Presentation on theme: "LABORATORY SAFETY Lisa Bognar Phillips"— Presentation transcript:
1 LABORATORY SAFETY Lisa Bognar Phillips Bognar.firstname.lastname@example.org Risk Management & SafetyIncluding Emergency Response, Personal Protective Equipment and Hazardous Waste Management Training
2 Chemical HazardsThere are two general hazard classes that must be evaluated when assessing the safety of a chemical:Physical HazardsHealth Hazards
3 Chemical Hazards: Physical Hazards Compressed Gas - cylinders of compressed gas are under intense pressure.Corrosivity – strong acids and bases can cause visible destruction of metals at the site of contact.Flammability - both solid and liquid chemicals can serve as fuel sources to support a fire.Reactivity - many substances will react violently if allowed contact with air, water or other chemicals. Friction, shock, light or heat can be enough to trigger some reactions.Oxidizability – compounds that release oxygen as they decompose. React with flammables
4 Chemical Hazards: Health Hazards Irritants - cause reversible inflammation of skin, eyes or nasal passages.Sensitizers - cause allergic reaction after repeated exposures. Individual sensitivities vary.Carcinogens - alter DNA or cause cells with altered DNA to multiply.Systemic Toxins - typically target a specific organ or system (liver, kidney, blood, nervous system, reproductive system, etc.).Toxins – based on dose. Anything can be poisonous.Corrosives – cause burns to the skin, eyes, mucous membranes and respiratory tract. HF is not like typical mineral acids. It is extremely toxic and penetrates to the bone. Calcium gluconate is the only antidote that should be used on an HF burn.
5 Routes of EntryInhalation: The major route of entry when working with solvents. Great rapidity of absorption
6 Routes of EntryAbsorption: May produce systemic poisoning. Condition of skin determines rate of entry. Examples: organic lead, solvents, (xylene, methylene chloride) organo phosphate pesticides, cyanides
7 Ingestion: Usually accidental or due to poor hygiene practices Routes of EntryIngestion: Usually accidental or due to poor hygiene practices
8 Chemical Right to Know Product Information Fire and Explosion .MSDS Includes the following:Product InformationFire and ExplosionToxicologyHealth EffectsPPEStorageLeaks and SpillsWaste DisposalFirst Aid)
10 Finding an MSDSChemical manufacturers and distributors CANNOT refuse a request for an MSDS.There are excellent on-line MSDS databases:
11 University of Notre Dame Chemical Hygiene Plan (CHP) Contains information and procedures that laboratory personnel can use to protect themselves from the chemicals they work withFirst place to look for answers to questions you might have regarding chemical or laboratory issuesLocated on Risk Management and Safety websiteTopics include:- Emergency Response - Personal Protective Eq.- Chemical compatibility -Waste Management- Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs)
12 Personal Protective Equipment Gloves are required anytime you are handlingchemicals, biologicals and radioactive materialsEye protectionOpen toed shoes do not protect your feet and ARE NOT allowed in the laboratory. (NO FLIP FLOPS, SANDALS, etc)
13 Wear Eye Protection When Using: Glassware under reduced pressureCryogenic materialsGlassware under elevated pressureExplosivesCaustics, Irritants or CorrosivesBiohazardsRadioactive MaterialsUV LightToxic ChemicalsCarcinogensFlammable MaterialsLasers
14 GlovesBe sure you know which type of glove is appropriate for the chemical you are usingExample of wrong glove having been used
15 Gloves Remove soiled gloves. If gloves become soiled or contaminated during experiment, stop, and remove carefully.Wash your hands and put on new pair of gloves. If you double-glove, remove soiled glove, replace with new one, and continue your work.
16 Safety Equipment: Chemical Fume Hood Airflow into the hood prevents chemicals inside from migrating out into your breathing zone.If air velocity into the hood is impeded or slowed, the hoods ability to capture chemicals is compromised.Factors that affect airflow:Sash HeightDraftsBulky objects inside
17 Gas Cylinder Safety Storage and Handling Gas cylinders should not be stored in exits or egress routes or blocking any safety equipmentGas cylinders (excluding lecture bottles) should be stored in an upright position and with safety caps in place unless in use.Use only the appropriate regulator for the gasGas cylinders must be secured with a chain or appropriate belt above the midpoint but below the shoulder of the cylinder
18 What’s Wrong in this Picture? Cylinder SafetyWhat’s Wrong in this Picture?Cylinder must be secured by chain or other steadying device
20 Electrical Safety Eliminate frayed or worn wiring Never stretch wires across floor or other equipment.Staff should know location of circuit breakers
21 Electrical SafetyMatch size of extension cord to appliance power cord to prevent cord overheating.Extension cords are not intended for "permanent" installations -- appliances shall be connected to permanently wired receptacles.
