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TACC Training Module 4 Adapting to Climate Change 1.

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1 TACC Training Module 4 Adapting to Climate Change 1

2 Objectives of the Module Territorial Approach to Climate Change - Phase 1  Raise awareness of the importance of adaptation in preparing for and coping with climate change  Introduce key stages of effective adaptation planning  Highlight the importance of multi-level governance in adaptation actions  Introduce international support programmes and tools to support adaptation planning

3 Overview Territorial Approach to Climate Change - Phase 1  Section 1: Introduction to Climate Change Adaptation  Section 2: Conducting a Vulnerability Assessment  Section 3: Identifying and Selecting Adaptation Options  Section 4: Integration of Adaptation into Development Planning  Section 5: International Initiatives to Support Climate Change Adaptation

4 What is Climate Change Adaptation? Territorial Approach to Climate Change - Phase 1 “Adaptation is an adjustment in natural or humans systems in response to actual or expected climate stimuli or their effects, which moderates harm or exploits beneficial opportunities” Parry et al, 2007 (IPCC)

5 What is Climate Change Adaptation? Territorial Approach to Climate Change - Phase 1 Adaptation…  Refers to action taken to prepare for and cope with climate change  Includes measures such as  introducing drought tolerant crops  constructing flood walls  Etc.  Decreases the vulnerability of ecosystems and people to climate change

6 Why is Climate Change Adaptation Important? Territorial Approach to Climate Change - Phase 1  Climate Change may be more rapid and pronounced than expected  Impacts impose serious threats to lives and livelihoods in particular in developing countries  Adaptation helps minimize negative effects of environmental stress caused by climate change  May result in other, non-climate related benefits and win- win situations (e.g. for poverty reduction)  Fosters social-learning and creates more resilient societies  Inaction may have significant economic and social costs

7 Why is Climate Change Adaptation Important? Territorial Approach to Climate Change - Phase 1 “Climate change poses clear, catastrophic threats. We may not agree on the extent, but we certainly can't afford the risk of inaction.” Rupert Murdoch

8 Important Principles (1): Recognize Environment and Development Linkages  Since maintaining healthy and resilient ecosystems, achieving development priorities and improving the quality of life are as important as adaptation to climate change…..  …it is the combination of promoting conservation and restoration of ecosystems, development choices, adaptation actions and capacities that will allow us to effectively address the climate change. Territorial Approach to Climate Change - Phase 1

9 Important Principles (2): Integrate Local Knowledge  Understanding the linkages between the impacts of a changing climate and their implications at the local level is more complex than is captured in spatial, regional and global climate models.  Participation of local partners is necessary to facilitate integration of climate impact information with local development knowledge to create pathways that promote resilience and adaptation to climate change. Territorial Approach to Climate Change - Phase 1

10 Important Principles (3): Balancing Risks with Opportunities  Understanding adaptation as part of ecosystem management and development requires balancing the focus of the biophysical risks associated with climate change …  …with specific risks and opportunities in order to address issues such as ecosystem and human well-being, capacity and long-term development. Territorial Approach to Climate Change - Phase 1

11 The Economic Argument for Adapting to Climate Change  Predicted costs of inaction action are at least 5% of global GDP per year (Stern 2006)  Cost of reducing greenhouse gases and avoiding climate change impacts is 1% of global GDP  Benefit-cost ration of taking action on climate change 5:1  Early adaption action cost-effective and prevents future losses associated with climate impacts  Diverse range of benefits for economy, ecosystems, human health, etc. Territorial Approach to Climate Change - Phase 1

12 Why is Adaptation Relevant at the Sub-national Level?  Impacts of climate change are directly felt at the sub-national/local level  Local authorities are the first to receive the complaints/requests from the affected population  Most adaptation actions will be deployed at the local level  Adaptation measures have direct benefits for local population and ecosystems  Sub-national/local development planning well suited to integrate adaptation Territorial Approach to Climate Change - Phase 1

