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Presentation on theme: "ACUTE GASTROENTERITIS IN CHİLDREN Prof. Dr. Tufan KUTLU."— Presentation transcript:


2 Each day,the adult human gut handles 7 liters of endogenous secretions (salivary, gastric, biliary, pancreatic, intestinal) and 2 liters of ingested fluids. Of this large volume, 3 to 5 liters are absorbed by the jejunum, 2 to 4 liters by the ileum, and 1 to 2 liters by the colon. Only 100 to 200 ml are lost in the stools.

3 Diarrhea –Increase in the number of stools or a decrease in their consistency

4 Acute gastroenteritis In Europe the incidence of diarrea ranges from 0.5 to 1.9 episodes per child per year in children up to 3 years of age In low and middle income countries the incidence of acute diarrhea has declined from 3.4 episodes/child/year in 1990 to 2.9 episodes/child/year 2010

5 Causes of acute gastroenteritis in children Bacteria Viruses Parasites

6 Bacteria causing diarrhea Vibrio sp Escherichia coli Salmonella sp Campylobacter sp Clostridium difficile Clostridium perfringens Bacillus cereus Staphylococcus aureus Yersinia enterocolitica Aeoromonas hydrophila Klebsiella sp Enterobacter sp Proteus sp Citrobacter sp Edwardsiella tarda Pseudomonas aeroginosa Plesiomonas shigelloides..

7 Viral agents causing diarrhea Reoviridae: rotavirus, astrovirus Parvo-like viruses: Norwalk virus Picornavirus: calicivirus, adenovirus, coronavirus

8 Parasites causing diarrhea Giardia lamblia Cryptosporidium Entamoeba histolytica Isospora belli Cyclospora sp Blastocystis hominis Microsporidium

9 Patophysiology of infectious diarrhea Invasion and destruction of the villous intestinal epithelial cells: Shigella dysenteria, E. coli (EIEC), Yersinia enterocolitica, Campylobacter jejuni, Entamoeba histolytica, Salmonella, rotavirus Enterotoxin production: Vibrio cholera, E. Coli (ETEC), Shigella dysenteria, Campylobacter jejuni, Clostridium difficile, Yersinia enterocolitica, Salmonella, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Clostridium perfringens Adherence to enterocytes: E. coli Invasion of the lamina propria: Salmonella

10 Diagnosis Vomiting, profuse watery diarrhea (non blood, non mucus): secretory diarrhea –Bacteria: Vibrio cholera, E. coli (ETEC), S. aureus, B. cereus, C. perfringens –Viruses: Rotavirus, Norwalk virus –Parasites: Giardia lamblia, Cryptosporidium

11 Diagnosis Fever, abdominal pain, tenesmus: inflammatory colitis, ileitis –Bacteria: Shigella, Yersinia, C. difficile –Parasite: Entamoeba histolytica

12 Diagnosis Bloody diarrhea –Bacteria: Shigella, E. Coli (EIEC), Yersinia, C. jejuni, C. difficile, Salmonella –Parasite: Entamoeba histolytica Fever and abdominal pain like acute appendicitis: Yersinia enterocolitica

13 Diagnosis Recent exposure to antibiotics: Clostridium difficile Many cases affected simultaneously: S. Aureus, C. perfringens Immunodeficiency, malnutrition: Salmonella, Rotavirus, Isospora, Cryptosporidium, Candida

14 Diagnosis Stool examination –Presence of erithrocytes and leucocytes: Shigella, E. coli (EIEC, EHEC), Campylobacter,Yersinia, Clostridium –Presence of erithrocytes: Entamoeba histolytica

15 Diagnosis Stool examination –Microscopic: Parasites (entamoeba, giardia..) –Antigens: Entamoeba, Giardia, Rotavirus, Adenovirus –Culture ?

16 Viral gastroenteritis Diarrheal diseases caused by viral agents occurs for more frequently than does similar disease of bacterial origin Rotavirus is responsible for 20 to 70 % of hospitalization for diarrhea among children worldwide Transmission is primarly from person to person Most commonly in children between 6 and 24 months of age

17 Viral gastroenteritis Clinical manifestations –Incubation period: hours –Sudden onset of diarrhea and vomiting –Diarrhea is watery, rarely bloody, 2-8 days –Fever –Respiratory symptoms

18 Viral gastroenteritis Diagnosis –Rota/adenovirus antigen in stools Treatment –Continue with unrestricted oral feeding –Dehydration Mild/moderate: oral rehydration treatment Severe: intravenous fluid

19 Shigella dysenteriae (flexneri, boydii, sonnei) Clinical manifestations –Fever, malaise –Watery diarrhea, blood and mucus –Cramping abdominal pain –Seizures –Arthritis –Purulent keratitis –Hemolytic-uremic syndrome

20 Shigella dysenteriae Treatment –Trimethoprim-sulfometoxazole, ampicillin, nalidixic acid, ceftriaxone –Antimicrobial treatment is recommended to shorten the course of the disease decrease the period of excretion of the organisms decrease the secondary attack

21 Yersinia enterocolitica (pseudotuberculosis, pestis) Clinical manifestations –Fever –Abdominal pain –Diarrhea –Pseudoappendicular syndrome –Erythema nodosum –Reactive arthropathy

22 Campylobacter jejuni –C. jejuni is a significant cause of diarrhea in children jounger than 2 years of age. –Treatment: erythromicin Clostridium difficile –Antibiotic associated diarrhea –Treatment: metronidazole, vancomicin, probiotics

