2Exercise 1, p. 84.Add - s or -es where necessary. Do not change or omit any other words. All of the sentences are simple present. Discuss the use, spelling, and pronunciation of final -s/-es.2. My parent visit many countries when they travel in Europe.3. Robert sing when he take a shower.2. My parents visit many countries when they travel in Europe.3. Robert sings when he takes a shower.
3Exercise 1, p. 84. 4. Chicken, duck, and turkey lay egg. 5. Anna wear glove on her hand when she work in her garden.6. She scratch her chin when it itch.4. Chickens, ducks, and turkeys lay eggs.5. Anna wears gloves on her hands when she works in her garden.6. She scratches her chin when it itches.
4Exercise 2, p. 84.Look at the words that end in -s. Are they singular or plural? Are they nouns or verbs?VerbNounPluralSing.1. A new car costs a lot of money.2. New cars cost a lot of money.3. My neighbor makes a lot of noise.4. My neighbors make a lot of noise.5. Bill drinks tea for breakfast.6. Cold drinks taste good on a hot day.
5Final -s/-es: Use, Pronunciation, and Spelling Noun + -s: Friends are important.Noun + -es: I like my classes.A final -s or -es is added to a noun to make the noun plural.Friend and class = singular nounsFriends and classes = plural nouns
6Verb + -s: Mona works at the bank. Verb + -es: Jihad watches birds.A final -s or -es is added to a simple present verb when the subject is a singular noun (e.g., Mona, my father, the machine) or third person singular pronoun (she, he, it).Mona works = singular She works = singularThe students work = plural They work = plural
7Pronunciation seats -> seat/s/ ropes -> rope/s/ backs -> back/s/Final -s is pronounced /s/ after voiceless sounds, “t,” “p,” and “k” are examples of voiceless sounds. All of the above words are pronounced with one syllable.
8seeds -> seed/z/robes -> robe/z/bags -> bag/z/sees -> see/z/Final -s is pronounced /z/after voiced sounds,“d,” “b,” “g,” and “ee” are examples of voiced sounds. All of the above words are pronounced with one syllable.
10Final -s and -es are pronounced /əz/ after “sh,” “ch,” “s,” “x,” “z,” and “ge”/ “dge” sounds. The /əz/ ending adds a syllable. All of the above words in are pronounced with two syllables.
11sing -> sings song -> songs Spellingsing -> singssong -> songsFor most words (whether a verb or a noun), simply add a final –s to spell the word correctly.
12wash -> washeswatch -> watchesclass -> classesbuzz -> buzzesbox -> boxesFinal -es is added to words that end in -sh, -ch, -s, -z, and -x.
13toy -> toysbuy -> buysFor words that end in -y :If -y is preceded by a vowel, only -s is added.
14baby -> babiescry -> criesIf –y is preceded by a consonant, the -y is changed to -i/and -es is added.
15Exercise 2, p. 84.Add -s or - es to the given words to make them plural. Practice saying them aloud. Write the pronunciation for each ending. 4. bush _________ __________ 5. hat _________ __________ 6. rise _________ __________ 7. season _________ __________ 8, develop _________ __________ 9. touch _________ __________ 10, cough _________ __________ 11. method _________ __________ 12. Language _________ __________
17Basic Subject-Verb Agreement General rule Singular verbs go with singular nouns, Plural verbs go with plural nouns.
18Singular Verb: My friend lives in Boston Singular Verb: My friend lives in Boston. Verb + -sl-es = third person singular in the simple present tense Plural Verb: My friends live in Boston. Noun + -sl-es = plural
19Plural Verbs My brother and sister live in Boston Plural Verbs My brother and sister live in Boston. My brother, sister, and cousin live in Boston. Two or more subjects connected by and require a plural verb.
20Every man, woman, and child needs love. Each book and magazine is listed in the bibliography.exception : Every and each are always followed immediately by singular nouns.In this case, even when there are two (or more) nouns connected by and, the verb is singular.
21That book on political parties is interesting. The ideas in that book are interesting.Sometimes a phrase or clause separates a subject from its verb. These interrupting structures do not affect basic agreement.In the first sentence, the interruptingprepositional phrase on political parties does not change the fact that the verb is must agree with the subject book.
22The book that I got from my parents was very interesting. The books I bought at the bookstore were expensive.In the above sentences, the interruptingadjective clauses do not change the fact that the verbs was/were must agree with the subjects book/books.
23Watching old movies is fun. A gerund (e. g Watching old movies is fun. A gerund (e.g., watching) used as the subject of the sentence requires a singular verb.
