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The Microworld. Foodborne Diseases Definitions Foodborne illness – Illness carried or transmitted to people by food. Foodborne Infections – result of.

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Presentation on theme: "The Microworld. Foodborne Diseases Definitions Foodborne illness – Illness carried or transmitted to people by food. Foodborne Infections – result of."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Microworld

2 Foodborne Diseases

3 Definitions Foodborne illness – Illness carried or transmitted to people by food. Foodborne Infections – result of a person eating food containing pathogens, which then grow in the intestines and cause illness.  ( typically symptoms of foodborne illness do not appear immediately)

4 Definitions Foodborne intoxication  Result of a person eating food containing toxins (poisons) that cause an illness. The toxins my have been produced by pathogens found on the food or may be result of a chemical contamination, or part of the natural food.  Appear quickly, within a few hours.

5 Definitions Foodborne Toxin-mediated (Toxicoinfection) infection  Result of a person eating food containing pathogens which then produce illness- causing  toxins in the intestines. Gastrointestinal illness  Illness relating to the stomach or intestine

6 Foodborne Infection Microaerophilic Curved Rod shape #1 cause of bacterial foodborne illness in U.S.  Est. 2-4 million cases a year Guillian Barré Syndrome  Neuromuscular disease Campylobacter jejuni

7 Common Foods  Poultry  Contaminated Water Prevention Measures  Cook Food particularly poultry, to required minimum internal temperatures  Prevent Cross-contamination between raw and ready-to-eat food. Campylobacter jejuni

8 Salmonella spp. Illness: Salmonlellosis 2,300 serovars Rod shaped, Non-spore forming Facultative Anaerobe Asymptomatic carrier  Carry pathogenic organism without symptoms  “typhoid mary” – Mary Malone 53 people, 7 outbreaks, 3 deaths

9 1. Typhoid fever 2. Paratyphoid fever 3. Salmonellosis (Gastroenteritis) Classification based on Disease Syndrome

10  Habitat: GI tract of humans, polluted H 2 O  Vaccine  Poor Sanitation  Not common in U.S.  Infectious dose – 1-10 cells  Typhoid fever (Typhoid fever – once you have it cant get it again)  high fever – 105° F  Severe Diarrhea  Vomiting  Dehydration  Cartiovascular collapse  Death Salmonella typhi

11 Salmonella paratyphi Habitat: GI tract of humans, Polluted H 2 O Similar to typhoid fever but not as severe Disease : paratyphiod fever

12 Salmonellosis/Gastroenteritis Foodborne Infection  Severity depends on health, age, # cells Onset: 6 – 72 hrs Duration: 2-3 days Symptoms  Nausea, Vomiting, Diarrhea  Headache, Fever, Chills  Sweating, Weakness

13 Carriers/Implicated foods  Poultry – meat and eggs  Cattle – beef and dairy prod.  Swine – pork  RTE foods Other implicated foods  Wildgame  Orange juice  Alfalfa sprouts  Nuts – Snickers  Cantaloupes/Melons Salmonellosis/Gastroenteritis

14 Control of Salmonella 1. Personal hygiene – Hand washing 2. Cooking/Pasteurization Poultry 165°F for 15 sec. Eggs Raw or undercooked or minimally cooked eggs – pasteurized egg product Keep adequately refrigerated will prevent any Salmonella present in the eggs from growing to higher numbers 3. Avoid Cross Contamination

15 Shigella spp. Rod Shaped Habitat – GI tract of humans Small infective dose – 10 cells Easily transmissible because of low infectious dose Foodborne infection Disease: Shigellosis or Bacilliary dysentary

16 Disease of Armys, Asylums, and Prisons  Concentrated people  Dorms, school systems, military Symptoms  Nausea, Vomiting  Abdominal Pain  Diarrhea (watery/bloody)  Fever/Chills  Prostration, Fatigue  Sever cases - HUS Shigellosis

17 Onset: 1-3 days Duration: 4 days or more  Most often, BUT Not always self limiting  Sometimes must use antibiotics Transmited via fecal-oral route Food Infection Shigellosis

18 Implicated Foods  Heavily Handled Foods Salads/Lettuce Ready to Eat Meat products Control  Personal Hygeine – Hand Washing  Exclude infected foodhandlers  Control flies inside and outside the establishment

19 Listeria monocytogenes Rod Non-spore forming Psychrophile Anaerobic Habitat:  Decaying vegetative mater  Soil  GI tract of animals and humans  Cool, wet, damp processing environments

20 Listeria monocytogenes Disease: Listeriosis Onset: 3 to 70 days Occurs most frequently in at risk populations Opportunistic Pathogen Prevention:  Watch sell-by date  Prevent cross-contamination  Cook meat to proper temperature

21 Listeria monocytogenes Symptoms  Flu-like symptoms in healthy adults Fever Nausea Vommiting Diarrhea Chills  At Risk (in addition to reg. symptoms) Rash Backache Headache Septicemia Meningitis Encephalitis Abortions

