Presentation on theme: "Chapter 9: Moving into the Adult Social World Socioemotional Development in Adolescence."— Presentation transcript:
Chapter 9: Moving into the Adult Social World Socioemotional Development in Adolescence
Major Topics Identity and Self-Esteem Romantic Relationship and Sexuality The Dark Side
Identity and Self-Esteem According to existing theories, how do adolescents develop an identity?
Erikson’s Contribution Erikson believed adolescents needed to resolve a crisis of identity formation. Involves balancing the desire to explore many possible selves and the need to select a single self Forming an ID prepares one for the next stage— intimate relationships Failure to form ID results in problems with forming a relationship
Contribution from Piaget’s Formal Operational Stage of Thought Adolescents search for an identity using their hypothetical reasoning skills to experiment with different hypothetical selves and learn more about possible identities Adolescents also commonly… Demonstrate adolescent egocentrism which is associated with self-absorption Visualize an imaginary audience associated with feelings that others are constantly watching them
Believe in a personal fable— an attitude that their experiences and feelings are unique Have an illusion of invulnerability
Contributions About Ethnic Identity Ethnic identity—feeling of belonging to a specific ethnic group 3 stages of ethnic identity Have not examined ethnic roots Begin to explore personal impact of ethnic heritage Achieve a distinct ethnic self-concept
Marcia’s Contribution StatusDefinition DiffusionOverwhelmed by the task so accomplishes little ForeclosureStatus determined by adults, not personal exploration MoratoriumExploring various possibilities/alternatives AchievementHas chosen a specific identity Marcia’s 4 Identity Statuses
Diffusion or foreclosure most common in adolescence. Romantic, political, and religious-oriented experimentation also common. Few adolescents completely resolve the identity crisis. Adolescents usually achieve an identity in one area of life; other areas are not achieved until later.
Using Identity Formation to Make Career Choices Super’s Theory of Career Development Crystallization—adolescents use their emerging identities to form ideas about careers Specification—learn more about specific lines of work and begin training Implementation—individuals actually enter the workforce Personality-Type Theory (Holland) People find their work fulfilling when the important features of a job or profession fit the worker’s personality
Part-time employment is common for adolescents and can contribute to choices about careers but can have harmful effects: Decreased school performance Mental health and behavioral problems (e.g., anxiety, depression, drug use) Misleading affluence (e.g., earn and spend)
Self-Esteem in Adolescence Self-esteem sometimes drops when children move from elementary school to middle school or junior high Peer comparisons more prevalent Self-esteem becomes more differentiated in adolescence Self-esteem is influenced by: Competence in the domains that are important to the individual How others people—particularly people important to them— view the adolescent
Romantic Relationships and Sexuality Why do teenagers date? Why are some adolescents sexually active? Why do so few use contraceptives? What determines an adolescent’s sexual orientation?
Romantic Relationships and Sexuality Romantic relationships provide companionship like that provided by a best friend and an outlet for sexual exploration Adolescents involved in relationships are often more self-confident, but also report more emotional upheaval and conflict
Sexual Behavior Influences on sexual behavior: Parental relationship: less likely to engage in sexual behavior if close with parents, parents monitor behavior/activity, and discourage sex Peer influence: more likely to engage in sexual behavior if peers are Gender Differences Females: describe first sexual partner as someone they love Males: describe first sexual partner as a casual date
Sexually Transmitted Disease, Pregnancy, and Contraception Be familiar with the common STDs! STD’s are transmitted from one person to another through sexual intercourse Serious implications if left untreated Most people who contract STD’s do so during adolescence 1 in 6 adolescent females who engage in sexual intercourse get pregnant Reasons for not using contraceptives: ignorance, illusion of invulnerability, lack of motivation, lack of access
Sexual Orientation During adolescence, 15% of teens experience a period of sexual questioning 5% identify sexual orientation as gay or lesbian Challenges of same-sex attraction Family and peer relationships often disrupted Verbal and physical attacks Higher rate of mental health problems Social change are helping gay and lesbian youth respond more effectively to these challenges
The “Dark Side” What is sexual coercion? Why do teenagers drink and use drugs? What leads some adolescents to become depressed? How can depression be treated? What are the causes of juvenile delinquency?
Sexual Coercion Date Rape/Acquaintance Rape When someone is forced to have sexual intercourse with someone she or he knows 10% of high school girls; 20-25% of college age women have been victims of date rape Useful guidelines to help prevent date rape (pg. 332)
Drugs and Drinking Drug Use While most adolescents avoid drugs, most high school seniors have drunk alcohol within the past 2 months Teenage Drinking—3 Factors of Influence: Parents: drinking is important part of parents’ lives; parents are uninvolved Peers: peers involved in drinking Stress: cope with stress using alcohol
Depression Depression - disorder characterized by pervasive feelings of sadness, irritability, and low self- esteem Attributions - a person’s explanations of his or her behavior, particularly success and failures The way a person makes attributions can contribute to depression Norephinephrine and seratonin - neurotransmitters that help regulate brain centers associated with experiencing pleasure
Delinquency Juvenile delinquency When adolescents commit illegal acts that re destructive to themselves or others Status offense An act that is not a crime if committed by an adult, such as truancy or running away from home Index offense Acts that are illegal regardless of the perpetrator’s age
Causes of Delinquency Adolescent-limited antisocial behavior The behavior of the youth who engage in relatively minor criminal acts but aren’t consistently antisocial Life-course persistent antisocial behavior Antisocial behavior that emerges at an early age and continues throughout life
Causes of Delinquency Biological contributions Some children inherit factors that place them at risk for aggressive or violent behavior (e.g., temperament) Cognitive processes Impulsivity; inability to interpret other people’s intentions Family processes Inadequate parenting Poverty Aggressive and delinquent behavior increased in poverty stricken families and neighborhoods
Treatment and Prevention of Delinquency Delinquent adolescents can be taught more effective social skills and methods of self-control Parents can be taught the importance of monitoring children’s behavior and necessity for consistent discipline Families can learn to function more effectively as a unit Schools can develop programs to motivate delinquent youth to become more involved in school performance Communities can improve conditions in neighborhoods where delinquency reigns