Singular Singular: noun as a single item (count) or entity (non- count). Ex. (count) brick, dog, airplane, person, foot, Ex. (non-count) water, sugar, truth, education, driving, history, grammar, food, fruit, money, oxygen, soup, paper, knowledge etc. This brick is heavy. That airplane flies fast. Every dog speaks Japanese. Each person has a responsibility. There is a scary dog! One of the dogs is kind. None of the students is mean. Education is very important. *A computer game is very fun. *a generic noun (symbol of a whole group)
Singular Gerund A gerund used as the subject of the sentence requires a singular verb. Ex. Growing flowers is her hobby.
Plural These dogs are scary. Those people are kind. Some airplanes are cheap. A lot of airplanes are flying. Lots of people study English. Other airplanes are expensive. *Computer games are fun. *talking about the games in general. Plural: more than one of the same noun. Ex. (count) bricks, dogs, airplanes, people, feet Ex. (non-count) N/A
Subject-verb agreement Third person singular in the simple present tense Ex. He lives in Boston. ‘Every’ and ‘each’ are always followed by immediately by singular nouns. Ex. Each person has a responsibility. Ex. Every man, woman, and child needs love.
Cont. Sometimes a phrase or clause separates a subject from its verb. These interrupting structures do not affect basic agreement. Ex. That book on political parties is interesting. Ex. My dog, as well as my cats, likes cat food. Ex. The book that I got from my parents was very interesting.
Cont. Sometimes a phrase or clause separates a subject from its verb. These interrupting structures do not affect basic agreement. Ex. The ideas in that book are interesting. Ex. My dogs, as well as my cat, like cat food. Ex. The books I bought at the bookstore were expensive.
Subject-verb agreement Summary Singular: Singular count/non- count nouns Gerund (subject) This, that, there is, one of, each, every, none Plural: Plural count nouns these, those, there are, some, a lot of, lots of, other, etc.
Error Correction Practice 1. I played computer game > 2. Some experience > 3. This kind of games > 4. Some financial problem > 5. Other addiction > 6. Games have similar story >
Cont. 1. Some way > 2. They were teenager > 3. Those violent game > 4. Ideas about real life situation > 5. For these reason > 6. There are different kind of games > 7. General knowledges about world >
Error Correction Practice Subject-verb agreement 1. Games was created for humans > 2. Those violent games is more… > 3. Playing games teach us about real life > 4. You really cares about them. > 5. When someone play games >
Cont. 1. People that creates games > 2. Playing games help us > 3. Playing games always teach us something > 4. He also learn about driving > 5. A kid that plays with his cars learn how to share >
Wh- questions in the simple/present tense What do you know about Wh- questions?
Wh- questions (Simple present tense) Wh- questions 1. ask for information (what, where, when, when, who, why, and how) 2. use ‘do’ or ‘does ‘the base form’ of the verb. Ex. Where do you run? Where does he run? Where is the class? Where are my friends? 3. use ‘can’ and ‘should’ sometimes Ex. Where can we run? Where should I run? 4. can become a subject sometimes Ex. Who grows apples near Des Moines? What grows in Alaska?
Practice Do exercises 2, 3 and 4. How can you use these questions in our brochure?
Outline Hinamatsuri What is hinamatsuri? a doll festival held in March 3 rd every year. the girl’s day in Japan -it celebrates girl’s growth What is the history behind hinamatsuri? it began in Heian period (794 to 1185) dolls were set afloat (taking troubles or bad spirits with the dolls) What are the customs? families display the dolls in February until March 3 rd families takes the dolls down immediately after the festival leaving the dolls past March 4 will result in a late marriage for the daughter. Is your outline similar to the example? Event/festival Wh-question 1 Facts Wh-question 2 Facts