22 Implicated Foods  Soft mexican style cheese 1 st documented outbreak in people ill  Luncheon Meat  Frankfurtures Cooked products – eliminates competing bacteria  Cooked products – eliminates competing bacteria Listeria monocytogenes

23 Vibrio Rods Foodborne Infection Non-spore Forming Types:  V. parahaemolyticus  V. vulnificus  V. cholerae  V.alginolyticus Illness: Vibrio parahaemolyticus Gastroenteritis Japan – most common cause of FBI Implicated Foods:  Raw or partially cooked oysters

24 Vibrio vulnificus Diseases:  Vibrio vulnificus Primary Septicemia- Most common At risk populations (liver disease) – 70 to 80% mortality Fever/Chills Nausea Skin Lesions Diarrhea and vomiting  Vibrio vulnificus Gastroenteritis – Less common Diarrhea Abdominal cramps

25 Vibrio Vibrio cholerae Disease: Cholera Habitat: GI tract of humans Symptoms  High fever, Severe watery diarrhea  Dehydration, Cardiovascular collapse, Death Pandemic – worldwide outbreak Vibrio alginolyticus Habitat: Marine Environment Causes Wound Infections  Soft tissue, Ear

26 Implicated Food: Raw or partially cooked shellfish (Bivalves- two shells) Bioaccumulators – accumulate toxins Prevention Measures  Purchase oysters from approved source  Cook oysters to required minimum internal temperatures Light steaming improves safety but not fool proof. Vibrio

27 Must post WARNING: –Eating raw Shellfish could be hazardous to heath –At-risk populations should not eat raw Shellfish Shellfish Stock ID tags –Live, raw shellfish (shell still closed) –ID tags When harvested Where harvested By whom harvested Packer

28 Foodborne intoxication Endotoxin – Toxin that is produced by a cell and is then expelled outside of the cell Exotoxin – Toxin that is produced and remains inside the cell until the ruptures (cell death) and is then released Types of toxins based on target organ  Enterotoxin – of the intestines; GI tract  Neurotoxin – Affects the CNS  Hepatotoxin – Affects the liver  Nephrotoxin – Affects the kidneys

29 Bacillus cereus Spore Former – Produces an Endospore Habitat: Soil Facultative Aerobe Cells – Rod shape

30 Bacillus cereus Symptoms  Watery diarrhea  Abdominal cramps/Pain  Nausea,  Vomiting Common Foods  Cooked Corn  Cooked Potatoes  Cooked Vegetables  Meat Products  Cooked Rice dishes: Fried Rice Rice Pudding  Starchy Foods Potatoes Pastas

31 B. Cereus – emetic type Symptoms  Nausea  Vomiting  Diarrhea, occasionally  Abdominal cramps, occasionally Onset: 15 min – 6 hrs Duration: less than 24 hr Common Foods  Cooked Rice dishes: Fried Rice Rice Pudding  Starchy Foods Potatoes Pastas

32 Prevention Measures Cook food to required minimum internal temperature Prevent Bacterial Growth and Toxin Production  Hold food at the proper temperature  Cool food Properly

33 Staphylococcus aureus Cocci shape Habitat: Hair, nose, throat, feathers and sores/boils/pimples Disease: Staphylococcal Gastroenteritis FB Intoxication – Exotoxin Enterotoxin Symptoms:  Nausea, Vomiting, Diarrhea  Abdominal pain, Headache  Sweating, with a decrease in body temp.

34 Implicated Foods  High protein foods which are cooked  Meat, poultry, gravies, puddings, egg products  Salads containing PHF (egg, tuna, chicken, macaroni) Common associations  Temperature abuse  Foods on hot holding lines not hot enough  Refrigeration not cold enough  Re-contamination from humans Staphylococcus aureus

35 Prevention Measures  Personal Hygiene  Properly coved cuts on hands and arms  Restrict infected food handlers from working with or around food or food equipment  Minimize the time food spends in the Temperature Danger Zone Cook, hold and cool food properly Staphylococcus aureus

36 Clostridium botulinum Rod shaped Obligate anaerobe Spore Former Habitat: Soil, Air, Water Food Intoxication Exotoxins  All neurotoxins  Heat stable to a point (Boil for 10 min)

37 Clostridium botulinum Disease: Botulism Botulism toxin mechanism  Blocks the release of a neurotransmitter Acetylcholine  Causes Paralysis Symptoms  Nausea, Vomiting, Abdominal pain  Diarrhea (constipation), Headache  Diplopia, Speech impairment, Incordination  Paralysis, Cardiac Failure  Respiratory Failure, Death

38 Implicated Foods Improperly canned foods (often home-canned) FDA regulation – NO home-canned foods may be served Modified Atmosphere Packaging Controlled Atmosphere Other Foods  Baked potatoes  Garlic-in-oil  Sautéed onions  Processed meats Nitrates/Nitrites Clostridium botulinum

