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Human Neuropsychology,

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Presentation on theme: "Human Neuropsychology,"— Presentation transcript:

1 Human Neuropsychology,
Bryan Kolb & Ian Q. Whishaw’s Fundamentals of Human Neuropsychology, Sixth Edition Chapter 15 Lecture PPT Prepared by Gina Mollet, Adams State College

2 The Frontal Lobes

3 Portrait: Losing Frontal-Lobe Functions
E.L. Highly organized college professor Became disorganized, showed little emotion, and began to miss deadlines Scores on intelligence and memory tests were superior Showed impairment on frontal lobe tests

4 Anatomy of the Frontal Lobes
Constitute 20% of the neocortex Subdivisions Motor: Area 4 Premotor: Areas 6 and 8 Can be divided into: Lateral area 6: Premotor cortex Medial area 6: Supplementary motor cortex Area 8: Frontal eye field Area 8A: Supplementary eye field

5 Anatomy of the Frontal Lobes
Prefrontal Cortex Area of the frontal lobe that receives input from the dorsomedial nucleus of the thalamus Divisions Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex Inferior Frontal Cortex Also called Orbitofrontal cortex Medial Frontal Cortex Sometimes considered part of the cingulate Many areas of the frontal lobe are multimodal



8 Connections of the Motor and Premotor Areas
Motor Cortex Projects to spinal motor neurons, cranial nerves that control the face Projects to the basal ganglia and the red nucleus Premotor Projections to the spinal cord Projections to the motor cortex

9 Connections of the Motor and Premotor Areas
Receives projections from parietal areas PE and PF Receives projections from dorsolateral prefrontal area Eye fields Receive from PG and the superior colliculus

10 Connections of the Prefrontal Areas
End of dorsal and ventral streams of visual input Dorsolateral Prefrontal Area Reciprocal connections with the posterior parietal and STS Extensive connections with the cingulate cortex, basal ganglia, and superior colliculus Receives input from dopaminergic cells in tegmentum

11 Connections of the Prefrontal Areas
Orbital Frontal Cortex Receives from the temporal lobe, amygdala, gustatory cortex, somatosensory cortex, olfactory cortex, dopaminergic cells in tegmentum Projects to hypothalamus and amygdala



14 A Theory of Frontal-Lobe Function
Planning and selection Persistence and ignoring distracting stimuli Memory for what you have already done Executive Functions Responds to both internal, external, and context cues

15 Functions of the Premotor Cortex
Selects movements to be executed Functions to choose behavior in response to external cues An increase in activity in the premotor cortex is seen when cues become associated with movement

16 Functions of the Prefrontal Cortex
Controls cognitive processes so that appropriate movements are selected at the correct time Internal Cues Temporal memory: Memory for what has just happened External Cues Feedback about rewarding properties of stimuli Orbital Frontal Cortex - Learning by association

17 Functions of the Prefrontal Cortex
Context Cues Orbital Frontal - Social Interactions Autonoetic Awareness Self knowledge Binding together the awareness of oneself as continuous through time

18 Asymmetry of the Frontal Lobes
Left Language Encoding memories Right Nonverbal movements, facial expression Retrieving memories


20 Heterogeneity of Frontal-Lobe Function
Frontal lobes perform a variety of functions Frontal damage is unlikely to produce impairment to all functions


22 Snapshot: Heterogeneity of Function in the Orbitofrontal Cortex
Stephen Frey and Michael Petrides Examined functions of the orbital region using PET Increased activity in area 13 to unpleasant auditory stimuli Increased activity in area 11 when learning new visual information Functional dissociation between the two areas Area 13: Responds to affective qualities Area 11: Processes new visual information


24 Symptoms of Frontal Lobe Lesions
Disturbances of Motor Function Loss of fine movements, speed, and strength Typically appears after damage to the primary motor cortex Loss of movement programming Damage to the premotor or dorsolateral cortex Changes in voluntary gaze Damage to the frontal eye fields


26 Symptoms of Frontal Lobe Lesions
Disturbances of Motor Function Corollary discharge or reafference Internal neural signal that movement will occur Frontal lobe damage disrupts corollary discharge Speech Problems Damage to Broca’s area Agrammatism Damage to the supplementary motor cortex Mute

27 Symptoms of Frontal Lobe Lesions
Convergent vs. Divergent Thinking Convergent thinking: Only one answer to the question Divergent thinking: Questions that ask for a variety of responses Frontal lobe patients are impaired on divergent thinking Loss of behavioral spontaneity Decreased verbal fluency Decreased design fluency Reduction in general behaviors



30 Symptoms of Frontal Lobe Lesions
Increased perseveration Inability to form a strategy Larger deficit when completing novel tasks Loss of response inhibition The Wisconsin Card Sorting Task The Stroop Test

31 The Wisconsin Card Sorting Test

32 The Stroop Test

33 Symptoms of Frontal Lobe Lesions
Take more risks Iowa Gambling Task Appears after damage to the orbitofrontal cortex Deficits in self-regulation Loss of associative learning Inability to select from competing responses

34 Testing Associative Learning

35 Symptoms of Frontal Lobe Lesions
Poor Temporal Memory Five animal experiments indicate a role for the frontal lobe in temporal memory Area 46 Role in providing an internal representation of spatial information Active during delayed response test Medial regions Role in object recognition

36 Experiments Showing Deficits of Temporal Memory

37 Symptoms of Frontal Lobe Lesions
Poor Temporal Memory Studying Temporal Memory in Humans Recency memory Tests memory for the order in which things have occurred Frontal lobe patients show impairment on this task Recent Findings on Temporal Memory Critical role for the prefrontal cortex Fuster and colleagues Single cell recording of sensory associations across time


39 Symptoms of Frontal Lobe Lesions
Impaired social and sexual behavior Example: Phineas Gage

40 Symptoms of Frontal Lobe Lesions
Impaired social and sexual behavior Changes in personality Pseudodepression Appears after lesions of the left frontal lobe Outward apathy, indifference, loss of initiative Reduced sexual interest, Little or no verbal output Pseudopsychopathy Appears after lesions of the right frontal lobe Immature behavior, lack of tact and restraint Promiscuous sexual behavior Coarse language, lack of social graces, increased motor activity

41 Symptoms of Frontal Lobe Lesions
Impaired social and sexual behavior Deficits in Social and sexual behavior Orbitofrontal lesions Reduce inhibitions and may introduce abnormal sexual behavior Leads to deficits in identifying facial expressions Dorsolateral lesions Reduce interest in sexual behavior

42 Symptoms of Frontal Lobe Lesions
Spatial Deficits? May be a role for the frontal lobe in selecting visual locations Symptoms Associated with Damage to the Frontal Facial Area Sensory and motor functions of the face are preserved after damage Left: Loss of verbal fluency Right: Loss of design fluency

43 Clinical Neuropsychological Assessment of Frontal Lobe Damage

44 Imaging Frontal Lobe Function


46 Diseases Affecting the Frontal Lobe
Schizophrenia Abnormality in the mesocortical dopaminergic projection Decrease in blood flow to the frontal lobes, and frontal lobe atrophy Parkinson’s Disease Loss of dopamine cells in the substantia nigra that project to the prefrontal cortex Korsakoff’s Alcohol-induced damage to the dorsomedial thalamus and a deficiency in frontal lobe catecholamines

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