13 Approaches to Adapt to Climate Change Territorial Approach to Climate Change - Phase 1 Source: OECD ApproachExample Modify the threatBuilding a dam for flood control Prevent effects and impactIntroduce drought resistant crops Change economic use patternsChange crop land to a wildlife refuge Change economic locationRelocating a farming region to favorable locations Accept the lossWhen an adaptation measure is too costly

14 Anticipatory vs. Reactive Adaptation Territorial Approach to Climate Change - Phase 1 TypeActionExamples Anticipatory Adaptation Taking action in preparation of climate change Purchase of insurance, place houses on stilts Early warning systems New building codes Incentives for relocation etc. Reactive Adaptation Taking action when climate change effects are experienced Change in farm practice Purchase of air conditioning Compensatory payments Subsidies Beach nourishment etc.

15 Anticipatory and Reactive Adaptation: Natural and Human Systems Territorial Approach to Climate Change - Phase 1 Source: Klein 2007

16 Defining the Entry Point/System for Adaptation Planning Territorial Approach to Climate Change - Phase 1 Possible Entry Points Community level (“community based adaptation”) City level (“urban adaptation”) Sub-national/territorial level (e.g. region, state, province) National level Transnational level (e.g. for shared ecosystem) Source: Flickr

17 Considering Urban Systems and Urban Climate Change Adaptation Territorial Approach to Climate Change - Phase 1  Many cities are particularly vulnerable to climate change impacts due to their geographic location (for example river deltas, low-lying coastal areas)  Urban infrastructure not designed for extreme whether events and the number of citizens served Source: BBC

18 Considering Urban Systems and Urban Climate Change Adaptation (cont.) Territorial Approach to Climate Change - Phase 1  Climate Change will contribute to accelerated rural-urban migration  Urban poor particularly vulnerable to climate change impacts (floods, mud slides, etc.)  In some cases, extreme events may destroy livelihoods of city dwellers Source: Pripode

19 Examples of Urban Climate Change Adaptation Territorial Approach to Climate Change - Phase 1  Hardening urban infrastructure such as roads, bridges, ports, water and sanitation facilities, cyclone shelters etc.  Urban greening, roof gardens etc to reduce heat island effect  Development/restoration of urban eco-systems (e.g. wetlands to reduce flooding)  Improved land use planning and zoning to reduce settlement in disaster prone locations  Pro-poor Local Economic Development strategies that take climate change into consideration

20 Considering Ecosystems and Ecosystem-based Adaptation Territorial Approach to Climate Change - Phase 1  Use of biodiversity and ecosystem services to support an overall adaptation strategy  Aims to maintain and increase the resilience and services of ecosystems  Generates social, economic and cultural co-benefits (e.g. conservation of biodiversity, preservation of traditional knowledge systems)  Has climate change mitigation potential (e.g. sequestration of carbon through healthy forests, wetlands, and coastal ecosystems)  EBA is cross-cutting and likely to involve different levels of governance

21 Examples of Ecosystem-Based Adaptation  Maintaining or restoring mangroves, coral reefs and watershed vegetation reduces vulnerability to storm surge, rising sea levels and changing precipitation patterns  Enhancing availability of natural resources as a source of food important to livelihoods  Supporting indigenous peoples to enhance traditional knowledge and management practices in light of a changing climate condition  Maintaining connectivity of ecosystems, e.g. through corridors allowing migration of animals in response to a climate change stress Territorial Approach to Climate Change - Phase 1

22 Data Requirements for Adaptation Planning Territorial Approach to Climate Change - Phase 1  Climate data  National and local weather data  Seasonal forecasts  Predictions from climate models  Data on the natural and physical environment  Socio-economic data  Population dynamics including urbanization trends  Economic development forecasts  Planning information  National Development Plans  Sub-national and Municipal Development Plans  Etc. Source: UNEP

23 Importance of Stakeholder Engagement (1) Territorial Approach to Climate Change - Phase 1  Government not able to address the adaptation challenge alone  Stakeholders play an important role in implementing adaptation  Stakeholder engagement can bring important knowledge to the table (e.g. community groups at the local level)  Effective stakeholder engagement likely to enhance the acceptance of decisions taken