22 Examples of Poor Storage Never store a chemical with a missing or obscured label)
23 Container LabelsAll chemicals (including solutions and chemicals transferred from their original containers) should be labeled with their common names, concentrations and hazards. Additional information such as: date received, date opened, date of expiration should also be recorded.Label may also include: Proper handling, Storage, Emergency response
24 Refrigerators and Freezers Ordinary household refrigerators and freezers constitute a hazard when used for storage of flammable or unstable chemicals. These units produce conditions that can lead to explosions.Domestic refrigerators should not be used for flammable chemical storage."Lab-safe" refrigerators and freezers (designed for storage of flammable liquids) must be used for flammable chemicals.
25 DefinitionBiosafetyThe application of combinations of laboratory practice and procedure, laboratory facilities, and safety equipment when working with potentially infectious microorganisms.We use these practices to protect the workers and those around, the product and the environment.Four biosafety levels (BSLs) are described which consist of combinations of laboratory practices and techniques, safety equipment, and laboratory facilities. Each combination is specifically appropriate for the operations performed, the documented or suspected routes of transmission of the infectious agents, and the laboratory function or activity.Descriptions of required biosafety practices and procedures are presented in both the CDC/NIH manual, “Biosafety in Microbiological and Biomedical Laboratories,” and the WHO manual “Laboratory Biosafety Manual.” Laboratories should have copies of both manuals available for workers.
26 Laboratory Requirements Knowledgeable supervisorKnowledgeable personnelAware of potential hazardsProficient in lab practices & techniquesAvailability of a lab specific biosafety manualContact informationCopies of IBC,IRB,RCC, and/or IACUC protocolsStandard Operating ProceduresFor unique proceduresLaboratory inspection checklistEmergency response planSpecial procedures where neededRelevant reference materialsThe most important element of containment is strict adherence to standard microbiological practices and techniques. Persons working with infectious agents or potentially infected materials must be aware of potential hazards, and must be trained and proficient in the practices and techniques required to handle such material safely. The director or person in charge of the laboratory is responsible for providing or arranging the appropriate training of personnel.Each laboratory should develop or adopt a biosafety or operations manual that identifies the hazards that will or may be encountered, and that specifies practices and procedures designed to minimize or eliminate exposures to these hazards. Personnel should be advised of special hazards and should be required to read and follow the required practices and procedures. A scientist trained and knowledgeable in appropriate laboratory techniques, safet procedures, and hazards associated with handling infectious agents must be responsible for the conduct of work with any infectious agents or material. This individual should consult with biosafety or other health and safety professionals with regard to risk assessment.
27 Classification of Infectious Agents Found in the NIH Guidelines.Classified into risk groups on the basis of risk to the individual and to the community.Currently, 4 risk group levels have been designated.the least risk (RG-1) to the most risk (RG-4).
28 RG-1 Agents RG-2 AgentsNot associated with disease in healthy adult humans.Generally only require a laboratory with minimal containmentBiosafety Level 1 laboratory“Declaration of Dangerous Goods” is not required for shipment.Bacillus subtilis, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Escherichia coli K-12Associated with human diseases which are rarely serious.Preventative and therapeutic interventions are available.Generally require a laboratory with moderate containment.Biosafety Level 2 laboratory“Declaration of Dangerous Goods” required for shipment.Measles virus, Salmonella spp., Toxoplasma spp., Hepatitis B virus, leshmainia, plasmodium falciparum
29 Biosafety Levels of Containment Combination of laboratory practices, safety equipment, and laboratory design to achieve levels of physical containment.Currently, 4 biosafety levels have been designated.The least restrictive (BSL-1) to the most restrictive (BSL-4).The recommended biosafety level(s) for the organisms represent those conditions under which the agent ordinarily can be safely handled. The laboratory director is specifically and primarily responsible for assessing the risks and appropriately applying the recommended biosafety levels. When specific information is available to suggest that virulence, pathogenicity, antibiotic resistance patterns, vaccine and treatment availability, or other factors are significantly altered, more (or less) stringent practices may be specified.
30 Containment: BSL-1 BSL-2 RG-1 AgentsNot known to cause disease in healthy adult humansPracticesStandard microbiological practicesSafety equipmentNone requiredFacilitiesOpen bench topRG-2 AgentsAssociated with mild to moderate disease in humansPracticesBSL-1 plus limited access.Safety equipmentBiological Safety Cabinet and personal protective equipment as needed.FacilitiesBSL-1 plus the availability of a mechanism for decontamination.
