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Reducing Vulnerability at the Community Level Jo-Ellen Parry, Program Manager email@example.com Adaptation in Eastern and Southern Africa
Community-based Adaptation: Context and Rationale The poor, especially those in developing countries, are particularly vulnerable to climate change Adaptation is largely a local process: Influenced by ecological, social and economic factors Emphasis on building “adaptive capacity” and reducing vulnerability to climate change: Intimate link between adaptation and development Differentiated by the rationale and inputs for interventions rather than the activities implemented
Integrating Vulnerability and Adaptation to Climate Change into Sustainable Development Policy Planning and Implementation in Eastern and Southern Africa Project Management Team National implementation organizations in each of Kenya, Mozambique and Rwanda Funders Project Duration: 2005 to 2009
Goals, Objectives, Outcomes Goal: To reduce the vulnerability of communities to the impacts of climate change, thereby improving their well-being and protecting their livelihoods Objective: To promote the mainstreaming or integration of vulnerability and adaptation to climate change into sustainable development plans and planning processes through demonstration projects in Kenya, Mozambique and Rwanda Outcomes: Generate capacity to implement adaptation measures in the field Increase capacity to generate and use information about climate change to affect change in relevant development policies Increase knowledge of the links between development planning and climate change
Conceptual Framework Selection of policy/policies to influence Needs assessment with policy makers Design of field test that responses to identified needs Implementation of field level activities Collection of lessons learned Identification of policy change recommendations Actions in support of policy change and mainstreaming POLICY FIELD TESTING Up- Scaling Down- Scaling
Kenya Pilot Project Responding to Drought in Makueni District Challenge: Growing risk of drought in the arid and semi- arid areas of Kenya and therefore of food insecurity Target Policy: draft national disaster management policy Field Level Interventions: Downscaling and communicating climate forecasts Improving agronomic practices Enhancing water conservation activities Merry-go-round credit scheme Outcomes to date: Increased agricultural output Replication in other districts expected Climate change in National Disaster Management Policy Downscaling of seasonal climate forecasts now policy in arid lands
Mozambique Pilot Project Community-base Fire Management in Sofala Province Challenge: Growing risk of wild land fires Target Policy: District and provincial level forest and fire management policies Field Level Interventions: Introduce community-based preventive measures for wild land fire management Establish a provincial round table for the coordination of wild land fire management Acceptance of community-based fire management strategy by district decision makers, creating a model for national policies Outcomes to date: Training provided in fire suppression, prevention, preparedness, fighting and management Provincial round table established to coordinate the collection and sharing of information
Rwanda Pilot Project Reducing Vulnerability in the Hydroelectric Sector Challenge: Declining water levels in lakes that support hydropower sector Target Policy: National energy policy Field Level Interventions: soil conservation measures income diversification improved water access sustainable energy access Outcomes to date: Established erosion control structures; tree nurseries; beekeeping associations; rainwater catchment tanks; improved cookstoves
Lessons Learned: Mainstreaming adaptation into Development Policies Why? Leverage existing activities Greater long term impact Possible Strategies: Early and active engagement of decision-makers and key stakeholders Connect to current priorities and concerns Provide justification needed for decision-making Awareness of windows of opportunities Right messages to the right people in an appropriate format at the appropriate time
Current Observations Key findings Need for enhanced access to climate data at the local level Importance of agriculture improvements for vulnerability reduction Critical role of district governments Challenges Climate change information Monitoring and evaluation Capacity variances
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