5Sex Differences: Nature or Nurture? The important question is not whether biology or culture is more important in forming men and women, but how biology and culture interact to produce a person’s gender identity.Biological determinism refers to explanations that attribute complex social phenomena to physical characteristics.
6Biological Sex Identity A person’s sex identity is established at the moment of conception when the father’s sperm provides either an X or a Y chromosome to the egg at fertilization.The mother contributes an X chromosome to the embryo.Two X chromosomes make a female; an X and a Y, a male.
7HermaphroditismA condition caused by irregularities in the process of chromosome formation or fetal differentiation that produces persons with mixed biological sex characteristics.In the most common form of hermaphroditism, the child is born with ovaries or testes, but the genitals are ambiguous or mixed.
13Consequences of Gender Expectations Women are denied access to power, influence, achievement, and independence in the public world.Men are denied access to nurturing, emotional, and other-oriented worlds that women traditionally inhabit.
14Gendered Institutions The total pattern of gender relations including:Stereotypical expectationsInterpersonal relationshipsDifferent placement of men and women in hierarchies of institutions
15Characteristic of Societies With Gender Equality Women’s work is central to the economy.Women have access to education.Ideological or religious support for gender inequality is weak.
16Characteristic of Societies With Gender Equality Men contribute to housework and childcare.Work is not highly sex-segregated.Women have access to power and authority.
20Women’s Worth: Still Unequal In the 1960s, women earned 59% of what men earned.Women today earn 73% of what men earn.In 2002, income for women working full-time and year round was $30,203, for men, $39,429.
21Polling QuestionHow comfortable are you with the gender roles our society defines as appropriate for males and females?A.) Very comfortableB.) Somewhat comfortableC.) UnsureD.) Somewhat uncomfortableE.) Very uncomfortable
22Explaining the Pay Gap Overt discrimination White men perpetuate their advantage over women and racial minorities, through labor union practices, legislation, harassment, and intimidation.
23Explaining the Pay Gap Human capital theory Age, experience, education, marital status and hours worked influence worth in the labor market.
24Explaining the Pay Gap Dual labor market theory Women and men earn different amounts because they work in different segments of the market.
25Explaining the Pay Gap Gender segregation Men and women work in gender segregated occupations.
27Explanations Of Gender Segregation Women and men are socialized differently and choose to go into different fields.Structural obstacles discourage women from entering male-dominated jobs and from advancing once employed.
28Theories of Gender Functionalism Socialization into roles is a major impetus behind inequalityConflict theoristsWomen are disadvantaged by inequalities built into the social structureSymbolic interaction theoryGender is produced through interaction and interpretations
29Feminist Theory: Comparing Perspectives Gender IdentityLiberal FeminismLearned through traditional patterns of gender role socializationSocialist FeminismGender division of labor reflects the needs of capitalist workforce
30Feminist Theory: Comparing Perspectives Gender IdentityRadicalFeminismWomen’s identification with men gives men power over womenMultiracialWomen and men of color form an oppositional consciousness as a reaction against oppression
31Feminist Theory: Comparing Perspectives Gender IdentityGenderedInstitutionsGender is learned in institutional settings structured along gender lines“DoingGender”Gender is an accomplished activity created through social interaction
32Women’s Work Around the World Paid WorkUnpaid WorkWomenMenAustralia15303518France263117Japan20393Netherlands102511
33Women’s Work Around the World Paid WorkUnpaid WorkWomenMenJapan2039263New Zealand16293319Republic of Korea2336172
35Contemporary Attitudes About Gender 16% of women and 20% of men disapprove of women working while they have young children1/2 of all women and men surveyed said the ideal lifestyle was a marriage in which responsibilities were shared.47% of men believe it is best for men to hold the provider role, compared with 69% in 1970.87% of women say that making laws to establish equal pay should be a legislative priority.
371. A person's biological identity of male or females is their: a. gender identityb. hermaphroditismc. sexd. gender
38Answer: cA person's biological identity of male or females is their sex.
392. Condition produced when irregularities in chromosome formation or fetal differentiation produce persons with mixed biological sex characteristics is referred to as:a. homophroditismb. bisexualc. hermaphroditismd. cross-dressers
40Answer: cCondition produced when irregularities in chromosome formation or fetal differentiation produce persons with mixed biological sex characteristics is referred to as hermaphroditism.
413. One's definition of oneself as a woman or man is referred to as: a. gender apartheidb. gender socializationc. gender differentiationd. gender identity
42Answer: dOne's definition of oneself as a woman or man is referred to as gender identity.
434. "Women are disadvantaged by power inequities between women and men that are built into the social structure." This statement is most closely related to the:a. "doing gender" perspectiveb. symbolic interactionist perspectivec. functionalist perspectived. conflict perspective
44Answer: d"Women are disadvantaged by power inequities between women and men that are built into the social structure." This statement is most closely related to the conflict perspective.
455. A person's sex identity is established at the moment of conception. a. Trueb. False
46Answer: trueA person's sex identity is established at the moment of conception.
476. The fear and hatred of homosexuality is referred to as: a 6. The fear and hatred of homosexuality is referred to as: a. machismo b. homophobia c. heterosexism d. heterophobia
48Answer: bThe fear and hatred of homosexuality is referred to as homophobia.