2 Pope and His Times Pope suffered prejudices due to his appearance Ill health, tuberculosis, asthma, headaches, stunted growth, hunchbackedMany characterized Pope as ill-tempered, critical and judgmental
3 Pope and His TimesPope was self-taught “did nothing but read and write”Was friends with Swift and John Gay (famous poet)By most accounts, Pope was a misogynist (so were most other men during the period)During Popes time, many believed that women were only slightly humanWhether or not women had souls was a serious topic of conversation
4 Pope and His TimesDuring the 18th century, much traditional thinking was being challengedPope identified the poem as a: heroi-comical poemToday known as a mock-epic (a form of satire)
5 Source of the PoemPope based the poem on real events between the noble Petre and Fermor families (a Petre family member cut a lock of hair from a Fermor lady)Pope wrote the poem to satirize the absurdity and silliness of the feud that resulted from the event
6 Heroic and Mock Heroic Conventions The fateful sea voyageInvocation of the museDivision of the poem into “books” or “cantos”Descriptions of soldiers and preparations for battleDescriptions of heroic deedsParticipation of deities and spirits in the action of the story
7 Heroic and Mock Heroic Conventions Presentation of scenes from the underworldHigh formal diction and languageReligious or spiritual ritualsAscension of the dead hero into the heavensStory begins in medias resWhile extended similes in an epic elevate the story—in a mock epic they trivialize the elements of the story
8 Poetic Form, Figures of Speech, and Verse The Rape of the Lock is written in heroic couplets (Chaucer’s poetic form)Pairs of rhyming lines in iambic pentameterThe main figure of speech is hyperbolePope exaggerates for ridicule and humorOther figures of speech include: personification, anaphora, alliteration, and extended similes, antithesis
9 Antithesis and Anaphora Antithesis: Placing side by side, and in similar grammatical structures, strongly contrasting words, clauses sentences, or ideasEx: Accidentally on purpose. Agree to disagree.Anaphora: The repetition of sequences of words at the beginning of neighboring clauses—lending emphasisEx: In time we will move. In time we will advance and in time we will prevail.
10 Question for ThoughtAlthough mock-heroic poems are fun and humorous, they also serve as significant commentary on human behaviors, tendencies, flaws and moreWhat do you think is the central message of the story?
11 A Few Allusions to Paradise Lost Satan whispers a dream in Eve’s earEve fixates on her image in a pool of waterSatan suffers in a lake of burning sulfurThe Rape of the LockAriel whispers to Belinda about pride and vanityBelinda worships her own reflection in a mirrorAriel threatens the sylphs with burning chocolate
12 Questions for Discussion Select two mock-heroic elements from the poem and explain their significanceFind one example of irony in the poem and explain its purpose and significanceDiscuss the distinctive elements of Pope’s writing styleFind two similes or metaphors and explain how they work well as mock-heroic elements
17 Canto 2 The travel on the Thames river The prayer of the young adventurer BaronThe Sylphs’ mission to “tend the Fair”—to protect BelindaBrillante—the earringsChrispissa—the locksAriel—Shock, Belinda’s lapdogMomentilla—the watchfifty chosen Sylphs—the petticoat
21 Canto 4Belinda’s Ill-Natured mood and Affection after the loss of the lockUmbriel, the earthy gnome, descends to the Cave of SpleenThalestris’ speech rouses the rage of BelindaSir Plume bids in vain the payment of the lock
22 Canto 5 Clarissa’s speech The battle of belles and beaux The lock rises to the heaven and becomes a star
25 Epic, the Characteristics A long narrative poemElevated, grand styleGreat heroes and heroinesThe setting is vast in geographical rangeSupernatural power
26 Epic ConventionsThe theme is usually the adventure of a hero or a war.Invocate the Muse’s aid. (Calliope)Ask epic question(s).Begin with in medias res.Use epithets and similes.Gods’ interference in human affairs.
27 Mock EpicA work designed to ridicule attitudes, style, or subject matter by handling either an elevated subject in a trivial manner or a low subject with mock dignity (Karl 30).Renders a trivial subject ridiculous by treating it with the elaborate (Karl 31).Compare small things with something great.
28 Epic/ Mock Epic Traditional Epic The Rape of the Lock Invoke the aid of the muse: Calliope“ Say what strange motive, Goddess! Could compel” (1. 7)Begin with in medias resNoGods are involvedSpirits (Sylphs, Gnomes, Nymphs…) are involved
29 The Epic Question“Among the gods, who brought this quarrel on?” (Iliad)1 What dire offense from amorous causes springs,What mighty contests rise from trivial things,…7 Say what strange motive, Goddess! Could compelA well-bred lord to assault a gentle belle?Oh, say what stranger cause, yet unexplored,Could make a gentle belle reject a lord?In tasks so bold can little men engage,And in soft bosoms dwells such mighty rage?
30 Homeric Simile “Achilles, fast in battle as a lion.” “Hera, whose arms are white as ivory.”“Quick as her eyes” (2. 10), “Bright as the sun” (2. 13),“Shrink his thin essence like a riveled flower” (2. 132),“And falls like thunder on the prostrate Ace” (3. 98).
31 Homeric Epithet “man-killer Hector” “sharp-eyed Hermes” “Bolt-hurling Zeus”“Fair nymphs, and well-dress'd youths around her shone” (2. 5)“The long-contended honours of her head” (4.140)“Why round our coaches crowd the white-glov'd beaux?” (5. 13).
32 Structure Heroic couplet Rhymed in every two lines. Iambic pentameter Ten syllables in each lineAlternate with stressed and unstressed syllables
33 Mock Epic Journey to the underworld The Cave of Spleen (ill nature of female hypochondriacs) (4. 1)Sacrifice offering to gods before an important war or journeyBaron sacrifices his former love-token. (2.35)
34 Mock EpicBattleCliches, frowns and angry glances, snuff and bodkin. “So spoke the dame, “ (5. 35).The card game (Ombre).Rape of the female chastityRape of a lock of hair