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A Framework for Physical Activity as a Complex and Multidimensional Behavior Kelley K. Pettee Gabriel University of Texas Health Science Center James R.

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Presentation on theme: "A Framework for Physical Activity as a Complex and Multidimensional Behavior Kelley K. Pettee Gabriel University of Texas Health Science Center James R."— Presentation transcript:

1 A Framework for Physical Activity as a Complex and Multidimensional Behavior Kelley K. Pettee Gabriel University of Texas Health Science Center James R. Morrow, Jr. University of North Texas

2 OBJECTIVES o PA Self-Report Methods: ‘Hit and Miss’ o Conceptual Framework: PA o Revisiting Definitions o Considerations: Selecting Self-report Methods 2

3 BACKGROUND o Research Link: PA and Health Outcomes o PA Incorporated: Design and Implementation o Need: Accurate Quantification of PA o Lack of ‘Gold Standard’ Measure(s) o Relevant Construct Confusion 3

4 SELF-REPORT HIT AND “MISS” Misconstrue Miscount Misstate Misjudge Misplace Misprint Misread Misreport Missay Misdescribe Misguide Misinform Misinterpret Misname Misrepresent Mischoose Mischief Miscommunication Misunderstand Mistake Mislead Miscode Misquote Misidentify Miscue Mischievous Individual-Level Population-Level Surveillance 4

5 FRAMEWORK 5

6 CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK HUMAN MOVEMENT Energy Expenditure Behavior Physical Activity Sedentary Human Movement Physiological Attributes Physical Fitness 6

7 Attributes Energy Expenditure Physical Fitness Metabolic Rate Basal Resting Thermic Effect of Food PA Related EE Human Movement Behavior Physical Activity Sedentary Leisure Occupational/School Household/Caretaking/Domestic Transportation Discretionary Non Discretionary Sitting Media Use Non-Occupational School Computer Use Sleeping Occupation/School Sitting Cardiorespiratory Fitness Flexibility Body Composition Muscular Fitness Balance and Coordination Strength Endurance Driving Riding Human Movement Framework 7

8 BOUCHARD AND SHEPHARD 8 Bouchard and Shephard,1994.

9 LaMonte & Ainsworth, MSSE, June LAMONTE and AINSWORTH 9

10 PHYSICAL ACTIVITY MODEL COMPARISON Bouchard & Shephard 1994 LaMonte & Ainsworth 2001 Pettee Gabriel & Morrow 2010 Main ConstructHealth-Related FitnessMovement Sedentary Behavior No Yes Relationship between Behavior & Attributes No Yes 10 Behavior Physical Activity Sedentary Human Movement Physiological Attributes Physical Fitness Energy Expenditure

11 DEFINITIONS 11

12 DEFINITIONS 12

13 Page 20 Page 21 DEFINITIONS 13

14 Physical activity is defined as any bodily movement produced by skeletal muscles that results in energy expenditure above resting level (Caspersen et al., 1985). Health Enhancing Physical Activity is any form of activity that benefits health. Health Enhancing Physical Activity is any form of physical activity that benefits health and fitness without undue harm or risk (Foster, 2000). This can be all daily activities and can, but does not necessarily, include sports. Not all physical activity is beneficial for health (Hagströmer, 2007). To be beneficial for health, physical activity should be ‘moderate’ or ‘vigorous’: Moderate-intensity physical activity raises the heart-beat and leaves the person feeling warm and slightly out of breath. It increases the body’s metabolism to 3-6 times the resting level (3-6 MET ’s) (Cavill et al., 2006). Brisk walking, for example, has an equivalent of 4.5 MET’s (Ainsworth et al., 2000). Vigorous-intensity physical activities enable people to work up a sweat and become out of breath. They usually involve sports or exercise, like running or fast cycling. They raise the metabolism to at least six times its resting level. EUPHIX:EU Public Health Information & Knowledge System, version 1.11, 17 December 2009 DEFINITIONS 14

