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Fundamentals of Human Neuropsychology, Sixth Edition Chapter 20 Lecture PPT Prepared by Gina Mollet, Adams State College Bryan Kolb & Ian Q. Whishaw’s.

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Presentation on theme: "Fundamentals of Human Neuropsychology, Sixth Edition Chapter 20 Lecture PPT Prepared by Gina Mollet, Adams State College Bryan Kolb & Ian Q. Whishaw’s."— Presentation transcript:

1 Fundamentals of Human Neuropsychology, Sixth Edition Chapter 20 Lecture PPT Prepared by Gina Mollet, Adams State College Bryan Kolb & Ian Q. Whishaw’s

2 Chapter 20 Emotion

3 Portrait: Agenesis of the Frontal Lobe J.P. –Normal intelligence –Emotional problems; showed only anger –Had no fear of being lost, inappropriate social behaviors –Behavioral problems –Missing right frontal lobe and 50% of the left

4 The Nature of Emotion Emotion older than thought Emotion contributes to logical thinking Unconscious Interference –Processes outside of awareness –Used by neuropsychologists to refer to nonconscious brain processes

5 Feeling Emotion Paul Ekman –Six basic emotions Anger Fear Disgust Surprise Happiness Sadness All universally recognized

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7 What is Emotion? Affect –Conscious subjective feeling about a stimulus Four components of emotion –Physiology –Distinctive motor behavior –Self-reported cognition –Unconscious behavior

8 Historical Views: Investigating the Anatomy Bard –Decorticated dogs showed rage behavior –Emotional responses depend on the diencephalon Early studies –The cortex inhibited emotional responses of the thalamus and hypothalamus

9 Historical Views: The Emotional Brain Papez –Limbic lobe is the basis of emotion –Limbic structures act on the hypothalamus to produce emotional states

10 Historical Views: Cortical Connections of Emotion Klüver-Bucy Syndrome –Results from bilateral removal of the amygdala and inferior temporal cortex Tameness and loss of fear Indiscriminate dietary behavior Autoerotic, homosexual, and heterosexual activity Hypermetamorphosis Examination of objects by mouth Visual agnosia

11 Historical Views: Cortical Connections of Emotion Psychosurgery –Egas Moniz Use of frontal lobotomies to treat behavioral problems –Frontal lobotomies Severe effects on social and affective behavior

12 Studies in Normal Subjects Laterality studies Social cognitive neuroscience

13 Production of Affective Behavior Left side bias in production of facial expressions of emotion May be a right hemisphere specialization for expressing and interpreting nonverbal behavior

14 Perception of Relevant Stimuli Vision –Left visual field superiority in the identification of facial affect –Films are judged more unpleasant and produce greater ANS activation when presented to the right hemisphere Audition –Left ear advantage for the identification of emotional tone of voice

15 Personality Differences and Brain Structure Canli and colleagues –Extroverts higher activation in the anterior cingulate to positive stimuli –Higher activation in the amygdala and anterior cingulate to emotional conflict in individuals high in neuroticism

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17 Candidate Structures in Emotional Behavior Processing emotional stimuli –Multiple neural systems for emotional stimuli –Sensory systems for species specific behavior may be separate Example: Olfaction in the cat –Flehmen - behavior produced in the cat when it smells an odor from another cat

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19 Brain Circuits for Emotion The limbic system –Amygdala and prefrontal cortex especially important for emotion –Amygdala Input from all sensory systems Multimodal cells Sensitive to threatening or dangerous stimuli

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21 Frontal Lesions in Monkeys Behavioral Changes after Frontal Lesions –Reduced social interaction –Loss of social dominance –Inappropriate social interaction –Altered social preference –Reduced affect –Reduced vocalization

22 Premorbid Emotional Processes Differences in behavior before brain injury leads to different behavior after the brain injury Effects of lesions on memory and language are more consistent than effects on emotion

23 Neuropsychological Theories of Emotion Somatic Marker Hypothesis –When confronted with a stimulus of biological importance, the brain and body change –Reductions in body reactions lead to reduced intensity of emotion –Emotion is fundamental to survival –Emotion is necessary for rationale decisions

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25 Neuropsychological Theories of Emotion Cognitive-Emotional Interactions –Emotion enhances survival and is interrelated with cognition –Uses fear conditioning as a model system –Circuits in the amygdala interact with cortical circuits to influence affective behavior

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27 Snapshot: Brain Activation in Social Cognition Camille and colleagues –Examined feelings of regret in normals and patients with orbitofrontal lesions –Orbitofrontal patients showed no regret Coricelli and colleagues –Experience and anticipation of regret was associated with activation in the orbitofrontal cortex and amygdala

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29 Neuropsychological Theories of Emotion Cognitive Asymmetry and Emotion –Right hemisphere more engaged in automatic components of emotion Generates feelings –Left hemisphere plays a role in the cognitive control of emotion Interprets feelings

30 Asymmetry in Emotional Processing The Production of Emotional Behavior –Left hemisphere lesions lead to a flattened mood –Anterior lesions reduce facial expressions –Left frontal lesions decrease talking –Aprosodia appears after right hemisphere lesions Ross - Development aprosodias analogous to the aphasias

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34 Asymmetry in Emotional Processing Interpretation of Emotional Behavior –Right hemisphere lesions produce deficits in comprehension and judgment of emotion –Right frontal lobe lesions produce impairments in understanding and using humor –Right frontal lobe and temporal lobe lesions produce impairments on facial expression tests Effects may depend on the emotion examined

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39 Asymmetry in Emotional Processing Temporal Lobe Personality –Distinctive set of personality traits appear after temporal lobe lesions –Right temporal lobe patients - obsessive –Left temporal lobe patients - personal destiny

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41 Social Cognitive Neuroscience Understanding Other’s Actions –Biological motion Cells of the STS –Mirror neurons Premotor cortex

42 Social Cognitive Neuroscience Understanding Other’s Mind –Theory of mind Ability to attribute mental states to self and others Ability to understand behaviors on the basis of mental states –Neural regions active during social judgment Frontal lobe Amygdala STS cortex

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44 Social Cognitive Neuroscience The Self and Social Cognition –Generation of the “self” Right frontoparietal network –Recognition of our own face Cortical midline network –Monitor psychological states in others and the self

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46 Social Cognitive Neuroscience Cognitive Control of Emotion –Cognitive processes can change emotional responses Example: pain expectancy and pain perception Activation of the prefrontal and cingulate cortex during re-appraisal of self-emotions


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