Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

CHAPTER 10 ENERGY BALANCE, WEIGHT CONTROL AND EATING DISORDERS PART 1 OF 2.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "CHAPTER 10 ENERGY BALANCE, WEIGHT CONTROL AND EATING DISORDERS PART 1 OF 2."— Presentation transcript:

1 CHAPTER 10 ENERGY BALANCE, WEIGHT CONTROL AND EATING DISORDERS PART 1 OF 2

2 LEARNING OUTCOMES Describe the many factors that have resulted in an increase in obesity in the US What is energy balance and what are the components of energy balance? Know the methods used to measure energy expenditure by the body. Explain internal and external regulation of hunger, appetite and satiety. Describe the methods available to measure body composition. What tools are available to determine whether body weight and body composition are healthy? Discuss the impact of genetics and environment on body weight and composition. 2

3 Obesity Trends* Among U.S. Adults BRFSS, 1990, 2000, 2010 (*BMI 30, or about 30 lbs. overweight for 5’4” person)

4 4

5 5 The prevalence of childhood obesity is also increasing Growth in Childhood Obesity Over Three Decades Age 6 to 11: 4%→ 13% Age 12 to 19: 5%→14% If obese at age 6 → 50% chance of lifelong obesity If obese at age 13 → 75% chance of lifelong obesity Blacks Mexican Americans 50% more likely to be obese than whites From NHANES

6 6 HOW DID WE GET FROM A PREVALENCE OF 45% TO 65%?

7 ENERGY BALANCE 7 Energy intake Energy expenditure

8 ENERGY BALANCE Energy equilibrium Energy intake equals energy expenditure Positive energy balance Energy intake greater than energy expenditure Negative energy balance Energy intake less than energy expenditure 8

9 FACTORS AFFECTING ENERGY BALANCE AND WEIGHT Role of environment Role of developmental behaviors Role of genetics Identical twins Set point theory Genetic and environment synergy Diseases and disorders 9

10 OBESITY: A MULTIFACTORIAL DISORDER 10 Development Behaviors/likes, etc ‘hard wired in’ Genetics Environment

11 ENERGY INTAKE Energy intake Estimated via nutrient databases Calories based on bomb calorimeter Fat 9 kcal/gm Carbohydrates 4 kcal/gm Protein 4 kcal/gm Alcohol 7 kcal/gm 11 Energy intake

12 12 Daily calories to maintain a weight of 300 pounds 2600 kcal/day To lose 1-2 pounds/week, you need to deficit 3500 kcal/pound For 1 lb: 3500 kcal/7 days =-500 kcal/day For 2 lbs: 7000 kcal/7 days-1000 kcal/day Daily calories to lose 1 pound/week 2100 kcal/day Daily calories to lose 2 pounds/week 1600 kcal/day DECREASE YOUR ENERGY INTAKE TO LOSE WEIGHT

13 WHY IS REDUCING KCAL SO HARD? Out of Control Environment Stress and busy schedules Skipped meals Calorie-dense foods Large portions Increased variety 13

14 CONTRIBUTIONS TO OBESITY: LEARNED BEHAVIORS 14 LearnedBehaviors “Clean your Plate” Club Food as a coping mechanism Food for celebration Food is love Food as a reward Food as comfort

15 15 CHICKEN CAESAR SALAD 20 Years AgoToday 390 calories 1 ½ cups 790 calories 3 ½ cups Calorie Difference: 400 calories

16 16 If you walk the dog for 1 hour and 20 minutes, you will burn approximately 400 calories.* *Based on 160-pound person

17 17 It is easy to avoid “expending energy” 17 Energy expenditure

18 ENERGY EXPENDITURE Basal metabolic rate (BMR) Minimum amount of energy in a fasting state Factors that increase basal metabolism Factors that decrease basal metabolism Other factors that go into TOTAL energy expenditure: Physical activity Thermic effect of food Adaptive thermogenesis 18

19 MEASURING ENERGY EXPENDITURE Direct calorimetry Measures body heat Indirect calorimetry Collecting expired air Stable isotopes Estimated energy requirements (EERs) Harris-Benedict equation 19

20 EQUATIONS USED TO ESTIMATE ENERGY NEEDS 20 Harris Benedict Women: = ( 4.35 x weight in pounds ) + ( 4.7 x height in inches ) - ( 4.7 x age in years ) Men: = 66 + ( 6.23 x weight in pounds ) + ( 12.7 x height in inches ) - ( 6.8 x age in year ) EER: Similar but has physical activity built in to the equation Also, has separate equations for adult men and women, toddlers, boys and girls aged 3-18, and obese girls and boys aged 3-18

21 21

22 INCREASE YOUR ENERGY EXPENDITURE TO LOSE WEIGHT To lose 1-2 pounds/week via exercise, you need to burn kcal in a week You burn about 100 kcal/mile Number of miles extra to lose 1 lb/wk 35 miles or 5 miles/day Number of miles extra to lose 2 lb/wk70 miles or 10 miles/day 22

23 WHAT CONTROLS ENERGY BALANCE? 23 Energy intake Energy expenditure

24 EATING BEHAVIOR REGULATION Hunger Physiological drive for food Appetite Psychological drive for food Satiety Fulfilling either drive 24 Hypothalamus regulates food intake: Gherlin, Leptin, Endorphins

25 25

26 26

27 GENES INFLUENCE A PERSON’S APPETITE, METABOLISM, AND FAT STORAGE 27

28 28 Genes influence a person’s appetite, metabolism, and fat storage Rare (Prader Willi, No Leptin production) Leptin: Hormone made in fat tissue that decreases appetite and increases energy expenditure Lipoprotein lipase: enzyme that promotes fat storage More enzyme = more storage Ghrelin: Protein secreted by stomach that stimulates appetite and promotes energy storage Eat anything and not gain weight 100% 90% 50% 0%

29 GENETICS DICTATE YOUR “SET POINT” 29 Forced dietary manipulation Ad libitum fed

30 GENE-ENVIRONMENT INTERACTIONS IN OBESITY 30 Body Mass Index Then: Now: 30

31 ESTIMATING BODY WEIGHT AND COMPOSITION Weight-for-height tables Body Mass Index (BMI) 31

32 32

33 WEIGHT AND HEALTH: CALCULATING BMI BMI = weight in pounds x 703 (height, inches) 2 Or weight in kg (height, meters) 2 33

34 ASSESSING BODY FAT DISTRIBUTION Upper body (Android) Increased health risks Men waist greater than 40 inches Women waist greater than 35 inches Lower body (Gynecoid) Lower health risks 34

35 35

36 36 Risk of Associated Disease* According to BMI and Waist Size BMIClassificationWaist ≤ 40in (M) or 35in (W) Waist > 40in (M) or 35in (W) <18.5Underweight Normal--May increase risk OverweightIncreasedHigh Obese (Class I)HighVery High Obese (Class II)Very High ≥40Obese (Class III)Extremely High *Type 2DM, HTN, and CVD

37 MEASURING BODY FAT CONTENT Underwater weighing Air displacement BodPod® Skinfold thickness Bioelectrical impedance Dual energy X-ray absorptionmetry (DEXA) 37

38 38

39 39

40 40

41 41

42 42


Download ppt "CHAPTER 10 ENERGY BALANCE, WEIGHT CONTROL AND EATING DISORDERS PART 1 OF 2."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google