31 BSL-1 Standard Microbiological Practices Restrict or limit access when workingProhibit eating, drinking and smokingMinimize splashes and aerosolsDecontaminate work surfaces dailyDecontaminate infectious wasteMaintain an insect & rodent control programProhibit mouth pipetting/ use mechanical pipettersNeedles & sharps precautionsUse sharps containersDON’T break, bend, re-sheath or reuse syringes or needlesUse alternatives to needles when availableDON’T place needles or sharps in regular trash containers.Access to the laboratory is limited or restricted at the discretion of the laboratory director when experiments or work with cultures and specimens are in progress. A biohazard sign can be posted at the entrance to the laboratory whenever infectious agents are present. The sign may include the name of the agent(s) in use and the name and phone number of the investigator.Eating, drinking, smoking, handling contact lenses, applying cosmetics, and storing food for human use are not permitted in the work areas. Persons who wear contact lenses in laboratories should also wear goggles or a face shield. Food is stored outside the work area in cabinets or refrigerators designated and used for this purpose only.
32 BSL-1 Standard Microbiological Practices Wash handsPersons wash their hands after they handle viable materials, after removing gloves, and before leaving the laboratory.
33 BSL-1 Safety Equipment (Primary and Secondary Barriers) Personal protective equipmentEye wearGlovesLab coatCountertops and floors easily cleaned and decontaminatedLaboratory Requirements:Lab does not need to be separated from other lab sections and can be of normal construction.No specific ventilation req.Protective eyewear should be worn for conduct of procedures in which splashes of microorganisms or other hazardous materials is anticipated.
34 Training Requirements BSL-1 BSL-2 SupervisorTrained in microbiological or related science practices.Lab personnelSpecific training in lab procedures.SupervisorIs a competent scientistRestricts accessLab PersonnelAware of potential hazardsProficient in practices and techniques
35 BSL-2 Standard Microbiological Practices Follow all practices and personal equipment used for BSL-1 containment.
36 BSL-2 Safety Equipment (Primary and Secondary Barriers) Class II Biological Safety Cabinet recommendedto protect product, personnel, and the environment.Requirements:Laboratories have lockable doors and separated from public areasSink for hand washingWork surfaces easily cleanedBench tops are impervious to waterSturdy furnitureAdequate illuminationAir flows into lab without re-circulation to non-lab areasWindows fitted with fly screensProtective eyewear should be worn for conduct of procedures in which splashes of microorganisms or other hazardous materials is anticipated.
37 Biological Safety Cabinets as Primary Barrier- Overview Protection ofProductPersonnelEnvironmentClass II Biological Safety CabinetEquipment is laid out to not restrict airflow in the cabinet“High efficiency particulate air” (HEPA) filterTraps particulates 0.01 microns and larger including bacteria and viruseschemicals, fumes, and vapors pass throughProperly maintained Class I and II BSCs, when used in conjunction with good microbiological techniques, provide an effective containment system for safe manipulation of moderate and high-risk microorganisms (Biosafety Level 2 and 3 agents). Both Class I and II BSCs have inward face velocities ( linear feet per minute) that provide comparable levels of containment to protect laboratory workers and the immediate environment from infectious aerosols generated within the cabinet. Class II BSCs also protect the research material itself through high-efficiency particulate air filtration (HEPA filtration) of the air flow down across the work surface (vertical laminar flow). Class III cabinets offer the maximum protection to laboratory personnel, the community, and the environment because all hazardous materials are contained in a totally enclosed, ventilated cabinet.
38 Biological Safety Cabinet - Operation 1. Load with needed supplies2. Turn on and allow to run for minutes3. Check inward airflow with a piece of tissue4. Enter straight into cabinet and perform work in a slow, methodical manner5. At end of work package or decontaminate items to be taken out of cabinet6. Decontaminate interior of cabinet7. Allow cabinet to run for minutesShut offAnnual certification is required.
39 What happens when an open flame comes in contact with ethanol in a Biosafety Cabinet
40 BSL-2 Facility Design (Secondary Barrier) Signage on the door with restricted access when work in progress or agents are present.Autoclave availableEyewash station available
41 Decontamination Definitions Sterilizationphysical or chemical procedure used to destroy all microbial life, including large numbers of highly resistant bacterial spores.Disinfectionphysical or chemical procedure used to eliminate all recognized pathogenic microorganisms but not all microbial forms (bacterial spores) on inanimate objects.Antisepticgermicide that is used on skin or living tissue for the purpose of inhibiting or destroying microorganisms.
42 Decontamination: Conclusion Disinfectants do not replace adherence to good standard microbiological practices and proper hygiene!
