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LABORATORY SAFETY Lisa Bognar Phillips Risk Management & Safety 631-5037 Including Emergency Response, Personal.

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Presentation on theme: "LABORATORY SAFETY Lisa Bognar Phillips Risk Management & Safety 631-5037 Including Emergency Response, Personal."— Presentation transcript:


2 LABORATORY SAFETY Lisa Bognar Phillips Risk Management & Safety Including Emergency Response, Personal Protective Equipment and Hazardous Waste Management Training

3 Chemical Hazards  Physical Hazards  Health Hazards There are two general hazard classes that must be evaluated when assessing the safety of a chemical:

4 Chemical Hazards: Physical Hazards  Compressed Gas - cylinders of compressed gas are under intense pressure.  Corrosivity – strong acids and bases can cause visible destruction of metals at the site of contact.  Flammability - both solid and liquid chemicals can serve as fuel sources to support a fire.  Reactivity - many substances will react violently if allowed contact with air, water or other chemicals. Friction, shock, light or heat can be enough to trigger some reactions.  Oxidizability – compounds that release oxygen as they decompose. React with flammables

5 Chemical Hazards: Health Hazards  Irritants - cause reversible inflammation of skin, eyes or nasal passages.  Sensitizers - cause allergic reaction after repeated exposures. Individual sensitivities vary.  Carcinogens - alter DNA or cause cells with altered DNA to multiply.  Systemic Toxins - typically target a specific organ or system (liver, kidney, blood, nervous system, reproductive system, etc.).  Toxins – based on dose. Anything can be poisonous.  Corrosives – cause burns to the skin, eyes, mucous membranes and respiratory tract. HF is not like typical mineral acids. It is extremely toxic and penetrates to the bone. Calcium gluconate is the only antidote that should be used on an HF burn.

6 Routes of Entry  Inhalation:  Inhalation: The major route of entry when working with solvents. Great rapidity of absorption

7 Routes of Entry  Absorption:  Absorption: May produce systemic poisoning. Condition of skin determines rate of entry. Examples: organic lead, solvents, (xylene, methylene chloride) organo phosphate pesticides, cyanides

8 Routes of Entry  Ingestion:  Ingestion: Usually accidental or due to poor hygiene practices

9 ) Chemical Right to Know. MSDS Includes the following:  Product Information  Fire and Explosion  Toxicology  Health Effects  PPE  Storage  Leaks and Spills  Waste Disposal  First Aid

10 Product Information

11 Finding an MSDS  Chemical manufacturers and distributors CANNOT refuse a request for an MSDS.  There are excellent on-line MSDS databases:

12 University of Notre Dame Chemical Hygiene Plan (CHP)  Contains information and procedures that laboratory personnel can use to protect themselves from the chemicals they work with  First place to look for answers to questions you might have regarding chemical or laboratory issues  Located on Risk Management and Safety website   Topics include: - Emergency Response- Personal Protective Eq. - Chemical compatibility -Waste Management - Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs)

13 Personal Protective Equipment  Gloves are required anytime you are handling chemicals, biologicals and radioactive materials  Eye protection  Open toed shoes do not protect your feet and ARE NOT allowed in the laboratory. (NO FLIP FLOPS, SANDALS, etc)

14 Wear Eye Protection When Using:  Glassware under reduced pressure  Cryogenic materials  Glassware under elevated pressure  Explosives  Caustics, Irritants or Corrosives  Biohazards  Radioactive Materials  UV Light  Toxic Chemicals  Carcinogens  Flammable Materials  Lasers

15  Be sure you know which type of glove is appropriate for the chemical you are using Gloves Example of wrong glove having been used

16 Gloves Remove soiled gloves. If gloves become soiled or contaminated during experiment, stop, and remove carefully. Wash your hands and put on new pair of gloves. If you double-glove, remove soiled glove, replace with new one, and continue your work.