23 Cholera Clinical manifestations –Vomiting –Profuse vatery diarrhea (rice-vater appearence) Treatment –Rehydration (ORT, IV) –Antibiotics: Tetracycline, furazolidone, ampicillin, chloramphenicol, trimethoprim-sulfometoxazole

24 Salmonella enteridis, cholerasuis, typhi 1. Acute gastroenteritis 2. Focal non intestinal infection 3. Bacteremia 4. Asymptomatic carrier state 5. Enteric fever

25 Salmonella Salmonella is spread with cotaminated water, foods (meat, eggs, milk) Clinical manifestations –Incubation periode hours –Fever, watery diarrhea, blood and/or mucus Treatment –Patients at high risk (immunocompromized patients, hematologic disease, artificial inplants, severe colitis) –Ampicillin, chloramphenicol, trimethoprim- sulfometoxazole, cephalosporins

26 Escherichia coli Enteropathogenic Enterotoxigenic Enteroinvasive Enterohemorragic Enteroaggregative and diffuse-adherant

27 Traditional treatment of diarrhea TreatmentDisadvantages Intravenous rehydration Diet Antibiotic and antidiarrheal drugs Hospitalization Increased risk of infection Unnecesssary laboratory investigations Emotional trauma Increased cost Weight loss Risk of malnutrition Ineffective Toxic Allergic Risk of secondary infections

28 Treatment of acute gastroenteritis Treatment of a child with moderate dehydration in hospital (USA) –ORT: 11 hours and 270 USD –IV : 103 hours and 2300 USD

29 Treatment of acute gastroenteritis Rehydration: IV, ORT Nutrition Medical –Antibiotics: bloody diarrhea, infants <3-6 months –Antisecretory drugs Racecadotril –Adsorbant drugs Smectite –Anti motility agents –Zinc –Probiotics

30 Assessment of dehydration in children NonModerateSevere General appearance Eyes Tears Mucous membranes Thirst Skin elasticity Treatment Good Normal Present Moist Absent Pinc retracts immediately At home İrritable Sunken Absent to reduced Dry Present Pinc retracts slowly ORS Lethargic, hipotonic or comatose Grossly sunken Absent Very dry Can’t drink Pinc retracts very slowly IV

31 Treatment of diarrhea Protective factors –Human milk: IgA, lactoferrin, leucocytes, antiviral factors, bifidobacteries –Gastric acid –Secretory IgA –Intestinal motility

32 Zinc for diarrhea Twenty four trials, 9128 children –Zinc is clearly of benefit in children aged six months or more. –Children aged less than six months showed no benefit with zinc. –Vomiting was more common in zinc-treated children with acute diarrhoea Lazzerini M, Ronfani L. Oral zinc supplementation for treating diarrhea in children. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2012

33 Treatment of acute gastroenteritis Rehydration –ORT > 90 % –IV < 10 % Continue with unrestricted oral feeding Antibiotic when necessary (age<3-6 months, dysenteria, cholera..) Do not use antidiarrheal agents

34 WHO-ORS Should contain carbohydrate (glucose) and sodium (glucose/sodium: between 1/1 and 2/1) –Glucose: mmol/L (rice-flour: 50 g/L) –Sodium Rehydration: mmol/L Maintenance: mmol/L Osmolarity < 290 mOsm/L Potassium: 20 mmol/L Bicarbonate: 30 mmol/L (or citrate: 10 mmol/L)

35 Composition of the ORS recommended by WHO g/LMmol/L NaCl KCl Citrate (Bicarbonate) Glucose (Rice-flour) (2.5) 20 (50) Na K Cl Citrate (Bicarbonate) Glucose

36 Electrolyte losses in diarrheal disease (mmol/L) NaKClHCO3Glucose Normal stools Cholera Adult Child Enteritis Child ORS

37 Comparison of some fluids used for rehydration FluidCHO mmol/L Na mmol/L CHO/NaK mmol/L Base mmol/L Osmolarity mOsm/L Cola Apple juice Chicken soup WHO-ORS Pedialyte Rehydralyte Osmosal

38 Treatment of diarrhea at home Recommended foods –Water, soup (rice), yoghurt, fruit juice… –<6 months: breast-feeding, formula Recommended amount of fluids –After every watery stools <2 ages: ml >2 ages: ml

39 Treatment of diarrhea at home To prevent malnutrition –Don’t stop breast feeding or formula feeding –Don’t dilute formula or milk –Older children: give rice cereal, bananas, fruit juices, potatoes, yoghurt, good cooked meat, fish…

40 ORS treatment at home AgeAmount of ORS after every watery stools < > ml ml Not limited

41 ORS treatment MildModerateSevere* Rehydration Duration Maintenance* Duration 50 ml/kg 4-6 hours 100 ml/kg hours 100 ml/kg 4-6 hours 100 ml/kg hours ml/kg 4-6 hours 100 ml/kg hours

42 Probiotics for acute gastroenteritis Lactobacillus GG administered in oral rehydration solution to children with acute diarrhea: a multicenter European trial. Guandalini et al. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 2000

43 Rice-based ORS Cheaper Better taste Hypoosmolar (280 mOsm/L) Prevent vomiting Decrease frequency and duration of diarrhea More nutritive Traditional

44 Contraindication of ORS use Shock, stupor, coma Severe electrolyte imbalence and dehydration Severe and repeated vomiting Acidosis Oliguria or anuria Abdominal distention, ileus Glucose-galactose malabsorption


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