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Define the Following GI Conditions

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Presentation on theme: "Define the Following GI Conditions"— Presentation transcript:

1 Define the Following GI Conditions
Make sure you know the definition, S/S, and treatment for each: Appendicitis * Gastroenteritis * Pancreatitis Cholecystitis * Hemorrhoids * Peritonitis Cholelithiasis * Hepatitis A * Ulcer Cirrhosis * Hepatitis B *Ulcerative Colitits Diarrhea * Hepatitis C * GERD Diverticulitis * Hiatal Hernia

2 Appendicitis Appendicitis is a medical emergency that requires prompt surgery to remove the appendix. Left untreated, an inflamed appendix will eventually burst, or perforate, spilling infectious materials into the abdominal cavity. TX Surgery and Antibiotics

3 Cholecystitis Cholecystitis is inflammation of the gallbladder.
In most cases, gallstones blocking the tube leading out of your gallbladder cause cholecystitis TX Cholesystectomy

4 Cholelithiasis (Gall Stones)
Cholelithiasis involves the presence of gallstones  Characteristics of biliary colic include the following: Sporadic and unpredictable episodes Pain that is localized to the epigastrium or right upper quadrant, sometimes radiating to the right scapular tip Nonspecific symptoms (eg, indigestion, dyspepsia, belching, or bloating) Pain that begins postprandially, is often described as intense and dull, typically lasts 1-5 hours, increases steadily over minutes, and then gradually wanes Pain that is constant; not relieved by emesis, antacids, defecation, flatus, or positional changes; and sometimes accompanied by diaphoresis, nausea, and vomiting

5 Cirrhosis A slowly progressing disease in which healthy liver tissue is replaced with scar tissue, eventually preventing the liver from functioning properly. The scar tissue blocks the flow of blood through the liver and slows the processing of nutrients, hormones, drugs, and naturally produced toxins. It also slows the production of proteins and other substances made by the liver.

6 Diarrhea Bowel movements (stools) that are loose and watery. It is very common and usually not serious. Many people will have diarrhea once or twice each year. It typically lasts two to three days and can be treated with over-the-counter (OTC) medicines. Some people often have diarrhea as part of irritable bowel syndrome or other chronic diseases of the large intestine. 3 Categories: Osmotic diarrhea means that something in the bowel is drawing water from the body. A common example is sorbitol, a sugar substitute found in sugarless candy and gum that isn't absorbed by the body but draws water into the bowel, resulting in diarrhea.

7 Diarrhea Secretory diarrhea occurs when the body is releasing water into the bowel. Many infections, drugs, and other conditions cause secretory diarrhea. Exudative diarrhea refers to the presence of blood and pus in the stool. This occurs with inflammatory bowel diseases such as Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis, and several infections

8 Diverticulitis Diverticulitis happens when feces get trapped in the pouches (diverticula). This allows bacteria to grow in the pouches. This can lead to inflammation or infection.

9 Gastroenteritis When you have diarrhea and vomiting, you may say you have the "stomach flu.“ The cause is typically a viral or bacterial infection.

10 Hemorrhoids Hemorrhoids are swollen veins in the anal canal. This common problem can be painful, but it's usually not serious. Veins can swell inside the anal canal to form internalhemorrhoids. Or they can swell near the opening of the anus to form external hemorrhoids. You can have both types at the same time. The symptoms and treatment depend on which type you have.

11 Hepatitis A Fatigue Nausea and vomiting
Abdominal pain or discomfort, especially in the area of your liver on your right side beneath your lower ribs Clay-colored bowel movements Loss of appetite Low-grade fever Dark urine Joint pain Yellowing of the skin and eyes (jaundice) Hepatitis A is a highly contagious liver infection caused by the hepatitis A virus. (Food Bourne) You're most likely to contract hepatitis A from contaminated food or water or from close contact with someone who's infected. Vaccine is available

12 Hepatitis B Abdominal pain Dark urine Fever Joint pain
Loss of appetite Nausea and vomiting Weakness and fatigue Yellowing of your skin and the whites of your eyes (jaundice) Hepatitis B is a serious liver infection caused by the hepatitis B virus (HBV).  Blood Bourne Vaccine is Available (3 shots)

13 Hepatitis C Sharing needles, syringes, or other equipment to inject drugs Needlestick injuries in health care settings Being born to a mother who has Hepatitis C Sharing personal care items that may have come in contact with another person’s blood, such as razors or toothbrushes Having sexual contact with a person infected with the Hepatitis C virus Hepatitis C is a contagious liver disease that ranges in severity from a mild illness lasting a few weeks to a serious, lifelong illness that attacks the liver. It results from infection with the Hepatitis C virus (HCV), which is spread primarily through contact with the blood of an infected person. Hepatitis C can be either “acute” or “chronic.” No Vaccine

14 Hiatal Hernia

15 Pancreatitis Pancreatitis is a disease in which the pancreas becomes inflamed. Pancreatic damage happens when the digestive enzymes are activated before they are released into the small intestine and begin attacking the pancreas. There are two forms of pancreatitis: acute and chronic Upper abdominal pain that radiates into the back. It may be aggravated by eating, especially foods high in fat. Swollen and tender abdomen Nausea and vomiting Fever Increased heart rate

16 Peritonitis Peritonitis is a bacterial or fungal infection of the peritoneum, a silk-like membrane that lines your inner abdominal wall and covers the organs within your abdomen. Peritonitis can result from any rupture (perforation) in your abdomen, or as a complication of other medical conditions.

17 Peptic Ulcer No single cause has been found for ulcers. However, it is now clear that an ulcer is the end result of an imbalance between digestive fluids in the stomach and duodenum. Most ulcers are caused by an infection with a type of bacteria called Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori). Excessive drinking of alcohol Smoking or chewing tobacco Use of painkillers called nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), such as aspirin, naproxen (Aleve, Anaprox, Naprosyn, and others), ibuprofen (Motrin, Advil, some types of Midol, and others) Serious illness Radiation treatment to the area

18 Ulcerative Colititis Ulcerative colitis (UL-sur-uh-tiv koe-LIE-tis) is an inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) that causes long-lasting inflammation and ulcers (sores) in your digestive tract. Ulcerative colitis affects the innermost lining of your large intestine (colon) and rectum. Symptoms usually develop over time, rather than suddenly.

19 GERD Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a chronic digestive disease. GERD occurs when stomach acid or, occasionally, stomach content, flows back into your food pipe (esophagus). The backwash (reflux) irritates the lining of your esophagus and causes GERD.

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