43 Biohazardous Waste stock cultures materials containing or contaminated with bloodblood and body fluidsSerum,PlasmaOther blood componentsSemenVaginal secretionsCerebrospinal fluidPleural fluidPeritoneal fluidPericardial fluidAmniotic fluidAny other body fluid visibly contaminated with bloodsharpsPipette/pipette tips, Hypodermic needles, Scalpels, Breakable containers, Glass products (i.e., slides or cover skips)animal wasteother contaminated lab material
44 Biohazardous Waste Containers Biohazardous waste containers shall be clearly marked with the universal biohazard symbol.Puncture-proof, leak-proof, sealable receptaclesavoid over-filling
45 Orange Biohazard BagsOrange Biohazard Bags contain previously contaminated waste that has been decontaminated (autoclaved) by lab personnel. May be taken to the dumpster if brown bagged
46 Emergency Response Fires/accidents 911 Spills 631-5037 (From a cell phone )Spills(Risk Management and Safety during working hours)After Hours Spills 911State the type of emergency and the exact location of emergency.If a chemical is involved spell the chemical name to the dispatcher.
47 Alert persons in area of fire Close doors to confine fire Fire SafetyAlert persons in area of fireClose doors to confine fireActivate fire alarmEvacuate through nearest exitDo not use elevatorsMove away from the building.
48 How to Use a Fire Extinguisher pull pinaim at the base of the firesqueeze handlesweep from side to sidePASS
49 Fire Extinguisher Training Learn how to operate a portable fire extinguisher by participating in fire extinguisher training program sponsored by Notre Dame Fire Department. Contact them at if you would like to take the class.US&A (v 2/07)
50 Biological/Chemical Exposures Needle Sticks:Ocular Exposures:Dermal Exposures:Wash thoroughly with soap and waterRinse at eyewash at least 15 minutesRinse under drench shower at least 15 minutesIdentify source (consent?)Hold eye open to ensure effective washRemove all contaminated clothingSeek Medical TreatmentYour supervisor must fill out an accident/exposure form
51 First Aid - Chemical Burns (Eyes) Forcibly open eyelids to ensure effective washing behind eyelidWash from nose out to ear to avoid washing chemicals back into eye or into an unaffected eyeFlood eyes and eyelids with water/eye solution for minimum of 15 minutes
52 First Aid - Chemical Burns (Eyes) Make sure you know the location of the nearest eyewash station.
53 Eye Wash MaintenanceEyewashes are periodically checked by Facility Services, but are not flushed. Lab personnel must test eyewashes monthly.Designate someone to test eye washes monthly. Let run for 1 minute
55 Biological Spills/Decontamination Cover spill with paper towelsSoak towels with disinfectant (10% Bleach is effective)Wait 10 minutesWhile wearing PPE, clean up the spill using paper towelsNotify Risk Managementif you need assistanceWipe spill area with disinfectantDispose of all clean-up materials as biological waste (red bag)
56 Chemical Spills Identify the chemical Assess your ability to safely contain and clean up the spill:(spill size, chemical identification, PPE)I CAN safely clean it upI CANNOT safely clean it upNotify coworkers and secure the areaNotify coworkers and vacate/secure the areaUse spill kit to contain and clean up the spill (MSDS helps)CallDuring working hoursAfter hours 911On cell callCall Risk Management to confirm clean up
57 Chemical Waste Disposal Satellite AccumulationContainerCompatible and in good conditionHas “tight-fitting” closure and container is closed unless adding waste.Label (3 things):Must be labeled as soon as first drop of waste is put into the container.Words “waste or “hazardous waste”Description or Name ofchemical(s)Secondary ContainmentMust segregate incompatiblesOne container per waste stream
59 Hazardous Waste Disposal Rules Do not use chemical symbols or abbreviations when labeling your containersUS&A (v 2/07)
60 Abbreviations and formulas NOT acceptable 341ChemistryMethanolAcetone4 LitersGenerator SignsFaculty name printedRM&S use ONLYAbbreviations and formulas NOT acceptablePerson who generates waste signs form
61 All other waste… Gloves, paper, etc: disposed of in regular (clear) trash bags and bags are to be removed by custodians daily.Broken Glass: if clean, should be disposed of in a puncture proof box marked “Broken Glass”.
62 Laboratory SecurityThere are extremists who vandalize workplaces where they suspect animal research is being conducted and others who identify sources for chemicals/ biologicals to be used in terrorism or illegal drug productionProtect your lab and your research:NEVER prop open any card or key access corridor doors.Don’t let people ‘piggy-back’ to gain access to restricted areas.Keep your lab doors closed and locked when unattended.Question strangers, and report suspicious activity to campus security.
63 Emergency Phone Numbers Security or from cellRisk Management & SafetyND Fire