24Exercise 8, p. 87. 1. Lettuce (is, are) good for you. Choose the correct completions.1. Lettuce (is, are) good for you.2. The subjects you will be studying in this course (is, are) listed in the syllabus.3. The extent of Fatima’s knowledge on various subjects (astounds, astound) me.4. Oranges, tomatoes, fresh strawberries, cabbage, and lettuce (is, are) rich in vitamin C.1. is are sounds are
25Exercise 8, p. 87.5. Every man, woman, and child (is, are) protected under the law.6. The professor and the student (agrees, agree) on that point.7. Almost every professor and student at the university (approves, approve) of the choice of Dr. Brown as the new president.5. is agree approves
26Exercise 8, p. 87.8. Each girl and boy in the sixth-grade class (has, have) to do a science project.9. Tomatoes (is, are) easy to grow. Growing tomatoes (is, are) especially easy in hot climates.10. Getting to know students from all over the world (is, are) one of the best parts of my job.11. Where (does, do) your parents live?8. has are…is is do
27Exercise 8, p. 87.12. Annie had a hard time when she was coming home from the store because the bag of groceries (was, were) too heavy for her to carry.13. Why (was, were) Yoko and Alex late for the meeting?14. (Is, Are) having the responsibility for taking care of pets good for young children?15. I like to go shopping when I’m on vacation, but I don’t buy many things. A lot of the stuff* in tourist shops (is, are) cheaply made and overpriced.12. was were is is
28Using Expressions of Quantity Singular Verb Some of the book is good, A lot of the equipment is new. Two-thirds of the money is mine. Most of our homework is easy.
29Plural Verb Some of the books are good. A lot of my friends are here Plural Verb Some of the books are good. A lot of my friends are here. Two-thirds of the boys are here. Most of our assignments are easy.
30some of + singular noun = singular verb In most expressions of quantity, the verb is determined by the noun (or pronoun) that follows of.For example:some of + singular noun = singular verbsome of + plural noun = plural verb
31One of my friends is here. Each of my friends is here One of my friends is here. Each of my friends is here. Every one of my friends is here. EXCEPTIONS: One of, each of, and every one of are followed by plural nouns and take singular verbs.
32None of the boys are here. None of the boys is here.None of the boys are here.Subjects with none o f used to be considered singular in very formal English, but plural verbs are often used in informal English andsometimes even in formal writing.
33The number of students in the class is fifteen The number of students in the class is fifteen. The number is the subject. A number of students were late for class. A number of is an expression of quantity meaning “a lot of.” It is followed by a plural noun and a plural verb. Task 3:Do exercise 11, p.89
34Exercise 11, p. 89.Choose the correct completions. Underline the word(s) that determine whether the verb is singular or plural.2 . Some of the apples in that bowl (is, are) rotten.3. Most of the movie (is, are) funny.4. Most of the movies (is, are) funny.5. Half of the students in the class (is, are) from Arabic-speaking countries.6. Half of this money (is, are) yours.2. apples are 3. movie Is 4. movies are 5. students are 6. money is
35Exercise 11, p. 89.7. A lot of the students in the class (is, are) from Southeast Asia.8. A lot of clothing in those stores (is, are) on sale this week.9. One of my best friends (is, are) coming to visit me next month.10. Each boy in the class (has, have) his own notebook.11. Each of the boys in the class (has, have) his own notebook7. students are 8. clothing is 9. one is Each has Each has
36Exercise 11, p. 89.12. Every one of the students (is, are) required to take the final test.13. None of the animals at the zoo (is, are) free to roam. All of them (is, are) in enclosures.14. A number of students (is, are) absent today.15. The number of employees in my company (is, are) approximately ten thousand.16. One of the chief materials in bones and teeth (is, are) calcium.12. Every one is 13. animals are All . , . are 14. A number are15. The number is One is
37Exercise 11, p. 89.17. (Does, Do) all of the students have their books?18. (Does, Do) all of this homework have to be finished by tomorrow?19. Why (was, were) some of the students excused from the examination?20. Why (was, were) one of the students excused from the examination?17. Do students 18. Does homework 19. were students 20. was one
38Exercise 12, P- 90. 2 . The stories… 3. Some of the story … Complete to make sentences.2 . The stories…3. Some of the story …4. Some of the stories …5. Two-thirds of the story …6. One of the stories …7. Each of the stories …8. None of the story …9. None of the stories …1 0 . A number of stories …2.are is are is is is is are are
39Exercise 12, P- 90. 1 1 . The furniture … 1 2 . A lot of the furniture …13. A lot of the chairs …14. Some of the furniture …15. Half of the furniture …16. None of the furniture …17. Some of the chairs …18. Three-fourths of the furniture …19. Seventy-five percent of the furniture …20. Half of the chairs …11. is , is are is is is are is is are
401. Think about (or look around) your classroom. Exercise 13. Warm-up. P. 90Complete the sentences with your own words.1. Think about (or look around) your classroom.There are ________in my classroom.There is ________in my classroom.2. Think about (or look around) your bedroom.There are ______ in my bedroom.There is _____in my bedroom.
