Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Soc. 100 Lecture 18.C10 Edit 3/05/03 Gender Stratification 1.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Soc. 100 Lecture 18.C10 Edit 3/05/03 Gender Stratification 1."— Presentation transcript:

1 Soc. 100 Lecture 18.C10 Edit 3/05/03 Gender Stratification 1

2 Thurber 2

3 From James Thurber Fables For Our Time 19433

4 Jeans Make Rape Impossible, Court In Italy Rules Outraged women don denim to protest decision CHRONICLE NEWS SERVICES Feb 99 ROME — Angry female lawmakers wore jeans to Parliament yesterday to protest a ruling by Italy’s highest appeals court that rape is impossible if the victim is wearing jeans. “If we go on like this, every woman who doesn’t wear a chastity belt will have the ‘right’ to be raped,” said Sonia Viale of Parliament’s equal opportunities commission. The justices of the Court of Gassation ruled Wednesday that “it is common knowledge... that jeans cannot even be partly removed without the effective help of the person wearing them, and it is impossible if the victim is struggling with all her might.” Baggy jeans aren’t popular in Italy, and most women prefer tight pants. The decision overturned the 1998 conviction of a 45 year-old driving instructor in southern Italy, Carmine Cristiano, for raping an 18-year-old student. A lower court had sentenced Gristiano to two years and eight months in prison, but the appeals court said the girl must have consented to sex and sent the case back for retrial. 4

5 Gender CSUB W03 SEX Frequency Percent Frequency Percent Undergrad Post/BacGrad F % % M % % Total Students More current data on CSUB:

6 Gender Stratification: Some Observations World China’s high value for males (Birthrates) MalesFemales World China African Genital Mutilation (see C3) Almost Universal denial or low quality education denial or low status/pay jobs denial of political participation 6

7 Gender Stratification: Some Observations(a) US-Women + Observations First attorney General (Janet Reno) First Assistant to the President for National Security Affairs Condolezza Rice 2 Supreme Court Justices First Secretary of State (Madylyn Albrecht) First EPA head (??? Whitman) 51 House Members 9 Senators 2 Governors +50% Receiving BA degree 1/3 Phds 3/4 in work force Law changes for types of rape and harassment 7

8 Gender Stratification: Some Observations(b) US-Women - Observations Despite progress still in equality Jobs are lower pay and denial into higher management.75 for each $1.00 males earn Welfare reforms have higher impact on women Women work a second shift--house work, despite improvement 2 million women are beaten, 1500 die at hands of spouse or boyfriend every year (SFC Eilleen McNamera 4/19/01) ½ million women raped or assulted every year (SFC Eilleen McNamera 4/19/01) #Women and Men’s Housework Consumers Report 2/1/99 8

9 Sexism: Male & Female Soc. 100 C10 Sex 0. Some Basics concepts * 1. How Different Are the Sexes (1). Biological differences * (2). Cultural differences* (3). Gender Socialization (4). Mismeasure of Women 2. Women: The 52% Minority 3. Inequality in the Family 4. Explaining Gender Stratification * 5. Equality for Women:A Century of Struggle 6. Men and Masculinity 7. Sexual Orientation 9

10 0. Some Basic concepts Sex ; biological identity- Sex Role; culturally defined attitudes, behavior, motivations Gender ; social meanings or cultural identity -a social construct Sexual Orientation; the sex of individuals one is attracted to Maximilist; believe there are major fundamental differences between males and females that are significant Minimilist; believe the differences between males and females are insignificant, minor a product of the society * not as clear as one might think with high concern of Olympics in testing for hormones 10

11 Traditional Western Sex Role Expectations Men independent aggressive sex initiators career focus suppress emotions success--achievements Women nurturing / friendly cultivate attractiveness social poise inhibit aggression open display sexual interest defer to men focus on marriage and children success--relations 1. How Different Are the Sexes 11

12 Males taller heavier muscular higher metabolic rate more physically active lower brain/weight ratio higher natural abortion higher venerability to disease faster response to single stimuli spatial ability Females shorter lighter less muscle more fat more efficient metabolism higher brain/ body ratio less natural abortions less genetic dispositions (color blindness, hemophilia) less venerability to disease better response to multi-stimuli excel on dexterity, endurance, patience ?Bobby George book on diff.? Female vs. Male survival (birth..) (1). Biological differences 12

13 1(a). More Biological(?) differences Athletics, men generally better but women improving --looks like cultural roles a big factor, if changes continue women will equal or surpass men in 30 years Brain, men's brain specialized (rt. and lt.) women diffuse IQ Females compared to Males W-verbal women consistently higher W-math mixed findings age increases M-spatial differences increase with age (note original Stanford Benet women were higher) Even with differences the distributions overlap-not separate categories MalesFemales MalesFemales This Not This 13

