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Infants and young children are at high risk for fluid and electrolyte imbalances. Which of the following factors contribute to this vulnerability? A. Decreased.

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Presentation on theme: "Infants and young children are at high risk for fluid and electrolyte imbalances. Which of the following factors contribute to this vulnerability? A. Decreased."— Presentation transcript:

1 Infants and young children are at high risk for fluid and electrolyte imbalances. Which of the following factors contribute to this vulnerability? A. Decreased body surface area B. Lower metabolic rate C. Mature kidney function D. Increased Extracellular fluid volume

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3 2.__________ dehydration occurs when electrolyte and water deficits are present in balanced proportion. A. Isotonic B. Hypotonic C. Hypertonic

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5 3.__________ dehydration occurs when electrolyte deficit exceeds the water deficit. (Electrolyte loss > water loss) A. Isotonic B. Hypotonic C. Hypertonic

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7 4.An infant with moderate dehydration has what clinical signs? A. Mottled skin color, decreased pulse and respiration B. Decreased U.O., tachycardia, and fever C. Tachycardia, oliguria, capillary filling 2-3 seconds D. Tachycardia, bulging fontanel, decreased blood pressure

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9 5.Rapid fluid replacement is CONTRAINDICATED in which one of the following types of dehydration? A. Isotonic B. Hypotonic C. Hypertonic

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11 6.An infant weighs 8 kg. The maintenance fluids per day would be ____________. How fast would you run the IV if the child were not taking any liquids PO? ______

12 6.An infant weighs 8 kg. The maintenance fluids per day would be 8 x 100cc/kg = 800cc/day. How fast would you run the IV if the child were not taking any liquids PO? 33cc/hr

13 7.Diarrhea most commonly causes which one of the following? A. respiratory acidosis B. respiratory alkalosis C. metabolic acidosis D. metabolic alkalosis

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15 7.Tim is a one month old infant admitted for uncontrolled vomiting. The nurse will observe Tim for signs of which one of the following? A. alkalosis B. acidosis

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17 8.Which of the following is MOST likely to develop acute diarrhea? A. A 2 month old infant who attends daycare each day B. An 18 month old who stays at home each day with his mother C. A 6 year old who attends public school D. A 24 month old infant with two older brothers, aged 5 and 8 years

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19 9. A 7 year old with acute diarrhea has been rehydrated with oral rehydration fluids. The nurse should recommend that the child’s diet be advanced to include which of the following? A. regular diet B. clear liquids C. high-carbohydrate diet D. BRAT diet (bananas, rice, apples, toast)

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21 10. A 2 month old breast-fed infant is successfully rehydrated with oral rehydration solutions for acute diarrhea. Instructions to the mother about breastfeeding should include which of the following? A. continue breast-feeding B. stop breast feeding until breast milk is cultured C. Stop breast-feeding until diarrhea is absent for 24 hours D. Express breast milk and kilute with sterile water before feeding it

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