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Chapter 9: Moving into the Adult Social World

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1 Chapter 9: Moving into the Adult Social World
Socioemotional Development in Adolescence

2 Major Topics Identity and Self-Esteem
Romantic Relationship and Sexuality The Dark Side

3 Identity and Self-Esteem
According to existing theories, how do adolescents develop an identity?

4 Erikson’s Contribution
Erikson believed adolescents needed to resolve a crisis of identity formation. Involves balancing the desire to explore many possible selves and the need to select a single self Forming an ID prepares one for the next stage— intimate relationships Failure to form ID results in problems with forming a relationship

5 Contribution from Piaget’s Formal Operational Stage of Thought
Adolescents search for an identity using their hypothetical reasoning skills to experiment with different hypothetical selves and learn more about possible identities Adolescents also commonly… Demonstrate adolescent egocentrism which is associated with self-absorption Visualize an imaginary audience associated with feelings that others are constantly watching them

6 Believe in a personal fable—an attitude that their experiences and feelings are unique
Have an illusion of invulnerability

7 Contributions About Ethnic Identity
Ethnic identity—feeling of belonging to a specific ethnic group 3 stages of ethnic identity Have not examined ethnic roots Begin to explore personal impact of ethnic heritage Achieve a distinct ethnic self-concept

8 Marcia’s Contribution
Marcia’s 4 Identity Statuses Status Definition Diffusion Overwhelmed by the task so accomplishes little Foreclosure Status determined by adults, not personal exploration Moratorium Exploring various possibilities/alternatives Achievement Has chosen a specific identity

9 Diffusion or foreclosure most common in adolescence.
Romantic, political, and religious-oriented experimentation also common. Few adolescents completely resolve the identity crisis. Adolescents usually achieve an identity in one area of life; other areas are not achieved until later.

10 Using Identity Formation to Make Career Choices
Super’s Theory of Career Development Crystallization—adolescents use their emerging identities to form ideas about careers Specification—learn more about specific lines of work and begin training Implementation—individuals actually enter the workforce Personality-Type Theory (Holland) People find their work fulfilling when the important features of a job or profession fit the worker’s personality

11 Part-time employment is common for adolescents and can contribute to choices about careers but can have harmful effects: Decreased school performance Mental health and behavioral problems (e.g., anxiety, depression, drug use) Misleading affluence (e.g., earn and spend)

12 Self-Esteem in Adolescence
Self-esteem sometimes drops when children move from elementary school to middle school or junior high Peer comparisons more prevalent Self-esteem becomes more differentiated in adolescence Self-esteem is influenced by: Competence in the domains that are important to the individual How others people—particularly people important to them— view the adolescent

13 Romantic Relationships and Sexuality
Why do teenagers date? Why are some adolescents sexually active? Why do so few use contraceptives? What determines an adolescent’s sexual orientation?

14 Romantic Relationships and Sexuality
Romantic relationships provide companionship like that provided by a best friend and an outlet for sexual exploration Adolescents involved in relationships are often more self-confident, but also report more emotional upheaval and conflict

15 Sexual Behavior Influences on sexual behavior: Gender Differences
Parental relationship: less likely to engage in sexual behavior if close with parents, parents monitor behavior/activity, and discourage sex Peer influence: more likely to engage in sexual behavior if peers are Gender Differences Females: describe first sexual partner as someone they love Males: describe first sexual partner as a casual date

16 Sexually Transmitted Disease, Pregnancy, and Contraception
Be familiar with the common STDs! STD’s are transmitted from one person to another through sexual intercourse Serious implications if left untreated Most people who contract STD’s do so during adolescence 1 in 6 adolescent females who engage in sexual intercourse get pregnant Reasons for not using contraceptives: ignorance, illusion of invulnerability, lack of motivation, lack of access

17 Sexual Orientation During adolescence, 15% of teens experience a period of sexual questioning 5% identify sexual orientation as gay or lesbian Challenges of same-sex attraction Family and peer relationships often disrupted Verbal and physical attacks Higher rate of mental health problems Social change are helping gay and lesbian youth respond more effectively to these challenges

18 The “Dark Side” What is sexual coercion?
Why do teenagers drink and use drugs? What leads some adolescents to become depressed? How can depression be treated? What are the causes of juvenile delinquency?

19 Sexual Coercion Date Rape/Acquaintance Rape
When someone is forced to have sexual intercourse with someone she or he knows 10% of high school girls; 20-25% of college age women have been victims of date rape Useful guidelines to help prevent date rape (pg. 332)

20 Drugs and Drinking Drug Use Teenage Drinking—3 Factors of Influence:
While most adolescents avoid drugs, most high school seniors have drunk alcohol within the past 2 months Teenage Drinking—3 Factors of Influence: Parents: drinking is important part of parents’ lives; parents are uninvolved Peers: peers involved in drinking Stress: cope with stress using alcohol

21 Depression Depression - disorder characterized by pervasive feelings of sadness, irritability, and low self- esteem Attributions - a person’s explanations of his or her behavior, particularly success and failures The way a person makes attributions can contribute to depression Norephinephrine and seratonin - neurotransmitters that help regulate brain centers associated with experiencing pleasure

22 Delinquency Juvenile delinquency Status offense Index offense
When adolescents commit illegal acts that re destructive to themselves or others Status offense An act that is not a crime if committed by an adult, such as truancy or running away from home Index offense Acts that are illegal regardless of the perpetrator’s age

23 Causes of Delinquency Adolescent-limited antisocial behavior
The behavior of the youth who engage in relatively minor criminal acts but aren’t consistently antisocial Life-course persistent antisocial behavior Antisocial behavior that emerges at an early age and continues throughout life

24 Causes of Delinquency Biological contributions Cognitive processes
Some children inherit factors that place them at risk for aggressive or violent behavior (e.g., temperament) Cognitive processes Impulsivity; inability to interpret other people’s intentions Family processes Inadequate parenting Poverty Aggressive and delinquent behavior increased in poverty stricken families and neighborhoods

25 Treatment and Prevention of Delinquency
Delinquent adolescents can be taught more effective social skills and methods of self-control Parents can be taught the importance of monitoring children’s behavior and necessity for consistent discipline Families can learn to function more effectively as a unit Schools can develop programs to motivate delinquent youth to become more involved in school performance Communities can improve conditions in neighborhoods where delinquency reigns

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