2InjuriesPrimary Injury: an injury which occurs as a direct result of the stress imposed on the body during a particular sport or activity.Secondary Injury: An injury that was caused by improper care of the initial injury. Can be to another body part.
3MechanicsGait: Manner of walking. The action of the lower extremity during a complete stride in walking and running can be divided into two phases.Stance Phase: heel contact, midstance, heel offSwing Phase: toe offProper Body Mechanics: special ways of standing and moving to make best use of strength and to avoid fatigue or injury.
6Correct Lifting Techniques Squat down close to the object/personMaintain the natural curves in your backGrip the object firmlyHold the object close to your bodyKeep your arms fixed and close to your sidesLifting by pushing up and through with your legsDo not use your back, rely on your legs.
8Check-Call-Care Check to make sure scene is safe Check victim Life-threatening conditions (primary survey)Call 911, if necessaryCare for victimExtricationSecondary survey
9AmbulationExtrication: Removing an injured athlete from the playing field or court.Ambulatory Athlete: Athlete can be moved without further injury.Ambulate: to walk or move about.
10Crutch FittingCrutches should be 2in up from the top of the toe of the shoe and 4-6in out from the foot.2-3 fingers worth of space between axilla (armpit) and crutch topThe hand grips should be positioned so there is 30-degree angle in the elbow.
11CrutchesThree Point Gait: Walking with crutches and one weight bearing leg.Four Point Gait: Walking with crutches and both legs weight bearing.
12Ambulating with Crutches The crutches move with the injured side as you are walking.No pressure should be placed on the armpitsThe method is the same whether it’s the three point gait or the four point gait
13One-Man Assist Athlete places arm around shoulders of assistant Assistant stands on the injured sideAssistant can support athlete by placing arm around waistTwo-Man Assist: Two assistants stand on each side of athlete. Athlete’s arms around assistants’ shoulders. Assistants support athlete around waist.
16Two-Man CarryTwo assistants face each other and lock their arms together (grasp forearms). Athlete sits on one set of arms. Other set of arms provides backrest. Athlete places arms around assistants’ shoulders.
18Assistance Off the Field Stretchers: Used to move individuals that do not have possible spinal or back injuries.Scoop Stretchers: Stretchers that the metal can be separated into halves. Not used on individuals with spine or back injuries.Spine boards: Flat rigid board used to transport any suspected spinal or back injury.
19Why to spine board someone? Any suspected spinal or back injuryWhen you are not sure of victims statusWhen there is not enough time to splint obvious serious fractures
20Non-spinal Injuries Log roll athlete onto stretcher Secure athlete as neededAt least 4 people needed to carry stretcher; one on each side, one on either endMove athlete feet-first or head-first