Presentation on theme: "Angela Barron McBride, PhD, RN, FAAN, FNAP Distinguished Professor and University Dean Emerita Indiana University School of Nursing."— Presentation transcript:
Angela Barron McBride, PhD, RN, FAAN, FNAP Distinguished Professor and University Dean Emerita Indiana University School of Nursing
Goals for Webinar Review the meaning of mentoring in 21 st century Discuss what we currently know about peer mentoring, and address questions that have surfaced in first year of peer- mentoring program Decide on improvements that need to be made in peer-mentoring program
Overview of Presentation: Mentoringa historical perspective Mentoringa 21 st -century view Building a mentoring culture Peer mentoring
…mentorship and sponsorship are essential for the integration of the scholarly role in the self… May, Meleis, & Winstead-Fry, 1982, p. 22
Mentoring Mentoring refers to the broad range of developmental relationships whereby more experienced individuals work to promote the careers of less experienced individuals Mentoring over the course of a career takes many formsguiding, advising, facilitating, recommending, challenging, supporting, coaching, sponsoring, and so forth
A Historical Perspective Many now-famous nurses were encouraged by mentors to develop professionallyFlorence Nightingale, Linda Richards, Mary Adelaide Nutting, Annie Goodrich (Fields, 1991) However, many nurses have traditionally thought if I went through this, you should toan approach that is, to say the least, non-generative Mentors often described in quasi-magical, perhaps even romantic, termsthe senior person sees in junior person self at a younger age and thereby wants to help individual blossom
Mentoring historically provided to men during their formative years (20-45), ending with BOOMbecoming ones own man (Levinson et al., 1978)after which you start serving as a mentor rather than needing one Women and minorities disadvantaged because of prevailing belief that mentor and mentee needed to be alike, and dearth of women and minorities in senior positions Historically, cross-gender mentoring complicated by romantic innuendo
Mentoring: Paradigm Shifts 20 th Century 21 st Century A nicety Prompted by mentors generosity of spirit Instinctive kindness Top-down approach Mentor=like mentee Only one and one-to-one Early in career A professional responsibility Expectation of organizational culture Learned behavior Reciprocal relationship Mentorlike mentee Multiple mentors and many forms Throughout career
The Goal of Mentoring: Leadership Development Benners From Novice to Expert confirmed that one is not fully developed at licensure Formal education isnt enough to help you get prepared to meet professional demands over the course of a career
You need mentoring whenever you are undergoing a major transition and moving into unfamiliar territory Leadership implies full career development, not only achieving licensure and certification, but learning to be a preceptor, educator, committee chair, researcher, administrator, author, reviewer, board member and so forth
If nurses are going to exert inter- professional leadership, then having nurse mentors isnt enough Over the course of a career, you learn by mentoring others
Building A Mentoring Culture The only way nurses will be able to exert the transformational leadership expected of them by the various IOM reports is to ensure that leadership is mentored at every career stage The only way organizations will become the learning communities that they increasingly seek to be is through establishing a mentoring culture Mentoringvalued and rewarded institutionally Mentoringthe key to successor preparation
In a mentoring culture, mentoring will take many forms Peer mentoring (Glass & Walter, 2000) Alumni/ae mentoring One-to-one formal relationships, shaped by an individual development plan (IDP) Committee mentoring, e.g., a small group of senior faculty help a junior faculty member prepare for promotion/tenure Nominating individuals for programs that provide leadership opportunities
Creating mentoring structures, e.g., orientation programs that extend over the first year rather than just the first few weeks, journal clubs, brown bag exchanges about teaching strategies, writing groups, programming on dossier preparation for tenure-probationary faculty, programming and socialization experiences geared to the particular concerns of minorities and men in nursing, university-wide programs for new department chairs and deans Contracting for an external mentor (Mundt, 2001) Distance mentoring via , phone calls, skype
Beware the dangers of negative mentoring (Elby et al., 2000) Lack of interest/commitment Unrealistic expectations Controlling behaviors Queen Bee behaviorsinappropriate delegation; using mentees labor/ideas for own purposes; taking inappropriate credit for mentees work Personal-professional enmeshment Be aware of the role SES status may play in the needs mentees have, e.g., not knowing how to dress for some occasions or dealing with the mysteries of cutlery
Understand that in mentoring others you do not lose but gain advantageexpanding your reputation beyond your personal abilities, creating threads of connection that can advance your work, ensuring your own staying power Helping others achieve regional, national and/or international reputation is an undervalued part of mentoring; it is important to remember that the issue is less writing a letter of support to help an individual compete successfully for some honor and more getting the profession the recognition it deserves
Building an effective mentoring culture requires that all concerned know how to give criticism in an ego-enhancing fashion and how to take criticism as the key to professional growth Be specific and considerate The focus of feedback should be on learning, as opposed to correcting discrete performance Avoid attributing poor performance to internal causes that cannot be easily changed Use and more than but in linking two points Ask the person If you had to do it all over again, what would you do differently?
