Presentation on theme: "Mentoring in the 21st Century"— Presentation transcript:
1 Mentoring in the 21st Century Angela Barron McBride, PhD, RN, FAAN, FNAPDistinguished Professor and University Dean EmeritaIndiana University School of Nursing
2 Goals for Webinar Review the meaning of mentoring in 21st century Discuss what we currently know about peer mentoring, and address questions that have surfaced in first year of peer- mentoring programDecide on improvements that need to be made in peer-mentoring program
3 Overview of Presentation: Mentoring—a historical perspectiveMentoring—a 21st-century viewBuilding a mentoring culturePeer mentoring
4 “…mentorship and sponsorship are essential for the integration of the scholarly role in the self…” May, Meleis, & Winstead-Fry, 1982, p. 22
5 MentoringMentoring refers to the broad range of developmental relationships whereby more experienced individuals work to promote the careers of less experienced individualsMentoring over the course of a career takes many forms—guiding, advising, facilitating, recommending, challenging, supporting, coaching, sponsoring, and so forth
6 A Historical Perspective Many now-famous nurses were encouraged by mentors to develop professionally—Florence Nightingale, Linda Richards, Mary Adelaide Nutting, Annie Goodrich (Fields, 1991)However, many nurses have traditionally thought “if I went through this, you should to”—an approach that is, to say the least, non-generativeMentors often described in quasi-magical, perhaps even romantic, terms—the senior person sees in junior person self at a younger age and thereby wants to help individual blossom
7 Mentoring historically provided to men during their formative years (20-45), ending with BOOM—becoming one’s own man (Levinson et al., 1978)—after which you start serving as a mentor rather than needing oneWomen and minorities disadvantaged because of prevailing belief that mentor and mentee needed to be alike, and dearth of women and minorities in senior positionsHistorically, cross-gender mentoring complicated by romantic innuendo
8 Mentoring: Paradigm Shifts 20th Century21st CenturyA nicetyPrompted by mentor’s generosity of spiritInstinctive kindnessTop-down approachMentor=like menteeOnly one and one-to-oneEarly in careerA professional responsibilityExpectation of organizational cultureLearned behaviorReciprocal relationshipMentor≠like menteeMultiple mentors and many formsThroughout career
9 The Goal of Mentoring: Leadership Development Benner’s From Novice to Expert confirmed that one is not fully developed at licensureFormal education isn’t enough to help you get prepared to meet professional demands over the course of a career
10 You need mentoring whenever you are undergoing a major transition and moving into unfamiliar territoryLeadership implies full career development, not only achieving licensure and certification, but learning to be a preceptor, educator, committee chair, researcher, administrator, author, reviewer, board member and so forth
11 If nurses are going to exert inter-professional leadership, then having nurse mentors isn’t enough Over the course of a career, you learn by mentoring others
12 Building A Mentoring Culture The only way nurses will be able to exert the transformational leadership expected of them by the various IOM reports is to ensure that leadership is mentored at every career stageThe only way organizations will become the “learning communities” that they increasingly seek to be is through establishing a mentoring cultureMentoring—valued and rewarded institutionallyMentoring—the key to successor preparation
13 In a mentoring culture, mentoring will take many forms Peer mentoring (Glass & Walter, 2000)Alumni/ae mentoringOne-to-one formal relationships, shaped by an individual development plan (IDP)Committee mentoring, e.g., a small group of senior faculty help a junior faculty member prepare for promotion/tenureNominating individuals for programs that provide leadership opportunities
14 Creating mentoring structures, e. g Creating mentoring structures, e.g., orientation programs that extend over the first year rather than just the first few weeks, journal clubs, brown bag exchanges about teaching strategies, writing groups, programming on dossier preparation for tenure-probationary faculty, programming and socialization experiences geared to the particular concerns of minorities and men in nursing, university-wide programs for new department chairs and deansContracting for an external mentor (Mundt, 2001)Distance mentoring via , phone calls, skype
15 Beware the dangers of negative mentoring (Elby et al., 2000) Lack of interest/commitmentUnrealistic expectationsControlling behaviorsQueen Bee behaviors—inappropriate delegation; using mentee’s labor/ideas for own purposes; taking inappropriate credit for mentee’s workPersonal-professional enmeshmentBe aware of the role SES status may play in the needs mentees have, e.g., not knowing how to dress for some occasions or dealing with the mysteries of cutlery
16 Understand that in mentoring others you do not lose but gain advantage—expanding your reputation beyond your personal abilities, creating threads of connection that can advance your work, ensuring your own staying powerHelping others achieve regional, national and/or international reputation is an undervalued part of mentoring; it is important to remember that the issue is less writing a letter of support to help an individual compete successfully for some honor and more getting the profession the recognition it deserves
17 Building an effective mentoring culture requires that all concerned know how to give criticism in an ego-enhancing fashion and how to take criticism as the key to professional growthBe specific and considerateThe focus of feedback should be on learning, as opposed to correcting discrete performanceAvoid attributing poor performance to internal causes that cannot be easily changedUse “and” more than “but” in linking two pointsAsk the person “If you had to do it all over again, what would you do differently?”