24 Importance of Stakeholder Engagement (cont.)  The assessment of vulnerability at the local and regional levels is strongly centered on the involvement and knowledge of a diversity of stakeholders  Key stakeholders may include community members, policy- makers, researchers, experts, civil society and non- governmental organizations  Stakeholders’ involvement also helps in empowering local communities and decision makers as they can see decision themselves as valuable sources of knowledge for developing responses to climate change Territorial Approach to Climate Change - Phase 1

25 Identifying Stakeholders….  They are affected by climate change and/or are living in areas of high vulnerability that could be exaggerated by progressing climate change  They have the information, resources or expertise required for climate change impact and vulnerability assessment, policy formulation and strategy implementation  They have control or an influence on key mechanisms for adaptation and strategy formulation, implementation and communication Territorial Approach to Climate Change - Phase 1

26 Questions  Do sub-national authorities have sufficient knowledge to understand climate variations (local and national scenarios)?  Is relevant information available to undertake sound adaptation planning?  How can uncertainties be integrated into decision-making?  How can local, sub-national and national adaptation action be harmonized?  How can sub-national authorities access funding to cover incremental costs for adaptation  Others…? Territorial Approach to Climate Change - Phase 1

27 Overview Territorial Approach to Climate Change - Phase 1  Section 1: Introduction to Climate Change Adaptation  Section 2: Conducting a Vulnerability Assessment  Section 3: Identifying and Selecting Adaptation Options  Section 4: Integration of Adaptation into Development Planning  Section 5: International Initiatives to Support Climate Change Adaptation

28 What is Climate Vulnerability? Territorial Approach to Climate Change - Phase 1  Vulnerability refers to the extent climate change is likely to damage or harm a system  Vulnerability may be identified  at different levels/scale (e.g. national, local)  for different sectors (e.g. agriculture, water)  for different population groups (e.g. women, children, urban poor, landless rural laborers)  Vulnerability assessments are important input for adaptation planning and help to identify where adaptation action is most appropriate Source: UNEP

29 Old vs. New Approach to Adaptation: Considering Vulnerability Territorial Approach to Climate Change - Phase 1

30 The Broader Context of Climate Vulnerability  People and communities are experiencing a number of threats such as climate change, environmental degradation and social and economic changes  Impacts of these challenges interact and cumulatively increase the vulnerability of local and regional areas and populations Territorial Approach to Climate Change - Phase 1

31 Climatic and Non-climatic Variables of Human Health Vulnerability  Concern  More frequent geographically widespread epidemics of infectious and waterborne disease  Climatic drivers  Climatic changes may increase the area and number of disease vectors  More frequent heavy rainfall and droughts could disrupt water supply and sanitation  Non-climatic drivers  Severely degraded health care system  Declining immunity, nutritional and health status of population  High poverty rates  Poor programs for disease surveillance, vector control, and disease prevention Territorial Approach to Climate Change - Phase 1

32 Factors Affecting Vulnerability Territorial Approach to Climate Change - Phase 1

33 Assessing the Potential Impact of Climate Change  Climate change impact assessments are based on scenarios of projections of future climate change and are presented as changes in temperature, precipitation, sea level rise, etc.  Using available information and data, it is possible to analyze the recent changes and trends in climate parameters Territorial Approach to Climate Change - Phase 1

34 Source of Information for Assessing the Potential Impact of Climate Change  Global Circulation Models (GCM) and Regional Circulation Models (RCM) are used with currently 50km resolution  The projections are uncertain as it is a highly complex, inter-dependent web, with possible tipping points that we are not understanding yet  Scenarios described in IPCC Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (SRES) used for projections  Key question: What are the human and environmental consequences? Territorial Approach to Climate Change - Phase 1

35 Guiding Questions for Assessing the Potential Impact of Climate Change  What are the changes in climate variables estimated by different climate model simulations (e.g. frequency of extreme events)?  Which elements of the system are exposed (e.g. agriculture, water supply)?  How susceptible or fragile is the system to climate variations?  How significant is the possible impact (e.g. changes in crop yields)?  What are the potential consequences of estimated impacts for development activities, capacities and adaptation strategies? Territorial Approach to Climate Change - Phase 1

