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Nawal Raja Marianne Estrada Angelica Bengochea Period 0 Digestive System.

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Presentation on theme: "Nawal Raja Marianne Estrada Angelica Bengochea Period 0 Digestive System."— Presentation transcript:

1 Nawal Raja Marianne Estrada Angelica Bengochea Period 0 Digestive System

2 Common Symptoms of Digestive System Disorders Pain Nausea Dyspepsia (Indigestion) Anorexia (Loss of Appetite) Dysphagia (Difficulty Swallowing) Diarrhea Constipation Bleeding from Digestive Tract

3 Questions to ask during a Patient History When did you first notice the pain? Where do you feel the pain? What makes the pain better or worse?

4 Physical Examination Involves… Observation Palpation Enables the clinician to evaluate the size/shape/texture of an organ Percussion Detects abnormalities of the liver/spleen/fluid/ gas accumulation in the abdominal cavity Auscultation Determines the peristaltic actions of the GI tract

5 Spit a Beat Bowel sounds normally range from 5 to 30 clicks or gurgles per minute Prolonged gurgling is called borborygmus The frequency of the bowel sounds is reduced by intestinal obstruction and increased in diarrhea

6 Pancreatitis?? Is actually the inflammation of the pancreas Acute Pancreatitis is a severe inflammation requiring hospital care, but leaves no lasting damage Chronic Pancreatitis lasts longer and leaves the pancreas permanently damaged A person with either form experiences sudden epigastric and midabdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, sweating, fever, and tachycardia Treatment focuses on stopping the autodigestion of the pancreas

7 Liver Disorders Two Common Hepatic Disorders are Hepatitis and Cirrhosis Disorders of the liver produce extremely serious complications like jaundice, portal hypertension, hepatic encephalopathy, and ascites

8 Cirrhosis Irreversible inflammatory liver disease Develops slowly over a period of years, but has a high rate of mortality Characterized by a disorganized liver histology The bile passages become obstructed leading to jaundice Obstruction of the hepatic circulation stimulates angiogenesis, the growth of new blood vessels The most common form of cirrhosis is alcoholic cirrhosis Treatment involves nutritional support, control of gastrointestinal bleeding and ascites

9 Hepatitis Inflammation of the liver, associated with the viruses called hepatitis Viral strains causing hepatitis differ from either Transmission Prevention (Vaccination) Onset of Symptoms Severity Affected Age Groups 45% of people show evidence of having it Progresses through three phases Symptoms include fatigue, malaise, nausea, vomiting, pain Treatment include eating a low fat, high carb diet, and wait for recovery

10 Inflammatory Bowel Disease Are usually chronic and may affect the small intestine and large intestine or both The three most common are ulcerative colitis, Crohn Disease, and Diverticulitis

11 Ulcerative Colitis A chronic inflammatory disease of the large intestine, especially the rectum Strikes between the ages of 20 and 40 Cause is unknown Small lesions begin the intestinal crypts and coalesce form larger ulcers The disease progresses to painful cramps, watery diarrhea and urgent need to defecate Treated with anti-inflammatory and colostomy of the inflamed region

12 Crohn Disease Similar to Ulcerative Colitis Affects both and cross the the large and small intestine Produces fissures that cross the intestinal wall and may involve both mucosa and serosa They give the intestinal wall a cobblestone appearance Chief symptom is an irritable bowel, produces diarrhea, abdominal tenderness, or pain Treated with immunosuppressive drugs

13 Diverticulitis Inflammation of diverticula (Found on the colon) The most commonly affected region of the GI tract is the sigmoid colon The condition worsened by low fiber diets because the lack of bulk in the stool reduces the diameter of the colon Causes painful cramping, diarrhea, or constipation Occasionally it ruptures and peritonitis may ensure Diagnosed same way as Ulcerative Colitis

14 Appendicitis Inflammation of the vermiform appendix Cause is still uncertain Signs begin with a vague pain in the epigastric or umbilical region Pain is accompanied by fever, nausea, and vomiting Physical examination typically shows rebound tenderness in the right lower quadrant Confirmed by ultrasound or laparoscopy (viewing the abdominal cavity) Treatment is appendectomy (emergency surgery of the abdomen)

15 Colorectal Cancer Cancer of the lower intestinal tract Causes 10-15% of all cancer-related deaths Risk factors include aging, diverticulitic, chronic ulcerative colitis, and family history of colorectal cancer Patient may complain of lower abdominal pain and rectal bleeding Best diagnostic tools is an ocult blood test Treatment consists of surgically removing the cancerous region and associated lymphatic components 5 year survival rate followed surgery is greater than 90& As metastasis increases, survival rate decreases

16 FIN!


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