39 Control  Avoid temperature abuse of Potentially Hazardous Food  Use only commercially prepared canned foods Infant botulism – toxin mediated infection  “Floppy Baby Syndrome”  Underdeveloped gut flora  Honey/Syrup – not under 1 yr of age Clostridium botulinum

40 Clostridium perfringens Rod shaped Obligate anaerobe – NO O 2 Spore Former Habitat: Ubiquitous - Soil, Air, Water, GI tract Toxin-mediated infection Doesn’t compete well Double every 8 minutes in right environment 2-6% of humans are asymptomatic carriers

41 Clostridium perfringens Disease: Clostridium perfringens Gastroenteritis Symptoms:  Violent cramps  Explosive diarrhea – due to gas production  Headache  Nausea  NO vomiting

42 Escherichia coli Both pathogenic and non-pathogenic serotypes Habitat: GI tract of humans and animals Rod shape Non-spore forming 5 types of Enterovirulent E. coli  Enterotoxigenic-- Enteroinvasive  Enteropathogenic Enterohemorrhagic  Enteroaggregative

43 Enterotoxigenic – ETEC –Toxin-mediated infection –Disease – Traveler’s Diarrhea –Symptoms: Abdominal pain, Nausea, Vomiting, Watery Diarrhea, and Fever –Polluted Water –Enteropathogenic – EPEC –Severe form of infant diarrhea –1940s & 1950s high mortality rate

44 Enteroaggregative - EAggEC –Infant diarrhea Enteroinvasive – EIEC –Bacilliary Dysentary –Invades intestinal cells –Symptoms Bloody diarrhea Nausea Vomiting Fever Chills

45 Enterohemorrhagic - EHEC Shiga toxin-producing E. coli  *E. coli O157:H7 (Shiga like toxin I and II)  O26:H11  O111:H8 Habitat: GI tract of cattle and humans Common Associated foods  Ground beef (raw and undercooked) “Mature beef” – older/dairy cattle  Contaminated produce

46 EHEC Diseases –Hemorragic Colitis - HC More common Affects colon –Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome - HUS Affects Kidneys Septcemia - “blood poisoning” Infective dose - < 50 cells

47 Major Outbreak –Jack-In-the-Box 600 ill 3 deaths Control 1.Ground Beef – Cook Internal Temp –FDA 155°F for 15 sec. –USDA 160°F for 15 sec risk/medicare - 165°F for 15 sec –Nitrates 2.Pasturization of Juices 3.Hand Washing 4.Avoid Cross-contamination

48 Illnesses caused by Viruses

49 Virus Non-living  Must have a host to reproduce  Do not consume nutrients  Do not excrete waste products  Protein coat with DNA/RNA Smallest microbial contaminant  Submicroscopic

50 Virus Low Infective Doses  Fairly communicable through foods and direct contact Many virus resistant to:  Sanitizers  Freezing  Heat Resistance varies greatly

51 Hepatitis A Infectious Hepatitis A  Disease of the liver Multiple types of Hepatitis A,B,C,D,E,F  A – only one relevant to food service Sources of A  Human GI tract--RTE foods  Polluted H 2 O  Raw Shellfish  Raw fish / Crustaceans Deli meat Produce Salads

52 Hepatitis A Disease can vary greatly from mild to life threatening  Nausea -- Fever  Diarrhea-- Fatigue  Vomiting-- Abdominal Pain  *Jaundice-- liver enlargement

53 Hepatitis A Can still be infectious weeks after symptoms gone Spread via fecal-oral route Prevention  Good Personal Hygeine  Exclude all infected workers  NO raw shellfish  Purchase from reputable suppliers  Steam shellfish for 90 sec ( ° F/ 4min)

54 Norovirus Disease: Norovirus Gastroenteritis 1 st outbreak – Norwok, Ohio  Contaminated drinking water Non-life threatening Symptoms  Diarrhea, Vomiting  Cramps, Nausea  Headache, Anorexia EXTREAMLY Contagious Low Infectious dose Contagious for 3 days after symptoms disappear

55 Norovirus Implicated Foods  RTE  Shellfish contaminated by sewage  AKA – “Cruise Ship Poisoning” Resistant to Chlorine Sanitizers Prevention  Good Personal Hygiene  Exclude all infected workers  NO raw shellfish  Purchase from reputable suppliers

56 Parasites Living Organisms  Require host to survive Larger than Bacteria  Often still require microscope

57 Trichinella spiralis Illness: Trichinosis Food of concern – Pork Habitat – Swine, boar, wild boar, marine mammals, fox Prevention  Cooking - 145°F  Freezing 5°F for 30 days  Curing/Salting/Smoking  Irradiation Purchase Pork from approved sources Avoid Cross-contamination with other meats and grinders

58 Anisakis simplex Disease: Anisakiasis Fish Parasite Nematode – Round worm Fish and Squid – Bottom feeders  Marine – Salt Water Implicated foods – Raw/undercooked fish  Sushi--Pacific salmon  Ceviche--Cod  Sashimi  Pickled Herring


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