36 Guidance Questions for Assessing Adaptive Capacity to Climate Change  To what extent are the natural and social systems capable of adapting to the predicted climate change?  Are resources, technology, education, etc. sufficient to adapt effectively? Territorial Approach to Climate Change - Phase 1

37 Example of Agricultural Vulnerability Territorial Approach to Climate Change - Phase 1 Agricultural vulnerability to climate change is described in terms of not only exposure to elevated temperatures, but also crop yield sensitivity to the elevated temperatures, impacts on crop, and the adaptive capacity of farmers to adapt to the effects of that sensitivity, e.g., by planting more heat-resistant cultivars or by ceasing to plant their current crop altogether. Allen consulting and Schroter et al., 2005,

38 Monitoring Vulnerability…..  State and trends  Frequency of natural events (e.g. floods)  Impacts and sensitivity  Population affected by natural disasters  Infrastructure, assets  Diseases and health care delivery  Indices  Human development index  Environmental vulnerability index  Index coastal risk index  Social vulnerability index Territorial Approach to Climate Change - Phase 1

39 Some examples of vulnerability assessments… Territorial Approach to Climate Change - Phase 1

40 The Case of Rainfall in Kitui, Kenya  Potential Impact (Exposure)  The arid area of Kitui likely to receive less water in the future  Rains are no longer reliable and droughts may last longer  Potential Impact (Sensitivity)  Less drinking water available  Reduced crops due to lack of irrigation  Loss of income and increased poverty  Adaptive Capacity  Travelling large distances to collect fresh water not viable  Moving of population to other areas not possible  Technology not available for digging a deep well Territorial Approach to Climate Change - Phase 1 Source: Travel Pod

41 The Case of Coastal Zone Management in the Netherlands Territorial Approach to Climate Change - Phase 1  Potential Impact (Exposure)  The Netherlands are already below sea level with dykes holding back the North Sea  Increased sea level increase risks of coastal inundation and erosion  Existing dykes may no longer be effective against higher sea levels  Potential Impact (Sensitivity)  A breach of Dykes would result in Loss of land Damage to crops Damage to habitats and communities  Adaptive Capacity  Funds available to implement adaption measures (e.g. increase height of dams)  Skills and equipment available Source: Free Photo.com

42 The Case of Tropical Storms in Jamaica Territorial Approach to Climate Change - Phase 1  Potential Impact (Exposure)  The Caribbean already exposed to tropical storms  Storms projected to increase in intensity and frequency  Potential Impact (Sensitivity)  Increase of intensive storms may result in additional damage to crops  Soil erosion can follow damage to farm land  Loss of income and food security  Adaptive Capacity  Local community have some resources to deal with impacts  Limited technology and physical resources to prevent future damage  Availability of labour and some financial resources Source: USA Today

43 Vulnerability in Different Contexts: Summary Assessment for Case Examples Territorial Approach to Climate Change - Phase 1 CaseKitui, KenyaNetherlandsJamaica Exposurehigh Sensitivityhigh medium Adaptive Capacity lowhighmedium Vulnerabilityhighlowmedium

44 Overview Territorial Approach to Climate Change - Phase 1  Section 1: Introduction to Climate Change Adaptation  Section 2: Conducting a Vulnerability Assessment  Section 3: Identifying and Selecting Adaptation Options  Section 4: Integration of Adaptation into Development Planning  Section 5: International Initiatives to Support Climate Change Adaptation

45 Identifying and Selecting Adaptation Options  Ultimate Objective  Mainstreaming adaptation options into urban planning  Key characteristics of adaptation: “An adjustment in natural or human systems in response to actual or expected climatic stimuli or their effects, which moderates harm or exploits beneficial opportunities” (IPCC, 2007; Adger et al)  Key questions  What could be potential responses?  How would you prioritize these responses? Territorial Approach to Climate Change - Phase 1