17 Safety Equipment: Chemical Fume Hood Airflow into the hood prevents chemicals inside from migrating out into your breathing zone. If air velocity into the hood is impeded or slowed, the hoods ability to capture chemicals is compromised. Factors that affect airflow: Bulky objects inside Drafts Sash Height

18 Gas Cylinder Safety  Storage and Handling  Gas cylinders should not be stored in exits or egress routes or blocking any safety equipment  Gas cylinders (excluding lecture bottles) should be stored in an upright position and with safety caps in place unless in use.  Use only the appropriate regulator for the gas  Gas cylinders must be secured with a chain or appropriate belt above the midpoint but below the shoulder of the cylinder

19 Cylinder Safety Cylinder must be secured by chain or other steadying device What’s Wrong in this Picture?


21 Electrical Safety  Eliminate frayed or worn wiring  Never stretch wires across floor or other equipment.  Staff should know location of circuit breakers

22 Electrical Safety  Match size of extension cord to appliance power cord to prevent cord overheating.  Extension cords are not intended for "permanent" installations -- appliances shall be connected to permanently wired receptacles.

23 ) Examples of Poor Storage Never store a chemical with a missing or obscured label

24 Container Labels All chemicals (including solutions and chemicals transferred from their original containers) should be labeled with their common names, concentrations and hazards. Additional information such as: date received, date opened, date of expiration should also be recorded. Label may also include: Proper handling, Storage, Emergency response

25 Refrigerators and Freezers  Ordinary household refrigerators and freezers constitute a hazard when used for storage of flammable or unstable chemicals. These units produce conditions that can lead to explosions.  Domestic refrigerators should not be used for flammable chemical storage.  "Lab-safe" refrigerators and freezers (designed for storage of flammable liquids) must be used for flammable chemicals.

26 Definition Biosafety The application of combinations of laboratory practice and procedure, laboratory facilities, and safety equipment when working with potentially infectious microorganisms. We use these practices to protect the workers and those around, the product and the environment.

27 Laboratory Requirements  Knowledgeable supervisor  Knowledgeable personnel  Aware of potential hazards  Proficient in lab practices & techniques  Availability of a lab specific biosafety manual  Contact information  Copies of IBC,IRB,RCC, and/or IACUC protocols  Standard Operating Procedures  For unique procedures  Laboratory inspection checklist  Emergency response plan  Special procedures where needed  Relevant reference materials

28 Classification of Infectious Agents  Found in the NIH Guidelines.  Classified into risk groups on the basis of risk to the individual and to the community.  Currently, 4 risk group levels have been designated.  the least risk (RG-1) to the most risk (RG-4).

29 RG-1 Agents RG-2 Agents  Not associated with disease in healthy adult humans.  Generally only require a laboratory with minimal containment  Biosafety Level 1 laboratory  “Declaration of Dangerous Goods” is not required for shipment.  Bacillus subtilis, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Escherichia coli K-12  Associated with human diseases which are rarely serious.  Preventative and therapeutic interventions are available.  Generally require a laboratory with moderate containment.  Biosafety Level 2 laboratory  “Declaration of Dangerous Goods” required for shipment.  Measles virus, Salmonella spp., Toxoplasma spp., Hepatitis B virus, leshmainia, plasmodium falciparum

30  Combination of laboratory practices, safety equipment, and laboratory design to achieve levels of physical containment.  Currently, 4 biosafety levels have been designated.  The least restrictive (BSL-1) to the most restrictive (BSL-4). Biosafety Levels of Containment

31 Containment: BSL-1 BSL- 2  RG-1 Agents  Not known to cause disease in healthy adult humans  Practices  Standard microbiological practices  Safety equipment  None required  Facilities  Open bench top  RG-2 Agents  Associated with mild to moderate disease in humans  Practices  BSL-1 plus limited access.  Safety equipment  Biological Safety Cabinet and personal protective equipment as needed.  Facilities  BSL-1 plus the availability of a mechanism for decontamination.