Some Characteristics of A Good Mentor Sets clear goals, building on an initial assessment Schedules regular meetings (meeting only when there is a problem is problem solving not mentoring) Encourages and models good communication Appreciates individual differences Facilitates networking Celebrates achievements
Some Characteristics of A Good Mentee Is considerate Shows appreciation Doesnt spend the rest of his or her career assuming that helpfulness only goes in one direction Pays it forward by mentoring others
Mentoring in RWJF Nurse Faculty Scholars Program Primary mentoringsenior individual within school of nursing who helps the scholar understand how to be effective within culture of that university and college Research mentoringsenior individual within home university, but preferably outside of nursing, who helps the scholar develop program of research and embed that nursing-generated problem within larger research context National mentoringsenior nurse scientist not at home institution who helps person think larger thoughts (beyond confines of own university) Peer mentoringinteractions within and across cohorts provide support and opportunities for engaging across institutional boundaries
Peer Mentoring A developmental relationship with the clear purpose of supporting an individual to achieve her/his professional goals Peer mentoring, not a substitute for faculty mentoring, but a complement Teaches collegiality
Peer vs. Faculty Mentoring Peer MentoringFaculty Mentoring Mentor is only slightly more senior/experienced Horizontal relationship Results of relationship not graded Emphasis on forging scholarly identity Mentor appreciably more senior/experienced Hierarchical Output of relationship formally evaluated Emphasis on set outcomes
In your own experience, do these distinctions hold? In what other ways does the peer mentor role differ from the BAGNC faculty mentor role?
Should the peer mentor and faculty mentor communicate with each other? If so, how? When? What should one do if the mentee seeks advice about something that is in conflict with the BAGNC faculty member?
Benefits to Mentor Gains from the energy and enthusiasm of the scholar Discussions with scholar may bring new insights into some aspect of mentors research It is personally and professionally gratifying to teach others what one has learned and to help them advance towards satisfying careers
Benefits to Mentee Offers the been there and done that support that family members and friends dont know how to give and faculty mentors may be too removed to give Can help the individual problem solve without the inexperienced person having performance anxiety Provides tips that can only be gained from experience, e.g., around time management and dealing with writers block
Components of Successful Peer Mentoring Confidentiality Regular meetings Expectations specified on both sides, e.g., around professional development, emotional support, career planning, enhancement of personal awareness, skills building, a shared project Success criteria Relationship can end without recriminations if not good fit
How did you initiate the peer mentoring relationship? What did you decide that your role as peer mentor should be? Did the role evolve over time? How? What do you think the peer mentors role should be after the formal peer mentoring period? Do you intend to stay in contact?
Learning from The First Year How should we continue to match mentor with mentee? Do you think that expectations and/or procedures should be formalized in some additional way for claritys sake? Is program addressing what it was meant to tackle?