46 Types and Examples of Adaptation Territorial Approach to Climate Change - Phase 1

47 Identifying Adaptation Options Territorial Approach to Climate Change - Phase 1  Generate adaptation options without initial regard to feasibility, cost, etc.  Consider options that  Enhance flexibility (i.e. accommodate different climate scenarios)  Result in “no regrets” (i.e. generate benefits even without climate change)  Create co-benefits (e.g. reduction of toxic pollution)  Can accommodate short and long-term considerations

48 Prioritizing Adaptation Options Territorial Approach to Climate Change - Phase 1 CategoryCriteria Sustainability Mitigation co-benefits Environmental impacts Equity Implementation Cost p Operating and Maintenance Cost Effectiveness Robustness Reliability Risk and Uncertainty Urgency Degree of risk or impact Precautionary Opportunity Ancillary benefits No-regret option Window of Opportunity Implementation Public acceptability Funding sources Capacity (information, technical, staff, resources)

49 Scoring the Criteria Territorial Approach to Climate Change - Phase 1 Technology required Is the for the intervention readily available? 1 = Not available, 2 = Must be imported, 3 = Available in the country, 4 = Locally available, 5 = Already installed Additional running costs Will the intervention incur additional running costs? 1 = High costs, 2 = Medium, 3 = Low, 4 = No O&M costs Local employment To what extent will the intervention impact job creation? 1 = Loss of jobs, 2 = Neutral, 3 = Few jobs, 4 = Many jobs (10-30) Local capacity to implement What level is the institutional capacity currently at with respect to the intervention? 1 = Very low, 2 = Low, 3 = Adequate, 4 = High Acceptability to local community What is the consumer acceptability of this intervention in terms of additional cost to them and convenience? 1 = None (high additional costs), 2 = Low (some additional costs or inconvenient), 3 = Neutral, 4 = High (no additional costs) Long term applicability What is the period of impact of the intervention? short - long term) 1 = 25 years

50 Example of Criteria for Prioritization Options can be classified in categories such as :  Urgent adaptation options which can be done by municipalities themselves  Urgent adaptation options for which municipalities need assistance from the Government; options will be then allocated to the responsible ministries  Options that provide a non-regret options that help to address problems that they need to be dealt anyway  Adaptation options that are less important/urgent  Adaptation options for which there is no need or willingness to implement Territorial Approach to Climate Change - Phase 1

51 Costing Adaptation Option  Important to consider costs and benefits of:  Adaptation option  Non-action or delayed action  Mal-adaptation  Mitigation benefits  Consider costs & benefits of ecosystem services Territorial Approach to Climate Change - Phase 1

52 Identifying and Harvesting “Low-hanging Fruits”  Many adaptation options are linked to sustainable development practices already known, e.g.:  Maintaining ecosystems  Integrated water resource management  Disaster prevention Territorial Approach to Climate Change - Phase 1 Source: Getty Images

53 Avoiding Mal-adaptation  Mal-adaptation is...  Any changes in natural or human systems that inadvertently increase vulnerability to climatic stimuli;  An adaptation that does not succeed in reducing vulnerability but increases it  Both aspects of mal-adaptation may have significant costs. Territorial Approach to Climate Change - Phase 1

54 Evaluating the Success of Adaptation  Evaluating success of adaptation creates challenges  Long time horizon of measures  Climate scenarios may be different than expected  Need to wait for ex post evaluation (e.g. measure to adapt to infrequent event can only be evaluated if event occurs)  Possible to evaluate  E.g. reduction of extent a policy objective was achieved (e.g. vulnerability)  If anticipated co-benefits were achieved  Monitoring and evaluation may help in spotting mal-adaptation. Territorial Approach to Climate Change - Phase 1

55 Closing the Cycle: Some Considerations  The importance of developing adaptation options that can be translated into a concrete management plan and preferably costed  The importance of aligning the adaptation plan to the National Communications, National Adaptation Plans of Action, and the municipal development strategies  The importance of presenting the information in a way that is useful to the policy makers: communication! Territorial Approach to Climate Change - Phase 1