32 BSL-1 Standard Microbiological Practices  Restrict or limit access when working  Prohibit eating, drinking and smoking  Minimize splashes and aerosols  Decontaminate work surfaces daily  Decontaminate infectious waste  Maintain an insect & rodent control program  Prohibit mouth pipetting/ use mechanical pipetters  Needles & sharps precautions  Use sharps containers  DON’T break, bend, re-sheath or reuse syringes or needles  Use alternatives to needles when available  DON’T place needles or sharps in regular trash containers.

33 BSL-1 Standard Microbiological Practices Wash hands

34 BSL-1 Safety Equipment (Primary and Secondary Barriers)  Personal protective equipment  Eye wear  Gloves  Lab coat  Countertops and floors easily cleaned and decontaminated  Laboratory Requirements:  Lab does not need to be separated from other lab sections and can be of normal construction.  No specific ventilation req.

35  Supervisor  Trained in microbiological or related science practices.  Lab personnel  Specific training in lab procedures. Training Requirements BSL-1 BSL-2  Supervisor  Is a competent scientist  Restricts access  Lab Personnel  Aware of potential hazards  Proficient in practices and techniques

36 BSL-2 Standard Microbiological Practices  Follow all practices and personal equipment used for BSL-1 containment.

37 BSL-2 Safety Equipment (Primary and Secondary Barriers)  Class II Biological Safety Cabinet recommended  to protect product, personnel, and the environment.  Requirements:  Laboratories have lockable doors and separated from public areas  Sink for hand washing  Work surfaces easily cleaned  Bench tops are impervious to water  Sturdy furniture  Adequate illumination  Air flows into lab without re- circulation to non-lab areas  Windows fitted with fly screens

38 Biological Safety Cabinets as Primary Barrier- Overview  Protection of  Product  Personnel  Environment  Class II Biological Safety Cabinet  Equipment is laid out to not restrict airflow in the cabinet  “High efficiency particulate air” (HEPA) filter  Traps particulates 0.01 microns and larger including bacteria and viruses  chemicals, fumes, and vapors pass through

39 1.Load with needed supplies 2.Turn on and allow to run for minutes 3.Check inward airflow with a piece of tissue 4.Enter straight into cabinet and perform work in a slow, methodical manner 5.At end of work package or decontaminate items to be taken out of cabinet 6.Decontaminate interior of cabinet 7.Allow cabinet to run for minutes 8.Shut off 9.Annual certification is required. Biological Safety Cabinet - Operation

40 What happens when an open flame comes in contact with ethanol in a Biosafety Cabinet

41 BSL-2 Facility Design (Secondary Barrier) Signage on the door with restricted access when work in progress or agents are present. Autoclave available Eyewash station available

42 Decontamination Definitions  Sterilization  physical or chemical procedure used to destroy all microbial life, including large numbers of highly resistant bacterial spores.  Disinfection  physical or chemical procedure used to eliminate all recognized pathogenic microorganisms but not all microbial forms (bacterial spores) on inanimate objects.  Antiseptic  germicide that is used on skin or living tissue for the purpose of inhibiting or destroying microorganisms.

43 Decontamination: Conclusion  Disinfectants do not replace adherence to good standard microbiological practices and proper hygiene!

44 Biohazardous Waste  stock cultures  materials containing or contaminated with blood  blood and body fluidsSerum,  Plasma  Other blood components  Semen  Vaginal secretions  Cerebrospinal fluid  Pleural fluid  Peritoneal fluid  Pericardial fluid  Amniotic fluid  Any other body fluid visibly contaminated with blood  sharps  Pipette/pipette tips, Hypodermic needles, Scalpels, Breakable containers, Glass products (i.e., slides or cover skips)  animal waste  other contaminated lab material

45 Biohazardous Waste Containers Biohazardous waste containers shall be clearly marked with the universal biohazard symbol. Puncture-proof, leak-proof, sealable receptacles avoid over-filling

46 Orange Biohazard Bags Orange Biohazard Bags contain previously contaminated waste that has been decontaminated (autoclaved) by lab personnel. May be taken to the dumpster if brown bagged

47 Emergency Response  Fires/accidents911 (From a cell phone )  Spills (Risk Management and Safety during working hours)  After Hours Spills911 State the type of emergency and the exact location of emergency. If a chemical is involved spell the chemical name to the dispatcher.

