlight what Anderson said would happen in a few days. In lines 20 and 21, highlight what knew was probably only hours away.

6 On the afternoon of April 11, 1861, a small boat flying a white flag pushed off from the tip of the narrow peninsula surrounding the city of Charleston. The vessel carried three envoys representing the Confederate States government, established in Montgomery, Alabama, two months before. Slaves rowed the passengers the nearly three and a half miles across the harbor to the looming hulk of Fort Sumter, where Lt. Jefferson C. Davis of the U.S. Army - no relation to the newly installed president of the Confederacy – met the arriving delegation. Davis led the envoys to the fort’s commander, Maj. Robert Anderson, who had been holed up there since just after Christmas with a tiny garrison of 87 officers and enlisted men – the last precarious symbol of federal power in passionately secessionist South Carolina. The Confederates demanded immediate evacuation of the fort. However, they promised safe transport out of Charleston for Anderson and his men, who would be permitted to carry their weapons and personal property and to salute the Stars and Stripes, which, the Confederates acknowledged, “You have upheld so long…under the most trying circumstances.” Anderson thanked them for such “fair, manly, and courteous terms.” Yet he stated, “It is a demand with which I regret that my sense of honor, and of my obligation to my Government, prevent my compliance.“ Anderson added grimly that he would be starved out in a few days – if the Confederate cannon that ringed the harbor didn’t batter him to pieces first. As the envoys departed and the sound of their oars faded away across the gunmetal-gray water, Anderson knew that civil war was probably only hours away

7 GHR for Author’s Craft… 1.In lines 4-7, the author has used dashes to separate parts of the sentence. In this instance, the author is separating the independent clause from an interrupting thought. Highlight the interrupting thought that interrupts the independent clause with the use of dashes. 2.In lines 7-10, the author again uses the dash but in this instance it is a thought that follows the independent clause. Highlight the thought. 3. In lines the author uses several commas. In this sentence, the commas are used to set off essential words, phrases, or clauses--also called restrictive elements--that interrupt a sentence. Highlight the restrictive elements that are set off by commas.restrictive elements 4.In lines 14-15, the author uses commas as the information provided by the clause is just additional information. The word “which” is set off by commas as it introduces additional information not required for the sentence to be complete. Highlight that additional information. 5.In line 16, the author introduces a quote with a comma. Highlight that comma. 6.In lines 17 – 19, the author uses a dash to set off a thought that follows the independent clause. Highlight that thought. 7.In line 19, the author has used a prepositional phrase to describe what was making the sound. Highlight the prepositional phrase. 8.In line 20, highlight the noun that, in this sentence, is used as an adjective to describe the water.

8 On the afternoon of April 11, 1861, a small boat flying a white flag pushed off from the tip of the narrow peninsula surrounding the city of Charleston. The vessel carried three envoys representing the Confederate States government, established in Montgomery, Alabama, two months before. Slaves rowed the passengers the nearly three and a half miles across the harbor to the looming hulk of Fort Sumter, where Lt. Jefferson C. Davis of the U.S. Army - no relation to the newly installed president of the Confederacy – met the arriving delegation. Davis led the envoys to the fort’s commander, Maj. Robert Anderson, who had been holed up there since just after Christmas with a tiny garrison of 87 officers and enlisted men – the last precarious symbol of federal power in passionately secessionist South Carolina. The Confederates demanded immediate evacuation of the fort. However, they promised safe transport out of Charleston for Anderson and his men, who would be permitted to carry their weapons and personal property and to salute the Stars and Stripes, which, the Confederates acknowledged, “You have upheld so long…under the most trying circumstances.” Anderson thanked them for such “fair, manly, and courteous terms.” Yet he stated, “It is a demand with which I regret that my sense of honor, and of my obligation to my Government, prevent my compliance.“ Anderson added grimly that he would be starved out in a few days – if the Confederate cannon that ringed the harbor didn’t batter him to pieces first. As the envoys departed and the sound of their oars faded away across the gunmetal-gray water, Anderson knew that civil war was probably only hours away

9 Summary of text On the lines provided on the backside of the text you’ve highlighted, write a 1- 5 line summary of what you’ve learned from this text. You may refer back to the text and to what you’ve highlighted. Be sure to include the main points and details as necessary.

10 Multiple-choice questions 1.A white flag means which of the following? a. don’t shoot b. the laundry is done c. shoot 2.Which city is close to Fort Sumter? a. Nashville b. Savannah c. Charleston 3.Which side had slaves rowing them across the water? a. Confederates b. U.S. Army c. Politicians 4.How long had the soldiers been “holed up” at Fort Sumter? a. 1 year b. a little over 3 months c. 20 days 5.How many U.S. Army men were stationed at Fort Sumter? a. 100 b. 87 c The Confederates demanded immediate evacuation of the fort but offered something in return. What did they offer? a. safe transport b. good food in a prison camp c. nice hotel rooms 7.What was Maj. Anderson’s response to the demands of the Confederates? a. give me a week. b. my sense of honor prevents my compliance c. Yes 8.What were Anderson’s choices? a. stay and starve b. stay and be battered to pieces c. Both a and b 9.By refusing the Confederate request to leave Fort Sumter, what did Anderson know was coming. a. the U.S. Navy b. surrender c. civil war

11 To consider… 1.Had you been Lt. Davis, would you have surrendered immediately or held out as long as possible? 2.How would you describe the relationship between the two sides and how was it reflected in the surrender? 3.What questions would you want to ask either of the officers involved if you had that opportunity? 4.How has warfare changed since that “opening salvo”?


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