56 Some examples of adaptation options… Territorial Approach to Climate Change - Phase 1

57 Adaptation Options: Water Resources Territorial Approach to Climate Change - Phase 1 e Anticipatory OptionsReactive Options Better use of recycled water Conservation of water catchment areas Improved system of water management Water policy reform including pricing and irrigation policies Development of flood and drought monitoring Protection of groundwater resources Improved management and maintenance of existing water supply systems Protection of water catchment areas Improved water supply Groundwater and rainwater harvesting and desalination

58 Adaptation Options: Agriculture and Food Territorial Approach to Climate Change - Phase 1 Anticipatory OptionsReactive Options Development of tolerant/resistant crops (to drought, salt, insect/pests) Research and development Soil-water management Diversification and intensification of food and plantation crops Policy measures, tax incentives/subsidies, free market Development of early warning systems Erosion control Dam construction for irrigation Changes in fertilizer use and application Introduction of new crops Soil fertility maintenance Changes in planting and harvesting times Switch to different cultivars Educational and outreach programmes on conservation and management of soil and water

59 Adaptation Options: Human Health Territorial Approach to Climate Change - Phase 1 Anticipatory OptionsReactive Options Development of early warning system Better and/or improved disease/vector surveillance and monitoring Improvement of environmental quality Changes in urban and housing design Public health management reform Improved housing and living conditions Improved emergency response

60 Adaptation Options: Terrestrial Ecosystem Territorial Approach to Climate Change - Phase 1 Anticipatory OptionsReactive Options Creation of parks/reserves, protected areas and biodiversity corridors Identification/development of species resistant to climate change Better assessment of the vulnerability of ecosystems Monitoring of species Development and maintenance of seed banks Including socioeconomic factors in management policy Improvement of management systems including control of deforestation, reforestation and afforestation Promoting agroforestry to improve forest goods and services Development/improvement of national forest fire management plans Improvement of carbon storage in forests

61 Adaptation Options: Coastal Zones and Marine Ecosystems Territorial Approach to Climate Change - Phase 1 Anticipatory OptionsReactive Options Integrated coastal zone management Better coastal planning and zoning Development of legislation for coastal protection Research and monitoring of coasts and coastal ecosystems Protection of economic infrastructure Public awareness to enhance protection of coastal and marine ecosystems Building sea walls and beach reinforcement Protection and conservation of coral reefs, mangroves, sea grass and littoral vegetation

62 Overview Territorial Approach to Climate Change - Phase 1  Section 1: Introduction to Climate Change Adaptation  Section 2: Conducting a Vulnerability Assessment  Section 3: Identifying, Evaluating, and Selecting Adaptation Options  Section 4: Integration of Adaptation into Development Planning  Section 5: International Initiatives to Support Climate Change Adaptation

63 Integrating Adaptation within Development Planning and Strategic Policies Territorial Approach to Climate Change - Phase 1  National planning strategies provide entry points for integrating adaptation  Strategic planning processes include, for example  National Development Strategies  Poverty Reduction Strategies  National Sustainable Development Strategies  Etc.  Cross-sectoral policy processes relevant for adaptation planning include, for example  National land-use planning  Environmental regulations (e.g. strategic environmental assessments)  Etc.

64 How is Adaptation Action Different from Regular Development?  Some development activities may have adaptation benefits by reducing vulnerability (e.g. measures on education, poverty reduction, infrastructure development, etc.)  Specific adaptation action most likely not covered though regular development (e.g. preventing glacial outburst to protect communities)  Vice versa, business-as usual development likely to lead to mal-adaptation and economic loss (e.g. a transport infrastructure not designed to cope with extreme events)  Important to undertake development planning with a climate change lens Territorial Approach to Climate Change - Phase 1

65 Development and Adaptation: A Continuum of Measures Territorial Approach to Climate Change - Phase 1 Type of Development Intervention Relationship to Adaptation Examples Human and economic developmentIndirect measures to decrease of overall vulnerability Poverty reduction Gender initiatives, etc Managing risks of climate changeIndirect measures to strengthen adaptive capacity Disaster response planning Technological solutions (e.g. introducing new crops), etc. Strengthening climate change response capacity Direct measures influenced by climate agenda Capacity development to prepare for dealing with climate change risks Participatory reforestation projects, etc Confronting impacts climate change Direct measures directly responding to climate change impact Relocation of communities Reactive adaptation measures, etc.