15 WHAT’S MISSING? o Recognition that PA is a Complex Behavior o Sedentary Behavior o PA in Context of Other Constructs of HM o Appropriate Use of Measurement Tool(s) 15

16 Conceptual Framework Human Movement Behavior Human Movement Physiological Attributes Physical Activity Sedentary Energy Expenditure Physical Fitness 16 Sedentary: Behavior that produces little to no human movement resulting in minimal (or no) physiological gain. Health Enhancing PA: Activity that, when added to the light- intensity activities of daily life, produces health benefits. Physical Activity: The behavior that drives human movement which results in physiological attributes including increased physical activity-related energy expenditure and improved physical fitness.

17 FRAMEWORK COMPONENTS 17

18 PHYSIOLOGICAL ATTRIBUTES Human Movement Physiological Attributes Energy Expenditure Physical Fitness Metabolic Rate Thermic Effect of Food PA Related EE Basal Resting Cardiorespiratory Muscular Fitness Body Composition Flexibility Balance and Coordination Strength Endurance Direct Measures 18

19 Human Movement 19 Behavior Physical Activity Sedentary Household/Caretaking/Domestic Leisure Occupational/School Transportation Sitting Media Use Non-Occupational & School Computer Use Discretionary Non-Discretionary Sleeping Occupation/School Sitting Driving Riding Frequency Duration Frequency Duration Intensity

20 Physical Activity Transportation Household Caretaking Domestic Occupational School Leisure PHYSICAL ACTIVITY DOMAINS 20

21 Human Movement BEHAVIOR Behavior Physical Activity Sedentary Household/Caretaking/Domestic Leisure Occupational/School Transportation Discretionary Non-Discretionary Sitting Media Use Non-Occupational & School Computer Use Sleeping Occupation/School Sitting Driving Riding Physical inactivity is not the inverse of physical activity Physical fitness often inferred with physical activity assessment 21

22 Human Movement Self-Report BEHAVIOR Behavior Physical Activity Sedentary Household/Caretaking/Domestic Leisure Occupational/School Transportation Discretionary Non-Discretionary Sitting Media Use Non-Occupational & School computer use Sleeping Occupation/School Sitting Driving Riding 22 Perceived Behavior

23 CONSIDERATIONS 23

24 METHODOLOGICAL ISSUES Physical Activity 24

25 Study Characteristics Budget Staff Resources Study Design Population Sample Size Study Objectives Outcomes and Confounders Study Objectives Outcomes and Confounders Geographical Location/Seasonality Temperature, Precipitation, Daylight Hours Geographical Location/Seasonality Temperature, Precipitation, Daylight Hours METHODOLOGICAL ISSUES STUDY CHARACTERISTICS 25

26 METHODOLOGICAL ISSUES POPULATION CHARACTERISTICS 26 Population Characteristics

27 METHODOLOGICAL ISSUES INSTRUMENT CHARACTERISTICS 27 Instrument Characteristics

28 METHODOLOGICAL ISSUES ACTIVITY CHARACTERISTICS 28 Activity Characteristics Aerobic (BRFSS) Moderate (BRFSS) Vigorous (BRFSS) Walking (BRFSS) Sedentary (NHANES) Muscular Strengthening (HP2010) Flexibility (HP2010) Balance & Coordination Sports (YBRS)

29 METHODOLOGICAL ISSUES Physical Activity 29

30 o Assessing Component(s) of Human Movement v Measuring the Whole of Human Movement and the Possible Implications. o Consider what Physical Activity Connotes to the Health Outcomes of the General Population. o Consider what Physical Activity Denotes to the Researcher or Health Practitioner. THINK A Complex and Multidimensional Behavior with a Simple Message HUMAN MOVEMENT FRAMEWORK 30

31 SPECIAL ACKNOWLEDGEMENT Anne-Lorraine T. Woolsey University of North Texas 31


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