2The largest word class, nouns are ‘naming’ words The largest word class, nouns are ‘naming’ words. There are six main groups of noun; common, proper, countable, uncountable, concrete and abstract.The test to check if a word is a noun is to ask yourself if you can put ‘a’, ‘an’ or ‘the’ in front of it:a table – correct the Sunday – correctan eat – wrong a speak - wrong
3Common NounsCommon means ‘general’ or ‘ordinary’ and that is exactly what these nouns are. In this group we find all kinds of things:apple car computer shopguitar house idea waterdrink mouse bread tigerjacket phone television
4Proper NounsProper nouns are all the ‘naming’ words for names, these nouns always start with a capital (big) letter:Cardiff Christian Tesco TwixMary France Yoda MarlboroEurope Nelson
5Task 1Decide which nouns are common and which nouns are proper nouns. Put a capital letter at the start of the proper nouns.Common nounsProper nounsegypt david pen desk plug phone moscow teacherbaghdad man idea meeting chicken spaghetti cat
6Countable NounsCountable means ‘you can count it’ and all of these nouns can be counted. One thing is called a singular noun, we make it into a plural (more than one of the same thing) by saying a number (how many) before the noun instead of ‘a’ ‘an’ or ‘the’ and we add the plural ‘s’ to the end of the noun
8Notice how the green group all start with consonant sounds so we use ‘a’ the orange group all start with vowel sounds and that is why we use ‘an’. The red group use ‘the’ because the singular noun must be known, notice too that there are less exact words in the ‘How Many?’ part of the table, this is just to show that we don’t need exact numbers to say how many.
9Be careful, some countable nouns can be irregular: person = people man = men woman = womensheep = sheep fish = fish child = childrenbacterium = bacteria
10Uncountable NounsUncountable means that you can’t count it. This rule is the same in many languages, think; can you count sand or milk in your language?The basic rule is that if you can’t count it or it is a lot of trouble to count it (have you tried counting sand?) then it is uncountable.
11The common groups of uncountable nouns are: liquids - water, wine, milkmaterials - wood, metal, plasticgrains - sand, rice, sugargasses - air, oxygen, hydrogenconcepts - work, time, moneyfractions - less than a complete thing
12This may appear confusing because: We count our money BUT we are really counting the coins and notes.We count time BUT we are really counting the minutes and hours.We even count wine BUT we are really counting the glasses of wine.Other nouns can be countable AND uncountable depending on their meaning.
13Task 2 Countable nouns Uncountable nouns Use your dictionary to decide which nouns are countable and which are uncountable.Countable nounsUncountable nounsbeer salt pencil chair match video metal studentcarbon dioxide woman man meeting pig information mouse
14Concrete NounsConcrete is solid so, these are things we can see, taste, smell, touch and hear:beer castle bagfish baby table
15Abstract NounsAbstract nouns are the other things that we cannot see, taste, smell, touch and hear:dream idea thoughtlove regret happiness
16Task 3Use your dictionary to decide which nouns are concrete nouns and which are abstractConcrete nounsAbstract nounsregret demand shirt bathroom help sun wind wishsadness desire book need bag tiredness desk