14 If Biology = Social biology same = universal social but not true for sex roles all societies differentiate sex roles as well as "good bodies" but wide variability for sex roles western societies --men suited to strenuous work Sub-Saharan --women also perform strenuous work Toda (India) --thought women incompetent at housework Iranians -- think women to be cool and logical compared to men Soviet Union -- most physicians are women Gender stratification/inequality appears to be universal and related to economic role of women (2). Cultural differences 14

15 1st question new parents are asked "boy or girl?" question of parents with girls only "don't you want to try for a boy" research study peoples response varied with perceptions of girl or boy baby's characteristics (though M F) parents more physical with boys, talk with girls parents claim equal treatment M F but see differences boys messy, noisy girls neat, good mannered gender socialization Snow White, Sleeping Beauty, Cinderella ---Pipi Longstocking Practical Princess Little Girl and the WOLF Don't forget Thurber's Red Riding Hood Why gender inequality continues (3). Gender Socialization 15

16 (3)a. Gender Socialization 2 Toys Boys and Girls Parents What are boys and girls made of.… boys->messy, noisy, girls-->neat, mild mannered) School, hidden curriculum in school books ---Dick and Jane teacher treatment ---boys self reliant, strong, aggressive girls dependent, weak, passive Mass Media, TV, Movies, Pop Music Women as Cinderella (Pretty Women), Sex objects, passive (dumb "Blonde Jokes") dependent Peers, strong values enforcement, Girl Scouts vs Boy Scouts despite above boys and girls are more alike then different 16

17 The Mismeasure of Women Universal man used as normative reference for humans Politically: "real/hard”, “big” issues are male opposed to women's issues (e.g typical first lady options) Economically: Men "work" women take care of the kids much women's work not counted economics Education: History, literature, civics, science mostly white men Medicine: Powerful, status, hi pay MD's are male roles -despite F numbers the "normal human" characteristics/problems/research are based on males (4). Mismeasure of Women 17

18 Sexism; the belief that innate sex differences justify differential treatment Women as a minority in US--fits Wirth's characteristics(p332) Difference women and other minorities --not segregated residentially --legal / formal status is less equal (no equal rights, "protection laws", military status) Work --- M-F differences---Glass ceiling 58 % women work(old &kids), 70% of 24-54yr olds( %) 75% are crucial breadwinners (single parent or low family $) women made 71% men made in 1993* low pay, status jobs dominated by women (p369 list) (teacher, clerks, bank tellers, service industry...) in same occupations women are in low status areas(e.g.MD) female executive makes 2/3 of $ made by male executive Laws---M-F differences; females "protected", equal rights pay applies to women but "comparative work" not issue “Glass ceiling” p337 for women at the top,”Sticky floor” for women at the bottom p370, Women: The 52% Minority: Summary Observations 18

19 1 Unequal Pay Women and Men's income The Wage Gap 1. Data from Paula S. Rothenberg Race Class & Gender in The United States page Why slowdown in 90s? a. age distribution b. M wages up c. split in job market 19

20 1a Unequal Pay: Professions, $ and Gender Segregation MD's --Females tracked into the low pay, low status specialties (pediatrics, gynecology, psychiatry) Lawyers--Females tracked into lower paid specialties (family law--one study found $40,000 diff. in pay male vs. female Harvard Law after 10 years practice Female Executives--$ are 2/3 of male executives MBA's --Females make < 20% of males annual income after 10 years Cooperate VP's--Females make 42% of males income 20

21 Feminization of occupations Observed Pattern: when a prestigious occupation increases in the % of females it also looses status, prestige and relative income. Which comes first, the loss of the occupations status or the influx of females? Examples: Veterinarians Pharmacists Lawyers? Future MD's ? Female Occupations Observed Pattern: Many occupations are dominated by females and are low status and pay. Examples: Retail clerks, Secretaries, Receptionist, bank tellers, household workers and more status but not corresponds with responsibility or education: teacher, nurse, librarian !/2 of all women work in female dominated occupation Men in female dominated occupation are placed on “glass escalator” “Comparable Worth” issue pay should be based on skills, education, effort 21

22 Women & Work: Job Mobility -Women typically must choose career or motherhood “mommy track” -Until 1993 US only developed country w/o paternal leave still no national child care Business does not flex for mothers schedule (e.g.9-5 work) -"Mommy Track" a concept for scheduling careers to fit a mother was instead used as a rationalization to discriminate 22