18 Some Characteristics of A Good Mentor Sets clear goals, building on an initial assessmentSchedules regular meetings (meeting only when there is a problem is problem solving not mentoring)Encourages and models good communicationAppreciates individual differencesFacilitates networkingCelebrates achievements
19 Some Characteristics of A Good Mentee Is considerateShows appreciationDoesn’t spend the rest of his or her career assuming that helpfulness only goes in one direction“Pays it forward” by mentoring others
20 Mentoring in RWJF Nurse Faculty Scholars Program Primary mentoring—senior individual within school of nursing who helps the scholar understand how to be effective within culture of that university and collegeResearch mentoring—senior individual within home university, but preferably outside of nursing, who helps the scholar develop program of research and embed that nursing-generated problem within larger research contextNational mentoring—senior nurse scientist not at home institution who helps person think larger thoughts (beyond confines of own university)Peer mentoring—interactions within and across cohorts provide support and opportunities for engaging across institutional boundaries
21 Peer MentoringA developmental relationship with the clear purpose of supporting an individual to achieve her/his professional goalsPeer mentoring, not a substitute for faculty mentoring, but a complementTeaches collegiality
22 Peer vs. Faculty Mentoring Mentor is only slightly more senior/experiencedHorizontal relationshipResults of relationship not gradedEmphasis on forging scholarly identityMentor appreciably more senior/experiencedHierarchicalOutput of relationship formally evaluatedEmphasis on set outcomesPeer MentoringFaculty Mentoring
23 In your own experience, do these distinctions hold? In what other ways does the peer mentor role differ from the BAGNC faculty mentor role?
24 Should the peer mentor and faculty mentor communicate with each other Should the peer mentor and faculty mentor communicate with each other? If so, how? When?What should one do if the mentee seeks advice about something that is in conflict with the BAGNC faculty member?
25 Benefits to Mentor Gains from the energy and enthusiasm of the scholar Discussions with scholar may bring new insights into some aspect of mentor’s researchIt is personally and professionally gratifying to teach others what one has learned and to help them advance towards satisfying careers
26 Benefits to MenteeOffers the “been there and done that” support that family members and friends don’t know how to give and faculty mentors may be too removed to giveCan help the individual problem solve without the inexperienced person having performance anxietyProvides tips that can only be gained from experience, e.g., around time management and dealing with writer’s block
27 Components of Successful Peer Mentoring ConfidentialityRegular meetingsExpectations specified on both sides, e.g., around professional development, emotional support, career planning, enhancement of personal awareness, skills building, a shared projectSuccess criteriaRelationship can end without recriminations if not good fit
28 How did you initiate the peer mentoring relationship? What did you decide that your role as peer mentor should be?Did the role evolve over time? How?What do you think the peer mentor’s role should be after the formal peer mentoring period? Do you intend to stay in contact?
29 Learning from The First Year How should we continue to match mentor with mentee?Do you think that expectations and/or procedures should be formalized in some additional way for clarity’s sake?Is program addressing what it was meant to tackle?