Presentation on theme: "Chapter 9: Moving into the Adult Social World"— Presentation transcript:
1 Chapter 9: Moving into the Adult Social World Socioemotional Developmentin Adolescence
2 Major Topics Identity and Self-Esteem Romantic Relationship and SexualityThe Dark Side
3 Identity and Self-Esteem According to existing theories, how do adolescents develop an identity?
4 Erikson’s Contribution Erikson believed adolescents needed to resolve a crisis of identity formation.Involves balancing the desire to explore many possible selves and the need to select a single selfForming an ID prepares one for the next stage— intimate relationshipsFailure to form ID results in problems with forming a relationship
5 Contribution from Piaget’s Formal Operational Stage of Thought Adolescents search for an identity using their hypothetical reasoning skills to experiment with different hypothetical selves and learn more about possible identitiesAdolescents also commonly…Demonstrate adolescent egocentrism which is associated with self-absorptionVisualize an imaginary audience associated with feelings that others are constantly watching them
6 Believe in a personal fable—an attitude that their experiences and feelings are unique Have an illusion of invulnerability
7 Contributions About Ethnic Identity Ethnic identity—feeling of belonging to a specific ethnic group3 stages of ethnic identityHave not examined ethnic rootsBegin to explore personal impact of ethnic heritageAchieve a distinct ethnic self-concept
8 Marcia’s Contribution Marcia’s 4 Identity StatusesStatusDefinitionDiffusionOverwhelmed by the task so accomplishes littleForeclosureStatus determined by adults, not personal explorationMoratoriumExploring various possibilities/alternativesAchievementHas chosen a specific identity
9 Diffusion or foreclosure most common in adolescence. Romantic, political, and religious-oriented experimentation also common.Few adolescents completely resolve the identity crisis. Adolescents usually achieve an identity in one area of life; other areas are not achieved until later.
10 Using Identity Formation to Make Career Choices Super’s Theory of Career DevelopmentCrystallization—adolescents use their emerging identities to form ideas about careersSpecification—learn more about specific lines of work and begin trainingImplementation—individuals actually enter the workforcePersonality-Type Theory (Holland)People find their work fulfilling when the important features of a job or profession fit the worker’s personality
11 Part-time employment is common for adolescents and can contribute to choices about careers but can have harmful effects:Decreased school performanceMental health and behavioral problems (e.g., anxiety, depression, drug use)Misleading affluence (e.g., earn and spend)
12 Self-Esteem in Adolescence Self-esteem sometimes drops when children move from elementary school to middle school or junior highPeer comparisons more prevalentSelf-esteem becomes more differentiated in adolescenceSelf-esteem is influenced by:Competence in the domains that are important to the individualHow others people—particularly people important to them— view the adolescent
13 Romantic Relationships and Sexuality Why do teenagers date?Why are some adolescents sexually active?Why do so few use contraceptives?What determines an adolescent’s sexual orientation?
14 Romantic Relationships and Sexuality Romantic relationships provide companionship like that provided by a best friend and an outlet for sexual explorationAdolescents involved in relationships are often more self-confident, but also report more emotional upheaval and conflict
15 Sexual Behavior Influences on sexual behavior: Gender Differences Parental relationship: less likely to engage in sexual behavior if close with parents, parents monitor behavior/activity, and discourage sexPeer influence: more likely to engage in sexual behavior if peers areGender DifferencesFemales: describe first sexual partner as someone they loveMales: describe first sexual partner as a casual date
16 Sexually Transmitted Disease, Pregnancy, and Contraception Be familiar with the common STDs!STD’s are transmitted from one person to another through sexual intercourseSerious implications if left untreatedMost people who contract STD’s do so during adolescence1 in 6 adolescent females who engage in sexual intercourse get pregnantReasons for not using contraceptives: ignorance, illusion of invulnerability, lack of motivation, lack of access
17 Sexual OrientationDuring adolescence, 15% of teens experience a period of sexual questioning5% identify sexual orientation as gay or lesbianChallenges of same-sex attractionFamily and peer relationships often disruptedVerbal and physical attacksHigher rate of mental health problemsSocial change are helping gay and lesbian youth respond more effectively to these challenges
18 The “Dark Side” What is sexual coercion? Why do teenagers drink and use drugs?What leads some adolescents to become depressed? How can depression be treated?What are the causes of juvenile delinquency?
19 Sexual Coercion Date Rape/Acquaintance Rape When someone is forced to have sexual intercourse with someone she or he knows10% of high school girls; 20-25% of college age women have been victims of date rapeUseful guidelines to help prevent date rape (pg. 332)
20 Drugs and Drinking Drug Use Teenage Drinking—3 Factors of Influence: While most adolescents avoid drugs, most high school seniors have drunk alcohol within the past 2 monthsTeenage Drinking—3 Factors of Influence:Parents: drinking is important part of parents’ lives; parents are uninvolvedPeers: peers involved in drinkingStress: cope with stress using alcohol
21 DepressionDepression - disorder characterized by pervasive feelings of sadness, irritability, and low self- esteemAttributions - a person’s explanations of his or her behavior, particularly success and failuresThe way a person makes attributions can contribute to depressionNorephinephrine and seratonin - neurotransmitters that help regulate brain centers associated with experiencing pleasure
22 Delinquency Juvenile delinquency Status offense Index offense When adolescents commit illegal acts that re destructive to themselves or othersStatus offenseAn act that is not a crime if committed by an adult, such as truancy or running away from homeIndex offenseActs that are illegal regardless of the perpetrator’s age
23 Causes of Delinquency Adolescent-limited antisocial behavior The behavior of the youth who engage in relatively minor criminal acts but aren’t consistently antisocialLife-course persistent antisocial behaviorAntisocial behavior that emerges at an early age and continues throughout life
24 Causes of Delinquency Biological contributions Cognitive processes Some children inherit factors that place them at risk for aggressive or violent behavior (e.g., temperament)Cognitive processesImpulsivity; inability to interpret other people’s intentionsFamily processesInadequate parentingPovertyAggressive and delinquent behavior increased in poverty stricken families and neighborhoods
25 Treatment and Prevention of Delinquency Delinquent adolescents can be taught more effective social skills and methods of self-controlParents can be taught the importance of monitoring children’s behavior and necessity for consistent disciplineFamilies can learn to function more effectively as a unitSchools can develop programs to motivate delinquent youth to become more involved in school performanceCommunities can improve conditions in neighborhoods where delinquency reigns