48 Fire Safety Alert persons in area of fire Close doors to confine fire Activate fire alarm Evacuate through nearest exit Do not use elevators Move away from the building.

49 How to Use a Fire Extinguisher pull pin aim at the base of the fire squeeze handle sweep from side to side

50 US&A (v 2/07) Fire Extinguisher Training Learn how to operate a portable fire extinguisher by participating in fire extinguisher training program sponsored by Notre Dame Fire Department. Contact them at if you would like to take the extinguisher training

51 Biological/Chemical Exposures Needle Sticks: Wash thoroughly with soap and water Identify source (consent?) Ocular Exposures: Dermal Exposures: Rinse at eyewash at least 15 minutes Hold eye open to ensure effective wash Rinse under drench shower at least 15 minutes Remove all contaminated clothing Seek Medical Treatment Your supervisor must fill out an accident/exposure form

52 First Aid - Chemical Burns (Eyes)  Forcibly open eyelids to ensure effective washing behind eyelid  Wash from nose out to ear to avoid washing chemicals back into eye or into an unaffected eye  Flood eyes and eyelids with water/eye solution for minimum of 15 minutes

53 First Aid - Chemical Burns (Eyes) Make sure you know the location of the nearest eyewash station.

54 Eye Wash Maintenance  Eyewashes are periodically checked by Facility Services, but are not flushed. Lab personnel must test eyewashes monthly.  Designate someone to test eye washes monthly. Let run for 1 minute

55 Spill Response  Be prepared for emergencies

56 Biological Spills/Decontamination Cover spill with paper towels Soak towels with disinfectant (10% Bleach is effective) Wait 10 minutes While wearing PPE, clean up the spill using paper towels Wipe spill area with disinfectant Dispose of all clean-up materials as biological waste (red bag) Notify Risk Management if you need assistance

57 Chemical Spills Identify the chemical Assess your ability to safely contain and clean up the spill: CAN I CAN safely clean it up CANNOT I CANNOT safely clean it up (spill size, chemical identification, PPE) Notify coworkers and vacate/secure the area Call During working hours After hours 911 On cell call Use spill kit to contain and clean up the spill (MSDS helps) Notify coworkers and secure the area Call Risk Management to confirm clean up

58 Chemical Waste Disposal Satellite Accumulation Label (3 things): Must be labeled as soon as first drop of waste is put into the container. Words “waste or “hazardous waste” Description or Name of chemical(s) Container Compatible and in good condition Has “tight-fitting” closure and container is closed unless adding waste. Secondary Containment Must segregate incompatibles One container per waste stream


60 US&A (v 2/07) Hazardous Waste Disposal Rules  Do not use chemical symbols or abbreviations when labeling your containers

61 Generator SignsFaculty name printed 4 Liters Chemistry 341 Acetone 20 Methanol 40 Abbreviations and formulas NOT acceptable Person who generates waste signs form RM&S use ONLY

62 All other waste… Gloves, paper, etc: disposed of in regular (clear) trash bags and bags are to be removed by custodians daily. Broken Glass: if clean, should be disposed of in a puncture proof box marked “Broken Glass”.

63 Laboratory Security There are extremists who vandalize workplaces where they suspect animal research is being conducted and others who identify sources for chemicals/ biologicals to be used in terrorism or illegal drug production Protect your lab and your research: NEVER prop open any card or key access corridor doors. Don’t let people ‘piggy-back’ to gain access to restricted areas. Keep your lab doors closed and locked when unattended. Question strangers, and report suspicious activity to campus security.

64 Emergency Phone Numbers Security 911 or from cell Risk Management & Safety ND Fire

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