Presentation on theme: "AJ 50 – Introduction to Administration of Justice Chapter 2 - The Crime Picture."— Presentation transcript:
AJ 50 – Introduction to Administration of Justice Chapter 2 - The Crime Picture
The Collection of Crime Data Uniform Crime Reports (UCR) – FBI annual publication, since 1930 – Some 16,000 participating LE agencies provide crime information to FBI based on reported crimes – Used to develop national Crime Index National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS) – Bureau of Justice Statistics annual survey – Measures reported and unreported crime
NIBRS National Incident-Based Reporting System Incident-based system gathers data on every single crime occurrence From city, county, state, federal agencies Replaces Part I & II Offenses with information on 22 general offenses
Crime Index Violent and property crimes reported Used for geographical and historical comparisons Used to calculate Crime Rate – Number of crimes per unit of population Historical trends in crime rate – 1940’s = decrease – 1960’s–1990’s = increase – 1990’s–2007 = decrease – Current trends? Crime Index data in transition to new NIBRS
Part I Offenses Violent crimes – Murder – Rape – Robbery – Aggravated Assault Property crimes – Burglary – Larceny/Theft – Motor Vehicle Theft – Arson FBI crime clock (p. 38) – Frequency of crime occurrence
Murder Definition? – Unlawful killing of another human being – 187 PC Degrees? – 1 st, 2 nd – Voluntary/involuntary/vehicular manslaughter Weapon most commonly used? – Firearm By whom? – Most suspects/victims acquainted Comparison to other Part I Offenses? – Least likely to occur/most likely to be cleared – Why?
Rape Definition? – Unlawful/forceful sexual intercourse without consent – 261 PC Against whom? – Female, male, same-gender “Statutory” Rape? – Victim is minor – 261.5 PC = Unlawful Sexual Intercourse Sexual Battery? – Unlawful physical contact of some sexual nature without consent Date Rape? – Acquaintance Rape during “dating” relationship/situation
Robbery Definition? – Unlawful taking of another’s property by force or violence and placing the victim in fear – 211 PC How? – Armed with weapon – Unarmed = “strong-arm” robbery “Highway” Robbery? – Robbery that occurs outdoors in public
Aggravated Assault Definition? – Unlawful attack or attempt to inflict injury on another person Types? – Simple = misdemeanor (240 PC) – Aggravated = felony (243 PC, 245 PC) Weapon, serious injury, etc. Same as Battery? – No! Battery is a completed assault (242 PC)
Burglary Definition? – Unlawful entry with intent to commit theft or any felony – 459 PC Types? – Residential, Commercial, Institutional, Auto Breaking and Entering? – Not necessarily, structure may be unlocked Annual loss? – Over $4 billion in losses (2007) – Average loss per offense ~ $1,900
Larceny/Theft Definition? – Unlawful taking of property of another – 484 PC Grand Theft vs. Petty Theft? – 487 PC (F) or 488 PC (M) – Depends on value of stolen property ($400) Common but often under-reported… why? Identity Theft? – Increasing problem, huge losses
Motor-Vehicle Theft Definition? – Theft/attempted theft of motor vehicle – 10851 VC Motor Vehicle? – Self-propelled road vehicle (car, truck, motorcycle, etc.) – Tractors, airplanes, trains, etc. fall under Theft category Connection to violent crimes? Losses? – Over 1 million vehicles stolen in 2007 – $7.4 billion
Arson Definition? – Burning of property with or without intent to defraud – 451 PC Why? – Malicious mischief, insurance fraud, destroy evidence or hide other crimes Most common targets? – #1 structures, #2 vehicles Annual Loss? – ~ $1 billion – Average loss per offense ~ $17,000
Part II Offenses Less-serious violations as compared to Part I Statistics based on number of arrests as opposed to number reported – Many would be unreported Numbers reflect number of arrests, not necessarily number of arrestees Refer to Table, page 49
NCVS National Crime Victimization Survey Information based on victims’ self-reporting rather than police reports Intended to show the “Dark Figure of Crime” – Crimes that occurred but unreported – Rape, robbery, burglary, assault, larceny
Crime Typology Crimes classified along particular dimensions – Property crimes – Violent crimes – Specific victim type Many have overlapping characteristics Crime Classification = seriousness of offense – Infraction – Misdemeanor – Felony
Crimes Against Women Women less likely to be victims of all personal crimes except for rape Higher rate of injury to female victims Violence against women primarily from partner Other associated crimes – Domestic Violence – Rape/Date Rape – Stalking/Cyberstalking Refer to statistics on p. 52-53
Crimes Against the Elderly In general, victimization declines with age Elderly more likely to be… – Victims of property crimes – Victimized by strangers – Victimized in or near home during daytime – Injured (less likely to protect themselves)
Hate Crimes Crimes with a motive of… –H–Hatred, bias, or prejudice based on the actual or perceived race, ethnicity, religion, national origin, disability, gender, or sexual orientation of an individual or group of individuals 422.55 PC & 422.6 PC Connection to “regular” PC sections? Examples?
White-Collar Crime Usually nonviolent crime for financial gain committed by… – Person of high professional/business status – Person of high professional/technical knowledge or skill Corporate Crime – Criminal actions committed by a corporate entity or its executives or agents
Organized Crime Criminal activity by a highly-organized group or association, often supplying illegal goods or services – Drug trafficking – Gambling – Prostitution – Loan-Sharking/Racketeering Transnational Organized Crime – Occurs across national borders – International drug/weapons trade
Gun Crime Large number of crimes committed with firearms, especially handguns Gun-control legislation aimed at reducing firearms-related crime – Second Amendment protections?
Drug Crime Continuing to increase Connection to other crimes? Huge $$$ – $65 billion in illicit drug sales annually in US – $142 billion in US, Mexico, Canada Costs of drug enforcement? – Investigation, arrest, prosecution, incarceration
High-Technology Crime Computer Crime (Cyber-crime) – Criminal activity through the use of computer technology – Malware – malicious computer programs such as viruses, worms, etc. Invasion of operating systems to alter, damage, destroy stored information Computer Piracy – Unauthorized duplication/transfer of software, music, movies, etc. – Who does this harm?
Terrorism Committing a violent or dangerous act against human life in order to… – Coerce or intimidate government or civilians – In furtherance of political/social objectives Domestic Terrorism – Terrorist individual or group based within US without foreign direction – Acts directed at US government or populace International Terrorism – Terrorist individuals/groups with links to foreign power – Acts directed across national boundaries to further group’s political/social goals