66 Integrating Adaptation within Sectoral Strategies Territorial Approach to Climate Change - Phase 1  Some sectors (e.g. agriculture) particularly affected by climate change impacts  Important to raise awareness and engage key sectoral ministries  Sectoral planning provides an opportunity to define concrete adaptation actions  Policy formulation at sector level key entry point  Adaptation needs to become integral dimension of sectoral planning  Modalities of funding: sector budget support provided by national budget

67 Government Sectors Concerned with Adaptation  Energy  Fisheries  Food and Agriculture  Forestry  Health  Infrastructure  Nature and Ecosystem Conservation  Spatial Planning  Tourism  Transport  Waste  Water Territorial Approach to Climate Change - Phase 1

68 The Case of Mainstreaming Adaptation in China’s Agricultural Sector Territorial Approach to Climate Change - Phase 1  Climate change traditionally not included in China’s agricultural planning processes  Project initiated in 2004 to integrate climate change adaptation into China’s Agricultural Development Programme  Supporting measures include  Capacity development  Monitoring and evaluation  Partners involved  Government of China State Office for Comprehensive Agricultural Development National Development and Reform Commission Ministry of Finance  World Bank/Global Environment Facility (GEF)

69 Importance of Multi-Level Adaptation Planning (Vertical Integration)  Involvement of multiple levels of governance in development planning requires co-ordination  Division of competence between national and sub-national level varies among countries  National, sub-national and local adaptation action needs to be mutually supportive  Action should be taken at the most appropriate level  Subsidiary principle  encourages action at the lowest level of governance whenever possible  recognizes the importance for some action at higher level Territorial Approach to Climate Change - Phase 1

70 Mainstreaming Adaptation  Climate change is not just an environmental issue – it is a development issue  Mainstreaming includes compromises and tradeoffs among competing local, national and/or regional interests and priorities  Finally, climate change adaptation mainstreaming processes should account for sustainable development goals of the country at hand as well as all elements, including local/indigenous coping strategies Territorial Approach to Climate Change - Phase 1

71 Adaptation at Multiple Levels: From Local to National Territorial Approach to Climate Change - Phase 1  Community-based adaptation  Urban/city level adaptation  Sub-national/territorial adaptation  National level adaptation Source: Arcticportal

72 Community-based Adaptation (CBA) Territorial Approach to Climate Change - Phase 1  CBA involves community-driven processes to consider and cope with climate change  Balances climate considerations with other factors (e.g. unemployment, conflict)  Draws upon community knowledge (e.g. past strategies to cope with shocks)  Takes into account local priorities, needs, knowledge, and capacities

73 Urban/City Level Adaptation Territorial Approach to Climate Change - Phase 1  Growth of urban areas creates opportunities and challenges for adaptation  Development impacts are best observed and understood at the local level  Urban development that ignores climate change likely to result in maladaptation  Need to harmonized with sub-national and national level adaptation strategies

74 The Case of Sorsogon City, Philippines Territorial Approach to Climate Change - Phase 1  Comprehensive vulnerability assessment conducted looking at the city as a whole and the most vulnerable communities (disaster prone locations, urban poor)  Key actions:  Revision of Comprehensive Land Use Plan  Redesign of City Development Plan  Disaster management improved (new shelter, better early warning system) better coordination.  Local economic development focus on fisher folk and agriculture (most vulnerable sectors)  Planning for slum upgrading and resettlement commenced in light of climate threats

