Presentation on theme: "Define the Following GI Conditions"— Presentation transcript:
1 Define the Following GI Conditions Make sure you know the definition, S/S, and treatment for each:Appendicitis * Gastroenteritis * PancreatitisCholecystitis * Hemorrhoids * PeritonitisCholelithiasis * Hepatitis A * UlcerCirrhosis * Hepatitis B *Ulcerative ColititsDiarrhea * Hepatitis C * GERDDiverticulitis * Hiatal Hernia
2 AppendicitisAppendicitis is a medical emergency that requires prompt surgery to remove the appendix. Left untreated, an inflamed appendix will eventually burst, or perforate, spilling infectious materials into the abdominal cavity.TX Surgery and Antibioticshttps://www.youtube.com/watch?v=M2_VvTc2nOg
3 Cholecystitis Cholecystitis is inflammation of the gallbladder. In most cases, gallstones blocking the tube leading out of your gallbladder cause cholecystitisTX Cholesystectomyhttps://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DrEt3uDTC04
4 Cholelithiasis (Gall Stones) Cholelithiasis involves the presence of gallstones Characteristics of biliary colic include the following:Sporadic and unpredictable episodesPain that is localized to the epigastrium or right upper quadrant, sometimes radiating to the right scapular tipNonspecific symptoms (eg, indigestion, dyspepsia, belching, or bloating)Pain that begins postprandially, is often described as intense and dull, typically lasts 1-5 hours, increases steadily over minutes, and then gradually wanesPain that is constant; not relieved by emesis, antacids, defecation, flatus, or positional changes; and sometimes accompanied by diaphoresis, nausea, and vomiting
5 CirrhosisA slowly progressing disease in which healthy liver tissue is replaced with scar tissue, eventually preventing the liver from functioning properly. The scar tissue blocks the flow of blood through the liver and slows the processing of nutrients, hormones, drugs, and naturally produced toxins. It also slows the production of proteins and other substances made by the liver.
6 DiarrheaBowel movements (stools) that are loose and watery. It is very common and usually not serious. Many people will have diarrhea once or twice each year. It typically lasts two to three days and can be treated with over-the-counter (OTC) medicines. Some people often have diarrhea as part of irritable bowel syndrome or other chronic diseases of the large intestine.3 Categories:Osmotic diarrhea means that something in the bowel is drawing water from the body. A common example is sorbitol, a sugar substitute found in sugarless candy and gum that isn't absorbed by the body but draws water into the bowel, resulting in diarrhea.
7 DiarrheaSecretory diarrhea occurs when the body is releasing water into the bowel. Many infections, drugs, and other conditions cause secretory diarrhea.Exudative diarrhea refers to the presence of blood and pus in the stool. This occurs with inflammatory bowel diseases such as Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis, and several infections
8 DiverticulitisDiverticulitis happens when feces get trapped in the pouches (diverticula). This allows bacteria to grow in the pouches. This can lead to inflammation or infection.
9 GastroenteritisWhen you have diarrhea and vomiting, you may say you have the "stomach flu.“The cause is typically a viral or bacterial infection.
10 HemorrhoidsHemorrhoids are swollen veins in the anal canal. This common problem can be painful, but it's usually not serious.Veins can swell inside the anal canal to form internalhemorrhoids. Or they can swell near the opening of the anus to form external hemorrhoids. You can have both types at the same time. The symptoms and treatment depend on which type you have.
11 Hepatitis A Fatigue Nausea and vomiting Abdominal pain or discomfort, especially in the area of your liver on your right side beneath your lower ribsClay-colored bowel movementsLoss of appetiteLow-grade feverDark urineJoint painYellowing of the skin and eyes (jaundice)Hepatitis A is a highly contagious liver infection caused by the hepatitis A virus. (Food Bourne)You're most likely to contract hepatitis A from contaminated food or water or from close contact with someone who's infected.Vaccine is available
12 Hepatitis B Abdominal pain Dark urine Fever Joint pain Loss of appetiteNausea and vomitingWeakness and fatigueYellowing of your skin and the whites of your eyes (jaundice)Hepatitis B is a serious liver infection caused by the hepatitis B virus (HBV). Blood BourneVaccine is Available (3 shots)
13 Hepatitis CSharing needles, syringes, or other equipment to inject drugsNeedlestick injuries in health care settingsBeing born to a mother who has Hepatitis CSharing personal care items that may have come in contact with another person’s blood, such as razors or toothbrushesHaving sexual contact with a person infected with the Hepatitis C virusHepatitis C is a contagious liver disease that ranges in severity from a mild illness lasting a few weeks to a serious, lifelong illness that attacks the liver. It results from infection with the Hepatitis C virus (HCV), which is spread primarily through contact with the blood of an infected person. Hepatitis C can be either “acute” or “chronic.”No Vaccine
15 PancreatitisPancreatitis is a disease in which the pancreas becomes inflamed. Pancreatic damage happens when the digestive enzymes are activated before they are released into the small intestine and begin attacking the pancreas.There are two forms of pancreatitis: acute and chronicUpper abdominal pain that radiates into the back. It may be aggravated by eating, especially foods high in fat.Swollen and tender abdomenNausea and vomitingFeverIncreased heart rate
16 PeritonitisPeritonitis is a bacterial or fungal infection of the peritoneum, a silk-like membrane that lines your inner abdominal wall and covers the organs within your abdomen. Peritonitis can result from any rupture (perforation) in your abdomen, or as a complication of other medical conditions.
17 Peptic UlcerNo single cause has been found for ulcers. However, it is now clear that an ulcer is the end result of an imbalance between digestive fluids in the stomach and duodenum. Most ulcers are caused by an infection with a type of bacteria called Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori).Excessive drinking of alcoholSmoking or chewing tobaccoUse of painkillers called nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), such as aspirin, naproxen (Aleve, Anaprox, Naprosyn, and others), ibuprofen (Motrin, Advil, some types of Midol, and others)Serious illnessRadiation treatment to the area
18 Ulcerative ColititisUlcerative colitis (UL-sur-uh-tiv koe-LIE-tis) is an inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) that causes long-lasting inflammation and ulcers (sores) in your digestive tract. Ulcerative colitis affects the innermost lining of your large intestine (colon) and rectum. Symptoms usually develop over time, rather than suddenly.
19 GERDGastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a chronic digestive disease. GERD occurs when stomach acid or, occasionally, stomach content, flows back into your food pipe (esophagus). The backwash (reflux) irritates the lining of your esophagus and causes GERD.