23 Work/School and Sex Sexual harassment; sexual advances, requests and demeaning behavior or references are (1) condition of employment or (2) part of the environment of women in the work place reports 50 to 80% female workers have endured harassment includes forced sex for job and "hostile environment" examples in recent years include President Clinton and: Clarence Thomas and Anita Hill Bob Packwood Naval cases (tailhook, etc.) Army at Aberdeen Base (F 96) 1964 Civil Rights Act prohibited sexual discrimination Military has provided a “natural experiment to test equality attempts, indicators there are still problems. Colleges have eliminated “in locus parentus” which effectively controlled females, many ban instructor - student relations, concerns with “date rape” but equality still a goal not a reality Recent court cases indicate an ambiguity about sexual harassment 23

24 historically women were "property” of the father or husband. (WWII denial of officer status for nurses) until recently women did not control family property, religious choice, education choice, the man did. until recently men could legally, physically enforce his will on the female (Stick in Tenn., Adultery in Arizona) even today in some states women cannot charge their spouse with rape if there was no physical force perceptions of equal relations the typical wife works a job +30 extra hours caring for the house but male job priority final responsibility of child care falls on the female in decisions husbands make decisions wives orchestrate women suffer more in divorce (-40 to 65 % for F -10% for M) 3. Inequality in the Family 24

25 Women & the family-types of families Traditional--male works and his life is the family focus Egalitarian--equal share in power and on decision of the importance of spheres of work & family Transitional--women are workers, mothers and housekeepers “second shift” of 15 hours, men are workers Most couples are transitional with various "myths" to support Cultural norms of "Good Mother" and "good wife” Status: MC and UC more likely to preach equality but less likely egalitarian then lower class to practice equality Single parent families: Women get short end in divorce "no fault" doesn't account for likelihood women get children with high cost in $ and lower possibilities for good employment Second shift; women have jobs then come home and do the childcaring and house work 25

26 Functionalist -evolutionary determined early roles (division of labor) size, strength, endurance for male role (Hunting) greater endurance, patience, dexterity for female role (nurturing children and gathering) -culture continued differences sex roles are not universal * stratification M F appears universal -industrialization changed conditions but roles did not change result was almost universal discrimination against women Conflict Theorists -sex roles are the common exploitation of weak by strong -work protection laws for females actually protected M jobs -a population of low paid workers are good for the capitalists - How do you get social change: collective consciousness> social action from >social change Major Theories of M-F differences cultural lag 4. Explaining Gender Stratification 26

27 Middle range theories of gender inequality 1. Human Capital theory--women have fewer assets to sell 2. Overcrowding theory--women crowd into a relatively small number of occupations 3. Dual labor market--job market is divided into two levels primary; high wages, good conditions & benefits, security, advancement, few entry positions, rights secondary; opposite to primary, part time, low security Institutionalized sexism--by product of practices and policies that have nothing to do with sex e.g. - 9 to 5 work schedule not fit "mother" role -pension plan requirements (women drop out for babies) -health insurance (covers only full time workers) -"get ahead" norm is when women are busy -child -US only one of 2 industrialized country without national child care program guaranteeing parental leave (p371) 4(a). Gender Socialization-Why Gender differences why 1-3 above 27

28 The Women's Movement Overall pattern; -started more then 100 years ago -peaked turn of the century with voting rights then faded -renewed emphasis in 1960's History p "The Past 100 Years" Modern Women's movement due to (1) climate for change, (2) collective sense of injustice, (3) organization, (4) structural change (# child per family) 2 types of feminists; liberal (change possible in our society, used legal efforts and demonstration) tactics, Radical (change possible in our patriarchal society started women's shelters, day care, etc.) Effects; public policy of 70s, counter movement 70's, 80's retreat, institutionalization new focus 90's Feminism; the belief that women are equal to men and should have equal rights and opportunities 5. Equality for Women:A Century of Struggle 28

29 The hazards of being male (389) White, MC men are the normative gender and a privileged class. Close exam shows the dark side, life chances health life spanemotional stress, mental illness suicide victims of homicide (some are genetic and some others cultural) Macho cultural norms effect, stress, showing emotion The role requirements for being a "good provider” as specialized male role dates to industrial revolution. A man is judged by his ability to provide for his family but economics in 70s made this difficult/impossible The new father; present at childbirth, involved/participates in day to day work with children as infants and older whether male or female Reality of “new father” is lag between ideals and reality and marital conflict and guilt. Single parent males best fit the ideal of this model (p390, 391) Redefining masculinity; a conflict between ambitious breadwinner and compassionate father and participating spouse caused by multiple economic and social changes (Promise Keepers p etc.) 6. Men and Masculinity 29

