Presentation on theme: "IWRM as a Tool for Adaptation to Climate Change Instruments and Measures for Adaptation."— Presentation transcript:
IWRM as a Tool for Adaptation to Climate Change Instruments and Measures for Adaptation
Session objectives At the end of this session, participants will be able to: Understand the concept of adaptation to climate change and variability Explain the difference between adaptation and mitigation and provide arguments why adaptation to climate change and variability is necessary Distinguish various typologies of adaptation options Identify possible adaptation measures for various sectors and climate change impacts.
The basic premise... Climate change is a global phenomenon, but the problems will be very local and we will have to adapt and plan locally.
WE NEED TO DO MORE THAN JUST STARE AT THE PROBLEM!
What is adaptation? IPCC: “Adjustment in ecological, social, or economic systems in response to actual or expected climatic stimuli and their effects or impacts.” (IPCC 2001) Different from mitigation, which is: “an anthropogenic intervention to reduce the sources or enhance the sinks of greenhouse gasses.” (IPCC 2001)
Adaptation is nothing new Both organisms and ecosystems, including the human species, have adapted to changes and variability in climate. More recent, climate phenomena, such as ENSO, affect a higher numbers of people because of: Lack of planning Increase of settlements in high-risk zones An increase in poverty Limited access to education, health, etc.
What is adaptation? Source: Smit et al. (1999) / IPCC (2001)
Why is it needed? To deal with impacts from past climate change To deal with future climate change To reduce vulnerability to extremes Unavoidable climate change: Mitigation is costly Time needed for mitigation measures to become effective.
Intro: The potential and limits of adaptation Source: IPCC 2007
General typologies of adaptation measures Autonomous – Planned Reactive – Anticipatory Natural systems – Human systems Hard – Soft technologies Traditional – Modern technologies Regret – No-regret measures Categories: Robust policies Technological and structural measures Risk-sharing and spreading
Matrix of various adaptation types AnticipatoryReactive Natural systems Changes in length of growing season Changes in ecosystem composition Wetland migration Human systems private Purchase of insurance Construction of houses on stilts Redesign of oilrigs Changes in farm practices Changes in insurance premiums Purchase of airconditioning public Early warning systems New building codes, design standards Incentives for relocation. Compensatory payments, subsidies Enforcement of building codes Beach nourishment.
Water-related policies applicable to the adaptation challenge Integrated Water Resources Management Integrated Flood Management Integrated Coastal Zone Management Robust: not event-driven, cross-sectoral integration of development policy goals for current and future needs Flexible: not based on one scenario only, ‚best mix‘ of measures Adaptive: able to function under uncertainty and adjust the management approach based on the outcomes of implemented strategies and taking into account new realities Climate change as an additional challenge/pressure but not the only one incorporation of climate information into the overall process
Other policies applicable to the adaptation challenge International UNFCCC Policies and rules governing ODA Regional Regional Adaptation Plans of Action Regional Strategic Action Plans for IWRM National Poverty reduction strategies NAPAs and National IWRM plans/water policy Spatial plans and urban master plans Disaster Management plans Flood or drought action plans.
Technological and structural measures Water storage and recirculation Flood management Early warning systems Operation and system improvements.
Storage and recirculation Development of reservoirs Development of sand dams Improve maintenance of systems Leakage control Rainwater harvesting Reuse/recycling of water.
Observing systems, forecasting, early warning, climate predictions and projections CHARACTERISTIC LIFETIME ( SECONDS ) CHARACTERISTIC SIZE ( METRES ) Climate Projections Non-structural, i.e. minimal or no environmental impact Considered no- regret with high cost benefit ratios. Adapted from J. Zillman
Drought monitoring, early warning and mitigation Monitoring and early warning system plus preparedness and response planning Supply side: Surface and groundwater resource development Water transfers Demand side: Improved land use practices (tillage etc) Watershed management Rainwater/run-off harvesting Recycling water (e.g. use of treated municipal waste water for irrigation) Development of water allocation strategies among competing demands Reduction of wastage (drip irrigation etc) Improvements in soil water conservation Water pricing and subsidies.
Operations and system improvements Reservoir operations rules Irrigation scheduling Water demand management Indigenous coping strategies Precipitation enhancement.
Risks sharing and spreading Insurance Primary insurers Re-insurance Micro-insurance Finance Development banks Private/micro-lenders Solidarity funds Community solidarity Livelihood diversification.
Think about it Where are the new adaptation measures? Or haven‘t we done our homework under climate variability? Is it mainly a question of capacity building (technology transfer, education and training)? Can we cope without additional storage under more variability? What is the role of existing storage facilities? How are we rating in terms of maintenance and safety of those facilities? Where is the greatest need for innovation?
Adaptation to extremes Values of Climatic attribute (X) Probability of climatic attribute (or effect) X pc Autonomous adaptation Adapted It cannot be assumed that a future hydro-climatic regime would be the same or have the same properties. A higher probability of extreme events exists.
Shift in probability: More extremes Values of Climatic attribute (X) Probability of climatic attribute (or effect) X pc X cc Autonomous adaptation Adapted Risk zone/extreme events
Shift in probability: More extremes Values of Climatic attribute (X) Probability of climatic attribute (or effect) X pc X cc Autonomous adaptation Adapted Risk zone/extreme events Adaptation to climate change