75 Sub-national/Territorial Level Adaptation Territorial Approach to Climate Change - Phase 1  Certain aspects of adaption measures transcend urban and ecosystem boundaries  More effective to undertake planning at the sub-national/territorial level  Examples of sub-national level measures  Collaboration on scientific data collection and climate change modeling  Certain infrastructure projects (e.g. public transport)  Management of shared ecosystems (e.g. river)

76 Importance of Multi-Level Adaptation Planning (Vertical Integration) Territorial Approach to Climate Change - Phase 1  Involvement of multiple levels of governance in development planning requires co-ordination  Division of competence between national and sub- national level varies among countries  National, sub-national and local adaptation action needs to be mutually supportive  Action should be taken at the most appropriate level  Subsidiary principle  encourages action at the lowest level of governance whenever possible  recognizes the importance for some action at higher level

77 Overview Territorial Approach to Climate Change - Phase 1  Section 1: Introduction to Climate Change Adaptation  Section 2: Conducting a Vulnerability Assessment  Section 3: Identifying and Selecting Adaptation Options  Section 4: Integration of Adaptation into Development Planning  Section 5: International Initiatives to Support Climate Change Adaptation

78 Nairobi Work Programme on Impacts, Vulnerability and Adaptation to Climate Change Territorial Approach to Climate Change - Phase 1  Programme on Adaptation within the UNFCCC Framework (started in 2005, initially for 5 years)  Expected outcomes:  Enhanced capacity at international, regional, national, sectoral and local level  Improved information and advice to the COP of the UNFCCC  Enhanced dissemination and use of knowledge from practical adaptation activities  Enhanced cooperation among Parties, relevant organizations, business, civil society and decision makers  Enhanced contribution of adaptation action to sustainable development

79 Nairobi Work Programme: Areas of Work Territorial Approach to Climate Change - Phase 1

80 UNFCCC-GEF Funding to Support Adaptation: A Snapshot Territorial Approach to Climate Change - Phase 1  Least Development Countries Fund (LDCF)  Address the vulnerability and low adaptive capacity of of Least Developed Countries  Supported by National Adaptation Programmes of Action (NAPA)  Special Climate Change Fund (SCCF)  Supports adaptation, technology transfer, and sectoral strategies  Addresses special needs of developing countries for long-term adaptation with priorities given to health, agriculture, water and vulnerable ecosystems  The Adaptation Fund  Funded through voluntary contributions and proceedings generated through the Clean Development Mechanisms  Open to Parties to the Kyoto Protocol

81 National Adaptation Programme of Action (NAPAs) Territorial Approach to Climate Change - Phase 1  Rationale for NAPA based on high vulnerability and low adaptive capacity of LDCs  COP 7 established work programme to support national adaptation planning in LDCs  NAPAs are country-driven processes to identify activities that respond to urgent and immediate needs to reduce vulnerability  Steps include  information synthesis  assessment of vulnerability and potential risk areas  identification of key priority adaptation measures  May serve as a basis for national policies and strategies  As of October 2008, 32 NAPAs (out of 48 LDC Parties)  Rough estimate of NAPA implementation in all 48 Parties - around US$1 billion  USD 163 million pledged as of COP 13

82 Guidance on Adaptation Territorial Approach to Climate Change - Phase 1  UNDP Guidebook “Mainstreaming Climate Change Adaptation into Development Planning: A Guide for Practitioners”  UNDP Screening Tools and Guidelines to Support the Mainstreaming of Climate Change Adaptation into Development Assistance – A Stock-taking Report (2010)  UNFCCC Guidelines for the Preparation of National Adaptation Programmes of Action (2002)  OECD Guidance on Integrating Climate Change Adaptation into Development Co-operation (2009)  USAID Climate Change Adaptation Manual  UNEP VIA methodology (presented in this Territorial Approach to Climate Change - Phase 1 presentation)

83 Support Services and Platforms Territorial Approach to Climate Change - Phase 1  GEF-UNDP Adaptation Learning Mechanism (http://www.adaptationlear ning.net)  WeAdapt (http://wikiadapt.org)  UN CC:Learn (uncclearn.org) Source: Sussex communigate


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