30 US assumption is “normal” or “natural” sexual orientation is between adults of opposite sex Social Identity of homosexuality greatly shapes others vies and interaction Attitudes about homosexual behavior varies in time and place (traditional societies, Greeks not all see a difference between hetero and homosexuality) Judeo-Christian teachings (US beliefs) in general condemn all sex not connected to creation. Thus homosexuality is a weakness not a sickness Pathological view of homosexual behavior dates to late 19th century and followers of Freud saw homosexual as maladjustment or mental illness. Lead to “homophobia”first part of 20th century (US criminals, Germany sent to death camps 7a. Sexual Orientation: general observations 30 Check Bakersfield Californian p1 March 1 for local treatment of homosexuals

31 1948, Kensey and associates found widespread homosexual behavior and saw as continuum rather then “either-or” 1969, first public protest against homosexual harassment at Stonewall Riot in NY (p627, 628). This was part of other “civil rights” movements and led to organization development and “coming out” 1973, American Psychiatric Association eliminated homosexuality from list of mental illnesses-little public impact Late 1980’s, to present,Aids development in homosexual community led to sympathy by some and condemnation by 1990’s homosexual community divided into mainstream (focused on family rights of gay couples and more radical (focused on return to sexual liberation seen as central to gay identity). Discrimination and violence against homosexuals continues as exhibited by media presentation of recent cases of killings. 7b. Sexual Orientation: Modern Observations 31

32 Other Topics on Sexism Sexism: definition, language Politics and Sexism Feminism today and "choice" Language and Sexism Sexism and Religion Sexism and Medical research The "Glass Ceiling" Sexual Harassment: forced intamacy and hostile environment--Deliberate, Repeated, Power 32

33 Today! -- survey of gender attitudes page 308 4th ed. I will try to remember and place on class web site % of state legislatures will be women -- Catholic Bishops 163 yes on pastoral letter not majority but not 1/3. The letter denied meaningful roles for women -- Army Sexual Harassment, B52 Pilot (compare to Tailhook), Title 9 Sports Equity -- Astronauts (almost no female, despite superior initial testing), Military, WWII nurses 33

34 Vocabulary Quiz: Define and give an example NAME________ 1. Gender 2. Mismeasure of women 3. Comparable worth 4. Sticky floor 5. Mommy track 6. Women as “missing persons” 7. Dual labor market 8. Feminism 9. Instutionalized sexism 10. In the movie “A Class Divided” why was “lady” considered a pejorative Other terms a.Equal rights amendment b.Sexual Harassment c.Glass ceiling d.Glass escalator e.Sex differences *minimalist, minimalist f.Parental leave g.Sex, sex role h.Hazards of being male i.New father j.Women as minority

35 C10 Concepts & Terms From Gelles & Levene comparable worth 369 glass ceiling 370 mommy track XXX institutional sexism 385 feminism 385 sex,sex role(s) 361 Sexual harassment372gender 361 sticky floor glass escalator Second shift Additional Concepts Diffirences between sexes (minimalist, maximalists 361) feminization of jobsglass escalator Women as “missing persons” 382 Second shift 376 “Mismeasure of women” 366 Theories of sex roles (SF, Conflict, Human capital, overcrowding, dual labor market) Hazards of being male

36 GENDER STUDY QUESTIONS CHAPTER How different are the sexes 2. What are the social and economic consequences of being a women in our society today? 3. How do sociologist explain gender differences historically and today? 4. How did the women’s movement begin and where is it headed? 5. How are men and masculinity changing? WHAT CURRENT EVENTS EXHIBIT GENDER DIFFERENTIATION. 35

37 1. How different are the sexes pg Topics: Introduction, biological differences, cultural differences, gender socialization, mismeasure of women Terms: sex, sex roles, gender, maximalist, minimalists, gender stratification, gender socialization, mismeasure of women 36

38 2. What are the social and economic consequences of being a women in our society today? (pg ) Topics: The 52% minority, Inequality at work, Inequality in the family, Pharmacy: A prescription for feminization Terms: minority,”female” occupations, comparable worth (pay equity), feminization of an occupation, glass ceiling, sticky floor, glass escalator, mommy track, sexual harassment, family types: traditional, agalitarian, transitional 37

39 3. How do sociologist explain gender differences historically and today? (pg ) Topics: Sociological perspectives on gender stratification, Middle range theories, Terms:Theories; functionalist, conflict, middle range (human capital, overcrowding, dual labor market), institutionalized sexism 38

40 4. How did the women’s movement begin and where is it headed? (p ) Topics: The Past 100 years, The modern women's movement, Victories- setbacks and New directions. Terms:feminism 39