41Using There + Be(a) There is a fly in the room. (b)There are three windows in this room. There + be introduces the idea that something exists in a particular place. There + be + subject + expression of place The subject follows be when there is used. In (a): The subject is a fly. (singular) In (b): The subject is three windows, (plural)
42(c)informal: There's two sides to every story. In informal spoken English, some native speakers use a singular verb even when the subject is plural, as in (c). The use of this form is fairly frequent but is not generally considered to be grammatically correct.Task 4: Do exercise 14, p.91
431. There (isn’t, aren’t) any letters in the mail for you today. Choose the correct completions.1. There (isn’t, aren’t) any letters in the mail for you today.2. There (isn’t, aren’t) any mail for you today.3. There (is, are) a lot of problems in the world.4. There (is, are) a hole in his sock.5. How many kinds of birds (is, are) there in the world?6. Why (isn’t, aren’t) there a hospital close to those villages?1. aren’t isn’t are is are isn’t
447. There (was, were) a terrible earthquake in Iran last year. 8. Why (is, are) there a shortage of available apartments for rent in this city at present?9. There (is, are) more women than men in my office.10. There (has been, have been) a line in front of that theater every night for the past two weeks.11. How many wars do you suppose there (has been, have been) in the history of the world?7. was is are has have been
45Exercise 18. Warm-up. P. 92Look at the subjects and verbs (in blue) in each pair of sentences. Some of them are “exceptions to the rule.” For example, nouns that end in -s usually take a plural verb, but sometimes not. Look for these irregularities 1. a. Nations are groups of people who share a common identity, b. The United Nations is an international organization. 2. a. Kilometers are measures of distance. b. Seven kilometers is too far for me to run. 3. a. Mix and fix are verbs, b. Six and six is twelve. 4. a. Whales are mammals. b. People are mammals. 5. a. English is a language. b. The English are concerned about global warming.
46Some IrregularitiesSingular Verb The United States is big. The Philippines consists of more than 7,000 islands. The United Nations has its headquarters in New York City. Harrods is a department store.
47Sometimes a proper noun that ends in -s is singular Sometimes a proper noun that ends in -s is singular. In the examples, if the noun is changed to a pronoun, the singular pronoun it is used (not the plural pronoun they) because the noun is singular. The United States = it (not they)
48The news is interesting. News is singular. Mathematics is easy for her The news is interesting. News is singular. Mathematics is easy for her. Physics is easy for her too. Fields of study that end in -ics require singular verbs.
49Diabetes is an illness. Certain illnesses that end in -s are singular: diabetes, measles, mumps, rabies, rickets, shingles.
50Eight hours of sleep is enough. Ten dollars is too much to pay Eight hours of sleep is enough. Ten dollars is too much to pay. Five thousand miles is too far to travel. Expressions of time, money, and distance usually require a singular verb.
51Two and two is four. Two and two equals four Two and two is four. Two and two equals four. Two plus two is/equals four. Five times five is twenty-five. Arithmetic expressions require singular verbs.
52Plural VerbThose people are from Canada. The police have been called. Cattle are domestic animals. Fish live under water. People, police, cattle, and fish do not end in -s, but they are plural nouns in the example sentences and require plural verbs.
53Singular Verbs English is spoken in many countries Singular Verbs English is spoken in many countries. (English = language) Chinese is his native language. Plural Verbs The English drink tea. (The English= People from England) The Chinese have an interesting history.
54Some nouns of nationality that end in -sh, ese, and -ch can mean either language or people, e.g., English, Spanish, Chinese, Japanese, Vietnamese, Portuguese, French.
55The poor have many problems. The rich get richer The poor have many problems. The rich get richer. A few adjectives can be preceded by the and used as a plural noun (without final -s) to refer to people who have that quality. Other examples: the young, the elderly, the living, the dead, the blind, the deaf, the disabled. Task 4: Do exercise 19, p.94.
56Exercise 19, P- 94.Choose the correct completions.1. The United States ( has, have) a population of around 300 million.2. The news about Mr. Gonzalez (is, are) surprising.3. The New York Times (is, are) an established and respected newspaper.4. Physics (seek, seeks) to understand the mysteries of the physical world.5. Statistics (is, are) a branch of mathematics.6. The statistics in that report on oil production (is, are) incorrect.*7. Fifty minutes (is, are) the maximum length of time allowed for the exam.8. Twenty dollars (is, are) an unreasonable price for the necklace.9. Many people in the world (does, do) not have enough to eat.10. The police (is, are) prepared in case there is a riot.2. is is seeks , is are is is do are
57Exercise 19, P- 94.11. Rabies (is, are) an infectious and often fatal disease.12. The French (is, are) proud, independent people.13. French (is, are) not my native language.14. Many Japanese (commutes, commute) to their places of work.15. Portuguese (is, are) somewhat similar to Spanish, (isn’t it, aren’t they)16. The poor (is, are) helped by government programs.17. The blind (want, wants) the rest of us to treat them the same way we treat everyone else.18. The effect of a honeybee’s sting on a human being (depends, depend) on that person’s susceptibility to the bee’s venom. Most people (is, are) not in danger if they are stung, but there (has, have) been instances of allergic deaths from a single honeybee sting.11. is are is 14. commute 15. is . . isn’t it are 17. want 18. depends. . . are have