41 5. How are men and masculinity changing? ( ) Topics: Men and Masculinity, The hazards of being male, “The New Father”, Redefining Masculinity. Terms:”the normative gender”, “The good provider”, “The New Father” 40

42 Thought Questions 1.Give a sociological view of gender relations and stratification? --How did the differentiation start --Describe the major characteristics of gender stratification in the US (Bakersfield? CSUB?) --Why does the differentiation continue --Is the differentiation likely to continue in the same way in the future? 41

43 Quiz chapter 10 Gender 5/22/03—Questions OMIT ONE 1. The most recent text data, 1995, indicates the average for each dollar a man earns an equivalent women earns how much? 2. What is the term that refers to the biological component of being a male or female? 3. Name one middle-range theory that attempts to explain differences in how much males and females earn in society? 4. Many women and men refer to the existence of a ________ceiling, an invisible barrier that keeps women from reaching top levels in the business world. 5. What refers to the established social patterns which have the unintended consequence of limiting women's opportunities (e.g. career patterns). 6. Name one confirmed biological difference between boys & girls (not related to sex organs) ? 7. What % of women are estimated to have been sexually harassed? 8. Creating laws to require the same pay for jobs with equivalent skills, education, experience is called ? 9. Men are usually used as the norm in politics, economics, and medicine. This is referred to in the text as? 10. Which social class “preaches” gender egalitarian ideals and which social class is more likely to “practice” equal responsibilities for husband and wife? 11. Name one of the “hazards” of being male. Don’t Print 42

44 Quiz Chapter 10 Gender 11/10/94--Answers 1. The most recent text data, 1995, indicates the average for each dollar a man earns an equivalent women earns how much? cents 2. What is the term that refers to the biological component of being a male or female. Sex 3. Name one middle-range theory that attempts to explain differences in how much males and females earn in society? (a)) human capital theory, (b)overcrowding theory, (c)dual labor market, (d) institutionalized sexism 4. Many women and men refer to the existence of a glass _ceiling, an invisible barrier that keeps women from reaching top levels in the business world. 5. refers to the established social patterns which have the unintended consequence of limiting women's opportunities (e.g. career patterns). Institutionalized sexism 6. Name one confirmed biological difference (not related to sex organs) between boys & girls. aggression, math (?)- spatial, strength, size What % of women are estimated to have been sexually harassed? 50% to 80% 8. Creating laws to require the same pay for jobs with equivalent skills, education, experience is called ? Comparable worth, pay-equity programs 9. Men are usually used as the norm in politics, economics, and medicine. This is referred to in the text as? Mismeasure of Women, Universal Male, normative gender 10. Which social class “preaches” gender egalitarian ideals and which social class is more likely to “practice” equal responsibilities for husband and wife? Middle, Lower p Name one of the “hazards” of being male. Longevity and related causes, mental illness, suicide, homicide... Don’t Print 44

45 Quiz Chapter 10 Gender 11/10/94—Answers Temp S01 1. The most recent text data, 1995, indicates the average for each dollar a man earns an equivalent women earns how much? 2. What is the term that refers to the biological component of being a male or female. 3. Many women and men refer to the existence of a ______ 4. Name one confirmed biological difference (not related to sex organs) between boys & girls. ________ 5. Creating laws to require the same pay for jobs with equivalent skills, education, experience is called ? 6. Which social class “preaches” gender egalitarian ideals and which social class is more likely to “practice” equal responsibilities for husband and wife? 46

46 Quiz Chapter 10 Gender 11/10/94—Answers Temp S01 1. The most recent text data, 1995, indicates the average for each dollar a man earns an equivalent women earns how much? cents 2. What is the term that refers to the biological component of being a male or female. Sex 3. Many women and men refer to the existence of a glass _ceiling, an invisible barrier that keeps women from reaching top levels in the business world. 4. Name one confirmed biological difference (not related to sex organs) between boys & girls. aggression, math (?)- spatial, strength, size Creating laws to require the same pay for jobs with equivalent skills, education, experience is called ? Comparable worth, pay-equity programs 6. Which social class “preaches” gender egalitarian ideals and which social class is more likely to “practice” equal responsibilities for husband and wife? Middle, Lower p 378 Don’t Print 47

47 Final Exam Comprehensive A05-A06 serve as discussion 119 Multiple Choice Bring a #2 pencil Study Hints: Vocabulary Workbook outlines DDH GJ 102 3:30-5:35 Early takers --- Studio B at 2:00pm Review on the class schedule-week 10 48


Download ppt "Soc. 100 Lecture 18.C10 Edit 3/05/03 Gender Stratification 1."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google